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T. E. PAGE, LiTT.D. 
E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 






The fronljspiece is an atlempted reconstruction of the 
Lyre described in 1. 10. The drawing is made from the 
description of Philosfratus interpreted in the light of 
various Greet vase paintings by J/?s>? 31. L. Fairbanks, 










Printed in Great Britain 










,, BOOK II 127 







INDEX 425 




Introduction 3 

1. Scamandcr 7 

2. Comus 9 

3. Fables 13 

4. Menoeceus 15 

5. Dwarfs 19 

6. Cupids 21 

7. Memnon 29 

8. Amymone 33 

9. A Marsh 35 

10. Amphion 41 

11. Phaethon 45 

12. Bosphoros 49 

13. Bosphoros 55 

14. Semele 59 

15. Ariadne 61 

16. Pasiphae 65 

17. Hippodameia . 69 

18. Bacchantes 73 

19. The Tyrrhenian Pirates 75 

20. Satyrs 81 

21. Olympus 83 

22. Midas 85 

23. Narcissus 89 

24. Hyacinthus 93 

25. Andrians 97 

26. Birth of Hermes 99 

27. Amphiaraus 105 

28. Hunters 107 

29. Perseus 115 

30. Pelops 119 

31. Xenia 123 



Book II 


1. Singers 129 

2. The Education of Achillea- 133 

3. Female Centaurs 139 

4. Hippolytus 141 

0. Rhodogoune 145 

6. Arricliion 149 

7. Antilochus 155 

8. Melcs 159 

9. Pantheia 165 

10. Cassandra 171 

11. Pan 177 

12. Pindar 179 

13. The Gvraean Pvocks 181 

14. Thessaly 185 

15. Glaucus Pontius 187 

16. Palaemon 191 

17. Islands 195 

18. Cyclops 211 

19. Phorbas 215 

20. Atlas 219 

21. Antaeus 223 

22. Heracles among the Pygmies 229 

23. The Madness of Heracles 231 

24. Theiodamas 237 

25. The Burial of Abderus 239 

26. Xenia 243 

27. The Birth of Athena 245 

28. Looms 249 

29. Antigone 253 

30. Evadne 255 

31. Themistocles 259 

32. Palaestra 263 

33. Dodona 267 

34. Horae 269 

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 

Prooemium 283 

1. Achilles on Scyros 287 

Pyrrhus on Scyros 291 




2. IMarsyas 295 

3. Hunters 297 

4. Heracles or Acheloiis 303 

5. Heracles in Swaddling-clothes 307 

6. Orpheus 309 

7. Medea among the Colchians 313 

8. Boys at Play 317 

9. Pelops 321 

10. Pyrrhus or the Mysians 325 

11. The Argo or Aeetes 343 

12. Hesione 347 

13. Sophocles 351 

14. Hyacinthus 353 

15. Meleager 357 

16. Nessus 361 

17. Philoctetes 365 

Callistratus, Descriptions 

1. On a Satyr 377 

2. On the Statue of Bacchante 381 

3. On the Statue of Eros 385 

4. On the Statue of an Indian 389 

5. On the Statue of Narcissus 391 

6. On the Statue of Opportunity at Sicyon .... 395 

7. On the Statue of Orpheus 401 

8. On the Statue of Dionysus 403 

9. On the Statue of Memnon 407 

10. On the Statue of Paean 411 

11. On the Statue of a Youth 413 

12. On the Statue of a Centaur 417 

13. On the Statue of Medea 419 

14. On the Figure of Athamas 421 



Philostratus the Elder 

Frontispiece : The Lyre. From a drawing. 


1. — The Nile with Dwarfs. Marble statue in the 

Vatican. From a photograph . . . To face 19 

2. — Erotes Wrestling and Boxing. From a sarco- 
phagus in Florence. Baumeister, Denkmdler, 
I. 502 25 

3. — Death of Memnon. Red-figured vase painting. 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Inventory 97. 
368. From a photograph To face 29 

4. — Poseidon and Amymone. Red-figured vase paint- 
ing. Lenormant-De Witte, ^/iie ceVa/n., III. 18 35 

5. — Fallof Phaethon. Arretine bowl in Boston. From 
a drawing. Chase, Arretine Pottery in the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 66 . To face 47 

6. — Ariadne deserted. Red-figured vase painting in 

Boston, Inventory 00. 349 .... To face 63 

7. — Wooden Cow made by Daedalus. From a drawing. 
Pompeian wall painting. Bomische Mittheil- 
xingen, XI. (1896), p. 50 67 

8. — Race of Oenomaiis and Pelops, with Eros. Roscher, 

Lex. Myth., III. 782 To face 69 

9. — Death of Pentheus. Red-figured vase painting in 

Boston. Inventory 10. 221a .... To face 73 
10. — Marsyas brought in bonds to Midas. Red-figured 
vase painting. Monumenti delV Instituto, IV., 
PI. 10 87 


rUi. PAGK 

11. — Narcissus gazing into a Pool. Pompeian wall- 
painting. Roscher, Lex. Myth. III. 19 . . . 89 

12. — Hyacinthus wounded b}' the Discus. Furtwiingler, 

Antike Gemmen, PI. XX. 31 95 

13. — Descent of Aniphiaraiis into the Earth. Kelief on 
an Etruscan urn. Roscher, Lex Myth. I. 299 . 

To face 105 

14. — Boar Hunt. Relief on a sarcophagus. Hamdi Bey- 
Reinach, Une necropcle a Sidon, PI. XVI. 2 . 

To face 109 

15. — Perseus and Andromeda. Red-figured vase paint- 
ing. Roscher, Lex. 3Iyth. 111. 2053 . . To face 115 

16. — Quadriga. Coin of Syracuse. From a drawing . 121 

17. — Education of Achilles. Pompeian wall painting. 

Roscher, Lex. Myth. I. 26 135 

18. — Head of Female Centaur. Red-figured vase paint- 
ing in Boston, Inventory 13. 306 . . To face 139 

19. — The Death of Hippolvtus. Red-figured vase paint- 
ing. Arch. Zeit. 1883, PI. VI. . . . To face 141 

20. — Nose with "up-curved" Nostrils. Red-figured vase 
painting. Pfuhl, Malerei der Griechen, 415 c. 

7' o face 171 

21. — Helios with Rays. Coin of Rhodes. From a 

drawing. Roscher, Lex. 3Iyth. I. 2003 ... 219 

22. — Atlas bent under the Heavens. ^Marble statue in 

Naples. From a drawing . 221 

23. — Madness of Heracles. Red-figured vase paiiiting. 

Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 665 . . . To face 233 

24. — Spiderweb with Cables. From a drawing . . . 251 

25. — Palaestra. Medallion on Roman terracotta jar. 
From a drawing. Inscriptions : Schoeneus 
(father of Atalante), Atalante Hippomedon, 
Palaestra. The hexameter inscription above is 
omitted. Cf. Gaz. Arch. 1889, p. 56 ... . 265 


26. — Marsyas : Slave whetting knife. Marble statue 

in Florence. Clarac, Mus. Sculpt., PI. 543, 1141 295 


Fir;. PAGE 

27. — Heracles strangling tlie Serpents. Coin of Thebes. 

From a drawing. Brit. M us. Cat, Central Greece, 

PI. XIV. 8 307 

28. — x\nimals charmed by the Music of Orpheus. Pom- 

peian wall-painting. Roscher, Lex. Myth. III. 

1178 311 

29. — Boys at Play (the children of Medea). Pompeian 

wall-painting. Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 142 . 317 
30. — Calydonian Hunt. Marble sarcophagus in the 

Capitoline Museum. Baumeister, Denhndler, 

II. 918 To face 357 

31. — Deianeira at the Death of Xessus. Pompeian wall 

painting. Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 667 To face 363 


32. — Satyr playing Flute. From a drawing. Brunn- 

Bruckman, 435 377 

33. — Palatine Eros. Marble statue in the Louvre. 

Roscher, Lex. 3Iyfh. I. 1360 387 

34. — Narcissus. Marble statue (called Ganymede) in 

the Museo Chiaramonti. Clarac. 3Ii(s. Sculpt. 

PI. 407, 703 391 

35. — Opportunity. Marble relief. Arch. Zeit. XXXIII. 

Pl.Ll 397 

36. — Dionysus. Marble statue in the Louvre. Clarac, 

2l'us. Sculpt. PI. 275, 1574 405 

37. — Dionysus. Marble statue in Madrid. Clarac, 

3Ius. Sculpt. PI. 690, B, 1598 a 407 



The important Manuscripts are as follows : 

Philostkatus the Elder 

Laurcntianus, LXVIX (30), XIII cent, F. 
Parisiensis, gr. 1696, XIV cent., P. 
Vindohonensis, 331, XIV cent, V^. 
Vatkanus, 1898, XIII cent., V2. 
98, XIII cent, V. 

Philostratus the Younger 
Laurentianus, LVIII (32), XII cent. : 


Laurentianus, LIX (15), XI cent., Nos. 1-5. 
Parisiensis, f^r, 1696, XIV cent., Nos. 1-7. 
Vaticanus, 1898, XIII cent., Nos. 9-14. 


Olearius: Leipzig, 1709. 
Heyne : Gottingen, 1796. 
Jacobs: Leipzig, 1797, 1825. 
Kayser : Turin, 1842-1846. 

Westermann : Paris, 1849 (witli Latin translations), 




K. Friedrichs : Die Philostratischen Bilder. 

Erlangen, 1860; and Jahr. Phil. Suppl. V 

(1864), 134 f. 
H. Brunn : Die Philostratischen Geindlde gegen 

K. Friedrichs vertheidigt ; and Jahr. Phil. 

Suppl. IV (1861), 179 f.; XVII (1871), If., 

81 f. 
Matz : De Philostratorum in describendis imaginihus 

fide. Bonn, 1867 ; and Philol XXXI (1872), 

585 f. 
C. Nemitz : De Philostratorum imaginihus. ^"ratisl. 

E. Bertrand : Un critique d'art dans l'a7diqnite : 

Philostrate et son ecole. Paris, 1887. 
A. Bougot : Philostrate l' Ancien : nne o^alerie 

antique. Paris, 1881. 





The position of the sophists in the literary, the 
educational, and the social world was never more 
important than during the second and third centuries 
A.D. They wandered from one centre to another, or 
they occupied established chairs of rhetoric in some 
principal city, attracting to their lecture halls the 
youth who desired a higher education and men who 
took pleasure in rhetorical display. They were the 
university professors of their day, treating science 
and history and philosophy as well as literature and 
the different forms of rhetoric in their discourses. 
It was characteristic of the men and of their age, 
however, that lecturers and hearers alike laid the 
emphasis on the form of the discourse, and that 
subject-matter was completely subordinated to the 
mode of presentation, 

A Lemnian family furnished three or four success- 
ful exponents of this art in the period under dis- 
cussion, all of them bearing the name of Philostratus. 
Suidas mentions a Philostratus (1) son of Verus, as 
having written the dialogue entitled Xero^ Ilavius 
Philostratus (2), probably his son or grandson, was 
born about a.d. 170 and educated in Athens under 
the most famous sophists of his day. He is the 

^ Included in the MS. of Lucian. 



author of the Life of Apollonius of Tyana,^ of the 
Lives of the Sophists, and presumably of some minor 
works extant under his name. He calls himself a 
Lemnian (£/;. 70), though he is generally known as 
'' Philostratus the Athenian " in distinction from his 
son-in-law, the son of Nervianus, whom he refers to as 
'• Philostratus the Lemnian" (/7/. soph. 617, 627-8). 
Philostratus son of Nervianus (3), who was born 
about A.D. 190 (for he was twenty- four years old in 
the reign of Caracalla, Fit. soph. 623), is generally 
regarded as the author of the earlier series of 
Imagines.'^ His grandson, of the same name, and 
referred to as Philostratus the Younger (4), wrote 
about A.D. 300 a series of Imagines of much the 
same type as his grandfather's. 

Philostratus son of Nervianus (3) has been called 
the "father of art criticism," but the phrase is 
hardly appropriate, for Lucian, Polemon, Apuleius 
and other writers had previously made paintings and 
sculpture the subject of their discourse. The re- 
newed interest in art in this period, a critical, rather 
than a creative interest, and the need of new themes 
for the rhetorical discourses of the sophist, made it 
natural for these lecturers to find their themes in 
works of art. Philostratus points out that his interest 
is in the paintings themselves, not in the lives of 
the painters nor in their historical relation to each 
other {infra, p. 5). That rhetoric should take its 
themes from painting is all the more natural be- 
cause painting in Greece had so commonly taken 
its themes from literature. It will be found that 

^ Translated by Conybeare in L C. L. 

^ Cf. allusions to Athens in the Imagines, ivfra Index 
uixler "Athens, Attica, which show his interest in Athens." 



all but six or eight of the paintings described by 
Philostratus are based either directly on literary 
sources or on the myths which found expression 
both in literature and painting. We may even say 
that in this epoch literature and painting actually 
vied with each other in the presentation of the same 
themes. Certainly Philostratus seems to try to out- 
do the painter whose work he is describings and 
often passes beyond the limits of pictorial art without 
stopping to note what the picture itself gives and 
what he adds to make his account of the theme more 

The failure of our author to confine himself 
closely to what was depicted in the painting he 
is describing may be regarded as his inheritance 
from the descriptions of works of art in earlier 
Greek literature. From the Homeric poems on- 
w^ard the poet's skill is used in describing works of 
art. The cup of Nestor is quite simply described 
{Iliad, 11. 632 f.) ; on the other hand Homer's account 
of the Shield of Achilles is very elaborate (Iliad, 18. 
483 f.), including the description in detail of one 
scene after another^ scenes which may have been 
suggested by some simple means, but which can 
hardly have been wrought with all the detail given 
by the poet. Such description becomes a definite 
type of literary ornament, and the poet who uses 
it feels no need to limit himself very closely to 
some actual object which he had seen or might 
have seen. So Euripides describes statues which 
were used to adorn the sterns of ships (Iph. Aid. 
230 f.), and puts in the mouth of Ion an account 
of the treasures in the temple of Apollo {Ion, 192 f., 
1133 f.). Apollonius of Rhodes tells of the mantle 


wrouglit by Pallas for Jason^ and gives a detailed 
account of scenes mainly mythological with which 
it was decorated (Argon. 1. 730 f.). Later Greek 
writers^ as well as the Latin poets, adopt the same 
literary device and pass with the same freedom 
from the actual description of a work of art to 
elements of the story which presumably could not 
be or were not included in the painting or statue 
or embroidered scene they were describing. It is 
by no means unnatural that Philostratus, for whom 
description is not a side issue but the main purpose, 
should retain the same freedom. If we recall that 
he claims to be speaking in the presence of the 
paintings themselves, we can hardly blame his 
procedure as lacking in clearness. 

Foreign as the procedure is to our point of view, 
it is the tendency of Philostratus to discuss paintings 
almost as if they were w^orks of literary art. The 
scene or scenes are described for the story they 
tell, and for the sentiment they express in this 
story. The excellence of the picture for him lies 
in its effective delineation of character, in the pathos 
of the situation, or in the play of emotion it repre- 
sents. Its technical excellence is rarely mentioned, 
and then only as a means for successful represent- 
ation. Of colour we read only that it is brilliant ; 
of drawing only that it is able to give perspective. 
Composition and design are not mentioned. The 
painter's insight, which enables him to see a new 
reality in his subject and to depict it in such wise 
as to make the world larger and richer for one who 
sees his work, is unknown to Philostratus. In a 
word, the whole discussion centres on literary pro- 
blems rather than on problems of painting. 



This point of view explains itself^ however, if 
we turn to extant paintings of the Graeco-Roman 
period. Most of these have been found in Campania, 
at Pompeii and elsewhere. While the Campanian 
wall-paintings carry on in a measure the tradition 
of Greek painting, the spirit of Greek art has 
practically disappeared, and these late paintings 
show much the same literary tendency as that which 
appears in the paintings described by Philostratus. 
Helbig^ finds it possible to classify Campanian wall- 
paintings under rubrics familiar to literature, as epic 
in their style, or tragic, or idyllic. For example, 
the painter like the poet may treat stories of gods 
and heroes in a grand manner, emphasizing the 
greatness of the beings he depicts and the superior 
importance of their actions as compared with the 
activities of ordinary men. Representations of the 
deeds of Heracles and of Theseus in painting were 
commonly of this character. The appeal of such 
paintings is like the appeal of epic poetry, in that 
they directed attention away from man's ordinary 
activities, as relatively insignificant, to a world in 
which everything was on a higher, nobler plane. 
Among the descriptions of Philostratus the Amphia- 
raus (1,27)2 and the Gyrae (II, 13) illustrate the 
epic style in painting. Campanian paintings, 
decorative as was their aim, include many that were 
based on tragic myths and emphasized the great 
conflicts in life which were the basis of the tragic 
drama. The conflict of emotion when Medea plans 
to slay her children, the conflicts in the stories of 
Oedipus and of Hippolytus, furnished themes for 

^ Untersuchungen zv.r cawpanischen JVandmalerei. 
2 Book I, Description 27. 


the painter as well as for the poet. The Menoeceiis 
of Philostratus (I, 4) and the Cassandra (II, 19) 
describe paintings in the manner of tragedy. 
Philostratus describes no paintings which are re- 
lated to comedy ; we do, however, find several 
paintings which depict light, humorous themes 
based on mythology, like the thefts of Hermes 
(I, 26), the Theiodamas (II, 24) and the Pygmies 
(I I, 22). Perhaps in greater number are paintings 
in the idyllic manner, depicting a landscape in 
which is some scene that expresses tender human 
sentiment ; as, for example, Perseus freeing Andro- 
meda or Pelops winning Hij)podameia as his bride. 
The Cyclops of Philostratus (II, 18) and the Olympus 
(I, 20-21) are the examples of the idyllic manner 
in his paintings. Such genre scenes as the Female 
Centaurs (II, 3) and the Singers (II, 1) may be 
classed here ; and the sentiment for nature in pure 
landscape, e.g. the Marsh (I, 9) and the Islands 
(II, 17), is not unrelated to idyllic poetry. It is 
characteristic of Hellenistic sculpture, if not of later 
painting, to present idealized portraits of historical 
characters, portraits which express to the eye the 
characters which the historian portrayed in language. 
The Themistocles of Philostratus (II, 31) is such a 
portrait, and the Pantheia (II, 9) is described as a 
historical portrait based on the description of 
Xenophon. It should be noted, however, that in 
general the historical paintings of Philostratus 
merely draw the material from history instead of 
mythology, and emphasize now the tragedy, now 
the simple beauty of the scene in the same way 
as paintings with a mythological content. 

Granted that painting in this epoch was intimately 


allied with literature, the question arises whether 
paintings described by Philostratus were actually 
based on some literary w^ork. In a few cases, but 
only in a few cases, is such a connection clear. 
The Scamander (I, 1), the Memnon (I, 7), the 
Antilochus (II, 7) may be regarded as illustrations 
for the Iliad ; the Hippolytus (II, 4), the Pentheus 
(I, 18), and the Madness of Heracles (II, 23) follow 
the version of Euripides very closely, though not 
with literal exactness ; and the Antigone hardly 
varies from the treatment by Sophocles. While it 
is reasonable to assume that these paintings were 
actually based on the extant literary treatment of 
the same themes, it would not be strange if 
Philostratus overstressed the dependence on litera- 
ture, for, as we have seen, it is his method to discuss 
the story of the painting as it may have appeared 
in literature instead of limiting himself to what he 
saw in the painting. 

No reader can forget that Philostratus is a sophist^ 
that his first preoccupation is the literary form in 
which he writes his descriptions. Whatever the 
paintings themselves may have been, it is his aim 
to emphasize and develop the sentiment, be it epic 
or tragic or idyllic, which he found in the paintings. 
The very subjects of the paintings show that the 
sentiment existed, and all the powders of his literary 
art were used in exploiting it. For the moment he 
is attempting to w^nte tragedy or again to develop a 
sentiment for the beauties of nature. However 
tedious he may become, however foreign to our 
ideas his method may be, the reader must remember 
that he is simply trying to outdo the paintings he 
describes in this appeal to the emotions. In this 



connection it is not uninteresting]^ to read Goethe's 
version of these pictures [Philostrats GemaeJdc, 1818),^ 
in wliich lie goes beyond Piiilostratus himself in the 
word painting of sentiment. 

In the Introduction Piiilostratus clearly states the 
aim of the Imagines. They were written as lectures 
or rhetorical exercises to display the powers of the 
sophist. In so far as he was a teacher, they were 
models to be followed by his pupils ; at the same 
time, because they dealt with works of art, they 
served to stimulate the imagination and to train 
a-sthetic taste according to the standards then in 
vogue. We have no right to expect literal and 
complete descriptions by which the paintings could 
be reconstructed in detail ; some of them can be 
reconstructed in a measure, while others baffle the 
attempt ; but this type of descrij)tion is not the 
sophist's aim. Further, he explicitly states that he 
leaves to others the history of painters and painting. 
One reference to a painter with whom he once 
studied (p. 5) is the single case in which the name 
of a painter appears. Nor are we to expect technical 
data about paintings. Rarely he speaks about 
draughtsmanship and only as something to be 
assumed, or of perspective only as a curious device 
of the j)ainter's, or of correct proportion as an 
essential element in the truth of painting, or of the 
successful use of shadow to bring out form in three 
dimensions. Rhetorically he lays stress on brilliant 
colours, but colour plays a relatively small part in his 
descriptions. Following the tradition of literary 
allusions to painting, he lays much stress on the 
illusion of reality, but one may suspect that his in- 

^ See Note at the end of this Introduction. 


terest in it is largely because it is a useful rhetorical 
device. The reader is never allowed to forget the boy 
who represents the audience of Philostratus and the 
writer's effort to develop imagination in his hearers. 
Philostratus as a rhetorician must be judged by 
his aim and by the standards of his age. While 
we miss the "very pure Attic Greek" and the 
"extreme beauty and force" of his description 
which his grandson praises (infra, p. 283), we 
cannot fail to be impressed by his effort to repro- 
duce the language of the golden age of Greek 
literature. He evidently seeks the simplicity w^hich 
is suitable to the audience he presupposes; none 
the less a simplicity more studied or more often 
interrupted by grandiloquent and complicated 
passages would be difficult to imagine. The loose 
nominatives, the choppy phrases, the frequent 
parentheses are apparently intended to give the 
illusion of a casual conversation about the paintings. 
A relative simplicity is attained in certain short 
descriptions (Pan, II, 11 ; Thessaly, II, 14 ; Pygmies, 
II, 22) ; but such complicated ones as the Arrichion 
(II, 6) or the Cupids (I, 6), and the grandiloquent 
treatment of the Gyrae (II, 13) or the Evadne 
(II, 30) pass quite beyond the sphere of simple 
conversations. Moreover, the figures of speech,^ the 
paradoxical expressions and the tricks of phrase- 
making,2 often become quite laboured. Even the 

^ p. 183 : "As if using the flames as a sail." 
p. 123 : " Pelops glows with the radiance of his shoulder, 
as does the night with the evening star." 

2 p. 75: "From those locks he derived vigour, and he 
imparted vigour to them ; but this was itself his madness, 
that he would not join Dionysus in madness." 


effort to write ^' pure Attic Greek" is almost buried 
under tlie mass of literary allusion and quotation, 
till it becomes itself a device of rhetoric. Words 
or phrases are quoted from Homer more than a 
hundred times, from Euripides more than forty 
times, from Pindar twenty-five times ; and in all some 
twenty authors furnish recognized quotations. Such 
is the acquaintance with the classics which was 
demanded both of the sophist and of his hearers. 
Tiie frequent introduction into the descriptions 
of bits of curious knowledge is to be regarded 
as a rhetorical device which is appropriate to the 
discourses of a sophist "professor," and which 
lends another interest to the paintings as well 
as to the description of them. This curious know- 
ledge has a wide range. It has to do with geo- 
graphy : the fertility of Egypt (1, 5), the detailed 
explanation of Tempe and the draining of the 
Thessalian plains (II, 14; II, 17, 4), the account 
of volcanic springs and streams (II, 17, 5), the 
nature of the river Alpheius (II, 6, 1). It deals 
with material things : the painter's pigments (I, 28), 
the origin of amber (I, 11), the origin of limestone 
(I, 12, 2), the nature of bitumen and sulphur (II, 
17, 5), the fiery element in the universe (I, 11, 1). 
It includes both fact and fancy as to plants and 
animals: the relation of trees to soil (I, 9, 1), the 
sexual instinct in date palms (I, 9), the characteristics 

p. 147 : " She prays to conquer men even as now she has 
conquered them ; for I do not think she loves to be loved." 

p. 157: "His bright hair is his pride," ko/xS. . . . kSjutj ; 
cf. 300, 13 K. 

p. 144: A mouth "most sweet to kiss, most difficult to 

p. 167 : "A beautiful burial offering are these arms." 


of tunny-fish (I, 13, 7), the habits of the wild boar 
(I, 28, 1), of ants (II, 22, 1), of gulls (II, 17, 11) 
and of spiders (II, 28), the details of the tortoise- 
shell (I, 19, 2), the different breeds of dogs (I, 28, 5), 
the fertility of the hare (I, 6, 6). It does not omit 
the field of medicine : the disease of Heracles 
(II, 23), the effect of eating owl's eggs (II, 17, 8), 
the use of gulls' stomachs as a remedy (II, 17, 11). 
And naturally it covers the various forms of human 
activity : occupations like agriculture (I, 6, 2) and 
hunting (I, 28) and fishing (I, 13) and carpentry 
(I, 16, 2), religious rites (II, 24, 4; II, 33), athletic 
games (II, 6, 4-5; II, 25, 2), war and the use of 
the chariot in war (I, 1, 2 ; I, 4, 2 ; I, 17, 1). All 
these curious facts may be supposed to have 
educational significance, but they are introduced 
primarily as a rhetorical device to stimulate the 
interest of the hearer or reader. 

The method of presentation of course varies with 
the theme. Frequently Philostratus begins with 
references to the story as given by Homer or by 
some other writer. More commonly he states 
rather abruptly the striking points of the picture 
[e.g. II, 5), then develops the mythological or 
historical theme before he describes the picture 
itself, and concludes with an effort after striking 
sentiment or phrase. His actual descriptions of 
paintings are rather meagre ; his praise of the beauty 
of men and women and landscape is the main end 
of his rhetoric ; as he says (p. 5), his effort is to 
praise the skill of the painter and to cultivate the 
taste of the observer. 

The estimate placed on this work of Philostratus 
depends largely on the spirit in which it is 


approached. Goethe^ filled \vith iindiscriminating 
enthusiasm for all the products of Greece and Rome 
which had been developed by Winckelmann and 
his associates, found the Imagines as thrilling in 
form as the paintings they described were admirable. 
FriedrichSj applying to these paintings the standards 
of the great periods of Greek art, questioned 
whether they could be called Greek, and even 
whether they existed outside the sophist's imagina- 
tion. It remained for Brunn with his wider and 
more critical knowledge to show that the paintings 
described by Philostratus were not in any way 
foreign to later Greek art. Whether they were 
all actual paintings, whether some M-ere real paint- 
ings and others created by the imagination of the 
sophist, whether there ever was such a gallery as 
is described, we have no means of knowing. Two 
points, however, are clear. First, Philostratus was 
primarily a sophist, who developed the description 
of paintings as a form of literary art ; he would be 
quite consistent in describing paintings that were 
figments of his imagination, provided only he 
succeeded in preserving the illusion that he dealt 
with existing paintings. Secondly, there is little 
or nothing to indicate any inconsistency between 
the paintings existing in his day and the paintings 
he describes. The student of late Greek paintings 
is fully justified in treating these examples as data 
for his study, whether or not they were actual 



(Ed. Cotta, 1868, Vol. XXVI, 276 f.) 

In 1818 Goethe published an essay on the paintings 
of Philostratus in which he refers to the enthusiasm 
of the '' Weimarsche Kunstfreunde " for this work, 
and to the extended study which they had given it. 
His essay was intended, he says, to preserve some 
of the results of this study, as the times were 
not favourable for the publication of the elaborate 
edition, with illustrations, which they had hoped 
to make. To his translation of a series of the 
Descriptions reference has already been made 
(p. xix). 

Goethe finds the greatest difficulty for the 
appreciation of Philostratus' work in what he calls 
the confused arrangement of the Descriptions. He 
arranges them under nine headings as follows : 
1. Heroic, tragic subjects; II. Love and Wooing; 
III. Birth and Education ; IV. Deeds of Heracles ; 
V. Athletic Contests; VI. Hunters and Hunting; 
VII. Poetry, Song, and Dance; VIII. Landscapes, 
including pictures of the sea ; IX. Still Life. This 
arrangement serves to emphasize the variety of the 
paintings described by Philostratus, even if it is 
not very logical. In the following list are included 
Goethe's references to ancient and modern paintings. 

I. Heroic, tragic subjects. 

1. The death of Antilochus. Book II, Descrip- 
tion 7. 


2. The death and burial of Memnon. I, 7. 

3. The Scamander overcome by Hephaestus. I, 1. 

4. The death of Menoeceus. I, 4. 

5. The death of Hippolytus. II, 4. 

Hippolytus and Phaedra. Ilercul. Altcrih?- 
iii. pi. 15. 

6. Antigone's burial of her brother. II, 29. 

7. Evadne's death on her husband's pyre. II, 30. 

8. Pantheia's death on her husband's pyre. II, 9. 

9. The death of Ajax. II, 13. 

10. The sufferings of Philoctetes. Phil. Jun. 17. 

11. The death of Phaethon. I, 11. 

Icarus mourned by his father. Ilercul. 

Alterth. iv. pi. 63. 
Phrixus and Helle. Ibid. iii. 4. 

12. Hvacinthus, beloved of A])ollo. Phil. Jun. 14. 

13. The death of Hyacinthus. I, 24. 

"Cephalus and Procris," by Giulio Romano. 

14. Amphiaraus and his oracle. I, 27. 

15. Cassandra. 

16. Rhodogoune victorious. II, 5. 

Victor and goddess of victory. Hercul, 
Alterth. iii. pi. 39. 

17. Themistocles. 11, 32. 

II. Love and IVooing. 

18. Cupids at play. I, 6. 

Birth of V^enus. Ilercul. Alterth. iv. pi. 3. 

1 Gori, Le antichite di Ercolano, 1757 ; German translation, 
C. G. V. Muir, 1777-1802. 



19. Poseidon and Amvmone. I, 7. 

Theseus and the rescued children. Hercul. 

Alterth. i. pi. 5. 
Ariadne deserted. IhicL ii. pis. 14-15. 

20. Ariadne asleep. I^ 15. 

Ariadne asleep. Ibid. ii. pi. 16. 
Leda with the swan. Ibid. iii. pi. 8. 
Leda on the Eurotas ; birth of twins from the 
egg. Giuiio Romano. 

21. Pelops as suitor. I, 30. 

22. Pelops as suitor. Phil. Jun. 9. 

23. Pelops winning Hippodameia, I, 17. 

24. The coming of the Argonauts. Phil. Jun. 8. 

25. Glaucus prophesying to the Argonauts. II, 15. 

26. Jason and Medea. Phil. Jun. 7. 

27. The return of the Argonauts. Phil. Jun. 11. 

28. Perseus and Andromeda. I, 29. 

29. C3^clops and Galatea. II, 18. 

Cyclops in love. Hercul. Alterth. i. p. 10. 

30. Pasiphae's love for the bull. I, 16. 

31. Meles and Critheis. II, 8. 

Ill, Birth and Educcdion. 

32. Birth of Athena. II, 27. 

33. Semele and the birth of Bacchus. I, 11. 

Fauns and Nvmphs. Hercul. Altetih. ii. 
pi. 12. 

34. Birth of Hermes. I, 26. 

35. Achilles brought up by Cheiron. II, 2. 

Achilles and Cheiron. Hercul Alterih. i. pi. 8. 

36. Achilles on Scyros. Phil. Jun. 1. 

37. Centaur families, II, 4. 



IV. Heracles. 

38. The deeds of Heracles as a babe. Phil. Jun. 5. 

Heracles as a babe. Ilercid. Alleiih. i. pi. 7. 

39. Achelous and Deianeira. Phil. Jun. 4. 

40. Deianeira rescued from Xessus. Phil. Jun. 16. 

41. Antaeus overcome. W, 21. 

42. Hesione freed by Heracles. Phil. Jun. 12. 

Heracles and Hesione. Hercul. Alterth, iv. 
pi. 64. 

43. Atlas and Heracles. II, 20. 

Hylas and Nymi)hs. Ilercul. A Iter/ h. iv. pi. 6, 
and Giulio Romano. 

44. Death of Abderus. H, 25. 

Heracles as a father. Ilercul. Alterth. i. pi. 6. 

45. Heracles insane. II, 23. 

Heracles and Admetus. Weimarsche Kunst- 

46. Theiodamas. II, 24. 

47. Heracles and the pygmies. II, 22. 

Heracles and the pygmies. Giulio Romano. 

V. Athletic Contests. 

48. Palaestra. II, 33. 

49. Arrichion. II, 6. 

50. Phorbas killed by Apollo. II, 19. 

VI. Hunters and Hunting. 

51. Meleager and Atalante. Phil. Jun. 15. 

^' Meleager and Atalante." Giulio Romano. 

52. Boar-hunt. I, 28. 

53. Hunters feasting. Phil. Jun. 3. 

54. Narcissus as a hunter. I, 23. 



VII. Poetry, Song, and Dance. 

55. Pan and Nymphs. II, 11. 

56. Midas and Satyrs. I, 22. 

57. Olympus blowing the flute. I, 21. 

Olympus taught by Pan. Hercul. Alterih. 
i. pi. 9. 

58. Olympus and Satyrs. I, 20. 

"Olympus playing the flute." Hannibal 

59. The defeat of Marsyas. Phil. Jun. 2. 

60. Amphion and the walls of Thebes. I, 10. 

61. Aesop and the Fables. I, 3. 

62. Orpheus charming animals, plants and stones. 

Phil. Jun. 6. 
Orpheus charming animals. Antique gem. 

63. The birth of Pindar. II, 12. 

64. Sophocles and Melpomene. Phil. Jun. 13. 

65. Aphrodite hymned by maidens. II, 1. 

VIII. Landscapes, including Pictures of the Sea. 

66. Dionysus and the Tyrrhenian pirates. I, 19. 

67. x\ndros, island favoured by Dionysus. I, 25. 

68. Palaemon. II, 16. 

69. Bosphorus. I, 12. 

70. The Nile. I, 5. 

The Nile. Mosaic by Palestrina. 

71. The Islands. II, 17. 

72. Thessaly freed from water when Poseidon opens 

Tempe. II, 14. 

73. Marsh. 1, 9. 



71. Fishermen catching tunny-fisli. I, 13. 

"Catching dolphins/' by GiiiHo Romano. 
Cf. Hercid. Alterth. ii. pi. 50. 

75. Dodona. II, 34. 

76. ComuSj a feast at night. I, 2. 

IX. Still Life. 

77. Xenia. I, 31. 

78. Xenia. II, 26. Cf. Ilercul. Alterth. ii. pi. 56 f. 

79. Spider webs. II, 29. 




294 K. (1) "OcTTf? /x?) ciaTrd^eTai ti]v ^coypacptav, 
aSiKel rrjv aXijOeiav, aSi/cet koI aocpiav, orroarf 
e? 7roi7]Ta(i i]K€L — (f^opci yap tat] ajiKpolv e? ra tmv 
r)p(oa)v epya Kal ecST] — ^vpfierpLav re ov/c eTTaivel, 

6 hC r)v KoX \6yov i) re^vr) aTrreraL. Kal fiovXo- 
fxevcp fxev ao^l^ecOaL Secov to euprj/j-a Blci re ra 
iv yfj eiSr], oiToaa tov<; \€LfiMva<; at ^flpac ypd- 
(povai, hid re ra iv ovpavw (f)at.v6fjL€va, /3aaavL- 
^ovTL he TTjv yeveaiv t?}? re^i^?;? /j.L/jii](Ti<; fxev 

10 evprjjia Trpeaffvrarov fcal ^vyyevearaTcv rrj 
(j)v<jer evpov Se avryv aocpol avSpe<^ to /j,€v 
^(i)ypa<plav, to Be Tr\aaTLKi)v (f)i]aavTe<;. 

(2) 7T\aaTLKi]<; /nev ovv iroWa etSr] — Kal yap 
avTO TO irXdTTeiv Kal t) iv tm ')(a\Kw jiifxriaL^ 

15 Kal ol ^eo^'T69 ttjv XvySlvrjv rj tiiv Yiapiav \i6ov 
Kal 6 iXe(pa<; Kal vi] Aua i) yXvcpLKr] irXaaTiKi] — 
^(oypa(f)ia Be ^v/jL^efiXrjTat jxev iK %pct)/xaTa)i^, 
iTpdTTei he ov tovto /jlovov, dXXa koI irXeiw 
(TO(f>i^eTai diTo tovtov €V0<; ovto<; rj diro twv 

^ " Lygdiau stone " : an unusually fine white marble used 
both for sculpture and for gems. Pliny, iV^.^. 36. 13 ; Diod. 
Sic. II. p. 135. 



Whosoever scorns painting is unjust to truth ; 
and he is also unjust to all the wisdom that has been 
bestowed upon poets — for poets and painters make 
equal contribution to our knowledge of the deeds 
and the looks of heroes — and he withholds his 
praise from symmetry of proportion^ whereby art 
partakes of reason. For one who wishes a clever 
theory^ the invention of painting belongs to the 
gods — witness on earth all the designs with which 
the Seasons paint the meadows^ and the mani- 
festations we see in the heavens — but for one who is 
merely seeking the origin of the art, imitation is 
an invention most ancient and most akin to nature ; 
and wise men invented it, calling it now painting, 
now plastic art. 

There are many forms of plastic art — plastic 
art proper, or modelling, and imitation in bronze, 
and the work of those who carve Lygdian^ or Parian 
marble, and ivory carving, and, by Zeus, the art of 
gem-cutting is also plastic art — while painting is 
imitation by the use of colours ; and not only does it 
employ colour, but this second form of art cleverly 
accomplishes more with this one means than the 


20 ttoWmv 7] ^ erepa rix^r). aKidv re 'yap airo- 
(f)aLi>€L fcal l3Xe/jLfia ywcoaKei, ciWo fxev rov jie- 
/jLtjvoto^^ aXXo Be rod aXyovvTO<; i) ^(^aipopTO^, 
KoX av'ya<; o/jL/jlutcov oirolai elaiv 6 TrXaartKcx; 
ixev Ti? ijfCLara ipyd^eraL, x^^porrov Se ofjuixa koI 

25 yXavKov Kol fieXav ypa<^LKr) olSe, koI ^avdr]v 

295 K. KOfiTjv olhe Kol TTvparjV Kol i)XtS)aav koI iaOf]TO<; 

XpMfJia Kol ottXcov OaXdfiovi re Koi olKLa<; koI 

dXat] Kol 6p7] Kol irriyh'; koI top alOepa, iv 

u) ravra. 

5 (8) ocroi fiev ovv Kpdro^ 'tjpavTO tt}? eTTiarrj- 
/i7]<^ KOL oaai TToXet? Kal oaot ^acnXel^ epcori e? 
avTTjv e;\;/^7;c^a^'T0, dXXoi<; re eipTjrat Kal 'Apiaro- 
B7]/jL(p TUi €K Kapta?, ov iyot) eVt ^coypa(f)ia ^evov 
eTTOirjadfJLrjv eTCov reacrdpcov — eypac^e he Kara 

10 Tr]V ^vfirjXov GO^iav iroXv to iTTixapc e? avrrjv 
(j)epo)V — X6yo<; Be ov irepl ^coypd^wv ovB' 
iGjopia^ avroiv vvv, dXX etSy] ^{oypa(f)ia<; 
dirayyeXXofjueu ofiiXia^; avra roh veoi<; ^vvtl- 
Oevre^;, dcf)^ mv epiirjvevaova-L re Kal rov BoKLfMOv 

15 (4) d(j)opj:ial Be /jloi tovtwvI tcov Xoycov aiBe 
eyevovTO' rjv fxev 6 irapd roU NeaTToXtraf? dycov 
— ?; Be TToXf? iv 'IraXio, (pKiarai yevo<; "EXXi]ve<i 
Kal dcTTiKOL, oOev Kal ra? GTT0vBd<; roov Xoycov 
'EXXrji'iKOL elai — /SovXo/jievw Be jiot ra? fxeXera^ 
20 piT] iv Tw (j)avep(p TroLelaOai Trapelx^v 6)(Xov rd 
aeipaKia (f)0LT(0VTa inl tjjv olkIuv tov ^evov. 
KareXvov Be efo) rov TeLXOV<; iv irpoaareiw 
reTpa/JL/xevw e? OdXaaaav, iv w arod t^? e^wKO- 

^ 7) added by Jacobs. 


other form with its many means. For it both repro- 
duces light and shade and also permits the observer 
to recognize the look, now of the man who is mad, 
now of the man who is sorrowing or rejoicing. The 
varying nature of bright eyes the plastic artist does 
not bring out at all in his work ; but the " grey 
eye," the '^blue eye," the ^'^ black eye" are known 
to painting ; and it knows chestnut and red and 
yellow hair, and the colour of garments and of 
armour, chambers too and houses and groves and 
mountains and springs and the air that envelops 
them all. 

Now the story of the men who have won mastery 
in the science of painting, and of the states and 
kings that have been passionately devoted to it, 
has been told by other writers, notably by Aristo- 
demus of Caria, whom I visited for four years in 
order to study painting ; and he painted in the 
technique of Eumelus, but with much more charm. 
The present discussion, however, is not to deal with 
painters nor yet with their lives ; rather we propose 
to describe examples of paintings in the form of 
addresses which we have composed for the young, 
that by this means they may learn to interpret paint- 
ings and to appreciate what is esteemed in them. 

The occasion of these discourses of mine was as 
follows : It was the time of the public games at 
Naples, a city in Italy settled by men of the Greek 
race and people of culture, and therefore Greek in 
their enthusiasm for discussion. And as I did not 
wish to deliver my addresses in public, the young 
men kept coming to the house of my host and 
importuning me. I was lodging outside the walls in 
a suburb facing the sea, where there was a portico 


hofi^-jTO Kara ^ecpvpov avefjuov eVt Terrdpcov ol/xai 

25 rj Kal irevre 6pocf)cbv a^opwaa e? to TvppijviKov 

7T€Xayo<;. ya-rpaTrre fxei' ovv Kal XiOoi^, oiroaov^ 

eiraivel Tpv(j)/], pdXtcrra Se yvOei ypa(j)ai<i ivijp- 

fio(7 jjLevcov avrfj ttlvolkcov, ou? ipLol BoKeiv ovk 

d/jLad(o<; ^ Ti9 crvveXe^aro' ao(f)La yap iv avroU 

30 iBi]\ovTo TrXeiovcov ^coypdcfxov. (5) iyo) p.ev an 

ifiavTOv cp/jirjv Selv eiraLvelv rd'^ ypa(f)d<;, rjv he 

dpa vi6<; TO) ^€V(p ko/jLlStj v60<;, ei? eT09 SeKarov, 

7]Ei] cf)iX7]Koo<; Kal y^aipcov tm fxavQdveiv, o? 

€7T6(f)vXaTre yue iiriovTa avTa^; Kal iSelro fiov 

35 €p/JL7jv€V6Lv Ttt? ypa(f)d^. Xv ovv /xt) GKaiov fie 

i^yolro, " earai ravTa,^' ecfiijv "Kal eirihei^Lv 

296 K. avjd TroLTjao/jueOa, iireihav yjKy rd fieipdKta.'' 

d(piKOfjL€V(ov ovv " 6 fiev Trat?," €(f)7}v, " Trpo/Se- 

/3X7](Tdu) Kal dvaKeiadw tovtm i) (TirovSr] rod 

Xoyov, L'/xet9 3e eireaOe /jbrj ^vvriOe/j^evoL /jlovov, 

dXXd Kal epcoTMvre^, €l ti p.?] aac^o}'^ (ppd^oL/xi,.'' 


5 (1) "Eyi^co?, (a) iral, ravra 'Op.7]pov ovra rj ov 
TraoTTore 6yv(OKa<; SrjXahj] 6avp.a i)youixevo'^, ottw^ 
hijiroTe 6^7] 2 TO irvp iv rw vBari, ; crvfifidXcopLev 
ovv 6 TL voet, av Be dirojSXeylrov avrcov, oaov 
€K€Lva loeiv, d(j)^ wv y ypacp/]. olaOd irov t?}? 
10 'iXtttSo? Trfv yv(op,7]v, iv ol? "Op.i'}po<^ dviaryjcri, 
pev Tov ^ A)(^LXXea iirl tw WarpoKXw, KivovvraL 
Be ol 6eol TToXepetv dXXi]Xoi<^. rovrcov ovv rcxiv 
irepl Tov<; 6eov<; ?; ypa<f)r] rd p,€v dXXa ovk olBe, 

^ aixad'Jcs Reiske and Thiersch : anadi^s. 
2 ^C^i F and M 1 P ; Cv Reiske. 


built on four, I think^ or possibly five terraces, open 
to the west wind and looking out on the Tyrrhenian 
sea. It was resplendent with all the marbles 
favoured by luxury, but it was particularly splendid 
by reason of the panel-paintings set in the walls, 
paintings which I thought had been collected with 
real judgment, for they exhibited the skill of very 
many painters. The idea had already occurred to 
me that 1 ought to speak in praise of the paintings, 
Avhen the son of my host, quite a young boy, only 
ten years old but already an ardent listener and 
eager to learn, kept watching me as I went from one 
to another and asking me to interpret them. So in 
order that he might not think me ill-bred, ^'^ Very 
well," I said, "we will make them the subject of a 
discourse as soon as the young men come." And 
when they came, I said, " Let me put the boy in 
front and address to him my effort at interpretation; 
but do you follow, not only listening but also asking 
questions if anything I say is not clear." 


Have you noticed, my boy, that the painting 
here is based on Homer, or have you failed to do so 
because you are lost in wonder as to how in the 
world the fire could live in the midst of the water ? 
Well then, let us try to get at the meaning of it. 
Turn your eyes away from the painting itself so as to 
look only at the events on which it is based. Surely 
you are familiar with the passage in the Iliad where 
Homer makes Achilles rise up to avenge Patroclus, 
and the gods are moved to make battle with each 
other. Now of this battle of the gods the painting 


TOP Be 'Hcpaiaroi' eiiireaelv (f)y]ac tm Xfca/xdvSpo) 
15 TToXvv Kal aKpaiov. (2) opa hi] TrdXiv irdvTa 
eKeWev. vyjn]\i] pev avT7] i) ttoX^? koX ravrl ra 
KpijhepLva rod 'Wiou, irehiov he rovrl p,iya koI 
diTOXpoiv Ti-jv Wcriav irpo'^ Trjv ^vpcoTrrjv clvtl- 
rd^ai, TTvp he rovro iroXv p.ev irXifp.p.vpel Kara 
20 Tov irehlov, ttoXv he irepl tcl^; 6')(da<i epirei rov 
irorapov, co? p^^jKert avrro hei^hpa elvai. to he 
dp,(f)l TOV ' Hcpaiarov irvp eirippel rw vhari, Kal 
6 7Torapio<; dXyel Kal iKerevei rov "H(paL(TTOV 
avTo^;. aXX,' ovTe 6 7roTap.o<; yeyparrraL Kop,MV 
25 vTTo TOV irepLKeKavaOai ovTe x^^Xeucov 6 " 
T09 VTTO TOV rpi^^eiv Kal to dv6o<; tov rrvpo^ 
ov ^avOov ovhe ttj eWiap^evr] o'^jrei, dXXa 
XpV(T0€ih€<; Kal ijXtoohef;. ravTa ovKen 'Opbrjpov. 

297 K. P KHMOX 

(1) 'O haipLWv 6 Kw/i09, Trap ov rot? dvdpd)- 
7roi<s TO Kcopid^eiv, ecfieaTijKev ev OaXdpiov Ovpai<; 
')(^pvaal^ olpLai, /Spahela he /; KaTdX7]yjn<; avTOJV 
VTTO TOV o)? eV vvktI elvai. yeyparrTai he 7) vv^ 
6 ovK dirb tov o-(t}p,aTO<;, ciXX^ diro Kacpov, hrjXol 
he TCL rrpoirvXaia vvpc^iov^ p.dXa 6X/3iOv<i ev 
evvfj KelaOai. (2) kuI 6 K.cop,o(; 7]Kei veo<^ irapa 
i>eov<s. diraXo^; Kal ovirw e(p7]/3o<i, epvOpo<i viro 
o'ivov Kal KuOevhcov 6p9o^ vtto tov pbeOveiv. 

^ Not only is the story from the Iliad, but words and 

bits of description are taken from Homer ; cf. Tpot'r/s 

Upa K^r}, Iliad 16. 100 ; <p\6ya iro\\'i)v, 21. 333 ; iv 


BOOK I. 2 

ignores all the rest, but it tells how Hephaestus 
fell upon Scamander with might and main. Now 
look again at the painting; it is all from Horner.^ 
Here is the lofty citadel^ and here the battlements 
of Ilium ; here is a great plain, large enough for 
marshalling the forces of Asia against the forces of 
Europe ; here fire rolls mightily like a flood over the 
plain, and mightily it creeps along the banks of the 
river so that no trees are left there. The fire which 
envelops Hephaestus flows out on the surface of the 
water and the river is suffering and in person begs 
Hephaestus for mercy. But the river is not })ainted 
with long hair, for the hair has been burnt off; nor 
is Hephaestus painted as lame, for he is running ; 
and the flames of the fire are not ruddy nor yet of 
the usual appearance, but they shine like gold and 
sunbeams. In this Homer is no longer followed. 

2. COM US 

The spirit Comus ^ (Revelry), to whom men owe 
their revelling,is stationed at the doors of a chamber — 
golden doors, 1 think they are ; but to make them out 
is a slow matter, for the time is supposed to be at night. 
Yet night is not represented as a person, but rather 
it is suggested by what is going on; and the splendid 
entrance indicates that it is a very wealthy pair just 
married who are lying on a couch. And Comus has 
come, a youth to join the youths, delicate and not 
yet full grown, flushed with wine and, though erect, 
he is asleep under the influence of drink. As he 

TreSi'y TTvp Soi'eTo, 21. 343 ; ah 5e "Eavdoio nap' ox^as SeVSpea koI', 
21. 337 f. 

2 Cf. Milton's Comus, 46 f, where Comus is described as 
the son of Bacchus and Circe. 



10 KaOevSei Se to fiev irpoacoirov eirl ra arepva 
pL\jra<; Kal rfj^; Seipt}'^ iK<^aii'WV ovSev, rrjv Se 
apLarepav TrpoXo/Slo) ^ iirey^wv €l\i](j)OaL Sk i) 
%el/9 BoKovaa Xverai Kal afxeXel, to elw6o<; ev 
(ipXV '^^^ /caOevSeiv, OTav (TaivovTO<; r)/jid<; vttvov 

15 iJLeTep)(rjTaL 6 Xoyiafio<^ et? Xijdrjv ojv avve)(^ei, 
66ev Kal TO ev tt} Se^id \a/i7rd8iov eoiKe Sia- 
<f)€vjeLP TYfV %et/30t KaTappadvjjLovvTo^ avTrjv tov 
VTTvov. SeSicot; Be 6 Kco/uo? irpoaffdWov to 
TTVp Tw aKeXeL Trapacpepec ttjv fxev kpjJ/xtju ti]v 

20 dpiaTepdv iirl tcl Se^id, to Be Xa/nrdSiov ev 
dpKJTepd, Iv eKKXivot tov ut/iov tov 7rvpo<; 
eKKeifievq) tw jovutl d(f)io'Td<; Tr]V ')(elpa. 

(3) TTpoacoira he o^elXeTai /xev irapd twv 
^coypdcftcov T0i<; ev cSpa Kal TV(f)X(i)TT0vai ye 

25 dveu TOVTCov al ypa(f)ai, tw Be K.a)/j.(p cr/jLLKpd 
Sec Tou TrpoacoTrov vevevKOTi Kal eXKovTt Tr]v utto 
Trj<; Ke(paXi]<; aKidv KeXevet Be ol/jiai, fir) dirapa- 
KaXvTTTOv^ Kcofid^eiv tol? ev i)XLKia tovtov. Ta 
Be XoLTTOL TOV ad)jjLaT0<; BirjKpl^wTaL iravTa irept- 

30 Xd/jLTTOVTO^ avTCL tov XafJLiraBiov Kal eU </)(W9 
dyovTO^. (4) 6 (TTe^avo^ Be tojv poBcov eVat- 
veiaOco fxev, dXXd /jLT] diro tov elBov^ — ^avdol^ 
yap Kal Kvavol<;, el TvyoL^ y^pcjopiaaLV diTop.i- 
jielaBai Td<; twv dvOecov eiKova^; ov /ieya<; 6 
298 K. dOXo^ — dXX' eiraivelv XPV '^^ %ai}i^oi^ tov aTe- 
cf)dvov Kal aTraXov eiraivdi' Kal to evBpoaov 
TMv poBcov Kal cf)t]p.l yeypd(f)OaL avTa fxeTu r?}? 

(5) Tt XoLirov TOV kco/jLOV ; tl 3' dXXo ye rj 

5 01 Ka)p.d^ovTe<; ; t) ov irpoajSdXXei ae KpoTaXa 
^ irpoXofiicf Benndorf, Furtwjingler : irpo0o\i(f. 

BOOK 1. 2 

sleeps the face falls forward on the breast so that 
the throat is not visible^ and he holds his left hand up 
to his ear.^ The hand itself, which has apparently 
grasped the ear^ is relaxed and limp, as is usual at 
the beginning of slumber, when sleep gently invites 
us and the mind passes over into forgetfulness of its 
thoughts ; and for the same reason the torch seems 
to be falling from his right hand as sleep relaxes it. 
And for fear lest the flames of the torch come too 
near his leg, Comus bends his lower left leg over 
towards the right and holds the torch out on his 
left side, keeping his right hand at a distance by 
means of the projecting knee in order that he may 
avoid the breath of the torch. 

While painters ought usually to represent the faces 
of those who are in the bloom of youth, and with- 
out these the paintings are dull and meaningless, 
this Comus has little need of a face at all, since his 
head is bent forward and the face is in shadow. 
The moral, I think, is that persons of his age should 
not go revelling, except with heads veiled. The 
rest of the body is sharply defined, for the torch 
shines on every part of it and brings it into the 
light. The crown of roses should be praised, not so 
much for its truth of representation — since it is 
no difficult achievement, for instance with yellow and 
dark blue pigments, to imitate the semblance of 
flowers — but one must praise the tender and delicate 
quality of the crown. I praise, too, the dewy look 
of the roses, and assert that they are painted fragrance 
and all. 

And what else is there of the revel } Well, 
what but the revellers ? Do you not hear the 

^ i.e. resting his head upon his hand. 


Kal Opov<; evav\o<; koI mS)] araKTO'^ ; Xainrdhtd 
T€ V7r€ K(f)aiV6Tac, Trap' a)v earc Tot<; Kcofid^ovai 
Kol rd iv iToalv opdv Kal T]/j,tv fxi] opdaOat. avve^- 
aiperat Be Kal ttoXi)? 76X0)9 Kal yvvata per 

10 dvBpcov 'lerai Kal viroBrjp^a * * 1 Kal ^covvvrai 
irapd TO OLKetov avjx^P^^ ^^ KO)po<; Kal 
yvvaLKl dvSpL^ecrOat, Kal dvSpl dqXvu ivSuvac 
aTo\7]v Kal OrjXv /Saiveiv. Kal 01 aiec^avoi ovk 
dvOrjpol en, aXV cKpyprjrat avTol<; to IXapov 

15 V7T0 Tov Tat9 K6(pa\aL<; €(papp,6TTea6at 8i,d to 
aTaKTelv ev tco Spop^w' 1) yap tcov dvdecov iXev- 
Oepia irapaLTeLTai tyjv X^^P^ ^^ piapaivovaav 
avTa TTpo TOV ;^/9o^'Of. pipelTai Tiva y ypa(^ii 
Kal KpoTOv, ov pdXiaTa SelTat 6 K(opo<;, Kal rj 

20 Se^id Tot9 SaKTvXoi<; vrrecrTaXpevoL^ v7roK€Lp,evr)v 
TTjv dpicTTepdv 7rXi]TT€C €9 TO KolXov, Xv axTiv 
al %et/3e9 ^vp^cpcovoi irXrjTTop.evai TpoTrrp Kvp- 


(1) ^oiTcoaip 01 Mvdoi irapd tov AtacoTrov 
25 dya7rcovT€<; avTov, oTt avTMP eTTLp^eXeLTac. ipieXi^ae 
puev ydp Kal 'Opyjpw pvOov Kal 'Ho^to^w, eTi he 
Kal WpxiXo^fp TTpo^i AvKdp^^fjV, ttXX' AtVooTrct) 
TrdpTa Ta tcov dvOpdoircdv eKpepvOcoTai, Kal Xoyov 
Tot9 Orjplot^ pieTahehwKe Xoyov eveKev. irXeove- 
30 ^iav re ydp eTriKoiTTei Kal v^piv eXavvec Kal 
djrdTTjv Kal TavTa Xewv 7^9 avTco viroKpiveTai 

^ avSpe^ov viroSeWai suppl. Schenkl., vTr65r}/j.a Kotvhv ^xovai 
Bruxell. 11182, viroSovuTai V^, vtroBelrai Kayser. 

^ Eur. Bacch. 836, 852, drjXuu iiSvvai aroxiiv. 

BOOK I. 3 

castanets and the flute's shrill note and the dis- 
orderly singing ? The torches give a faint light, 
enough for the revellers to see what is close in 
front of them, but not enough for us to see them. 
Peals of laughter rise, and women rush along with 
men, [wearing men's] sandals and garments girt in 
strange fashion ; for the revel permits women to 
masquerade as men, and men to " put on women's 
garb " ^ and to ape the walk of women. Their 
crowns are no longer fresh but, crushed down on 
the head on account of the wild running of the 
dancers, they have lost their joyous look ; for the free 
spirit of the flowers deprecates the touch of the 
hand as causing them to wither before their time. 
The painting also represents in a way the din which 
the revel most requires ; the right hand Avith bent 
fingers strikes the hollowed palm of the left hand, 
in order that the hands beaten like cymbals may 
resound in unison. 


The Fables are gathering about Aesop, being 
fond of him because he devotes himself to them. 
For while Homer also cared for fable, and Hesiod, 
and Archilochus too in his verses to Lycambes, Aesop 
has treated all sides of human life in his fables, and 
has made his animals speak in order to point a moral. '^ 
For he checks greed and rebukes insolence and deceit, 
and in all this some animal is his mouthpiece — 

2 \6yoj, literally "for the sake of thought or reason/' 
plays on the \6yov used just before in the primary sense of 
"speech"; it might be translated "so as to express 



Kal dXcoTT'i]^ Kal 'itttto'; ^ in] Ata, Kal ovSe i) 
299 K. ^€Xd)V7] a(f>(i)vo<;, vcf)' ojv ra iraihia fiaO')]Tal 
yivovTai TMV rod ^iov Trpay/jLarcov. (2) evSoKi- 
fiovvTe<; ovv ol ^IvOoL Sea top AiacoTrov (poircocrLV 
inl Ta<; 6vpa^ rov <JO(pov raiviac^ avrov avaSi]- 

5 aovT€<; Kal aT€(f)ava)(TOVT€<; avrov OaWov 
aTe(f)dp(p. 6 Se olfxai riva vcj^aivei fivOov ro 
'yap fieihiafia rov AlaMTrou Kal ol o^Oakfiol 
Kara iy7](; 6aTC0Te<; tovto hifkovaiv. olSev 6 
^coypd(po<;, on ai tmv /j.v9cov (j^povri^e^ dv€i/jLevr]<; 

10 T?}? "^^X^l^ heovrai. <pi\o(TO(f)€L Se rj 'ypa(f)r) Kal 
ra TO)v Wvdwv aMfiara. Otjpla yap avfJb^dX- 
\ovaa dv6pa)7roL<; TrepiiaTijai ')(^opov tw Kladiirco 
diTO T^i9 eKeivov <TKr]vr}<^ crv/xTrXdaaaa, Kopv^aia 
he Tov X^P^^ V aXooTrr]^ yeypainai' XPV'^^^ l^P 

15 avrfi AiVajTro? BiaKovo) TOiv irXeicyTwv vnoOe- 
aecov, coarrep 7) KcofiwSia tm Ada). 

(1) &r)/3a)V fiev 1) iroXiopKia, to yap reixo^ 
kiTTdTTvXov, y) arpand he UoXvveLK7]<; " o rov 
OtStVoSo?' ol yap Xoxoi eTrrd. ireXd^ei avroh 
20 'AfjL(j)LdpecD<; ddvjJiw eXhec Kal ^vvievTL a ireiaovTai, 
Kal ol pev dXXoi Xo^^^jol hehiacn — ravra Kal 
rd^; ^e?/3a? e? top Ala al'povai — KfiTrai^eu^ he ra 
Teixv I^Xeirei irepi^popcdp rd^; eVaXfef? co? 

^ 'c'ttttos, Koi fTj Ata ouSe conj. Benndorf. 
2 UoXvuiUovs rov conj. Reiske. 


BOOK I. 4 

a lion or a fox or a horse, and, by Zeus, even the 
tortoise is not dumb— that through them children 
may learn the business of life. So the Fables, 
honoured because of Aesop, gather at the doors 
of the wise man to bind fillets about his head and 
to crown him with a victor's crown of wild olive. 
And Aesop, methinks, is weaving some fable ; at 
any rate his smile and his eyes fixed on the ground 
indicate this. The painter knows that for the 
composition of fables relaxation of the spirit is 
needed. And the painting is clever in representing 
the persons of the Fables. For it combines animals 
with men to make a chorus about Aesop, composed 
of the actors in his fables ; and the fox is painted 
as leader of the chorus, since Aesop uses him as a 
slave in developing most of his themes, as comedy 
uses Davus. 


This is the siege of Thebes, for the wall has seven 
gates ; and the army is the army of Polyneices, 
the son of Oedipus, for the companies are seven 
in number. Amphiaraiis approaches them with 
face despondent and fully aware of the fate in store 
for them ; and while the other captains are afraid 
— that is why they are lifting their hands to Zeus 
in prayer — Capaneus ^ gazes on the walls, revolving 
in his mind how the battlements may be taken 

1 Cf. Eur. Phoen. 180-182. 

"And where is Capaneus — he who hurls at Thebes 
Insult of threats ? a 

There : he counts up and down 
The wall-stones, gauging our towers' scaling height.'' 

Trans. Way, L.C.L. 



KXifxaKi dXoyrd^. ov fii-jv ^dWerai tto) utto 
25 TMV iiraX^ewv 6kvovvt€<; ttov o'l ^rj^aloL dp^ai 


(2) rjSv TO a6(f)L(Tfj,a tou l^a)ypd(f)OU. irepL- 
^dWwv TOi<; Tei)(^€ariv dvhpa<i ot)7r\La/j,€i^ov^ tou? 
/jL€V dpriov^ irapey^et opdv, tov^ Be dcra(f)eL<; rd 

30 a/ceXT], tov<; Se i>)/jLLaea<; fcal arepim eviwv koI 

K€(pa\a<; fjL6va<^ kol KopvOa^ fiova^, elra alxP'd<;. 

dvaXoyia ravra, co Tral' Bel yap KXeirreaOaL 

300 K. TOv<; 6(f)0aXp,ov<; toI<; eViTT/Setof? kvkXoi<; avv- 


(3) ovSe al (&rj,8ai dfidpreuror Xoyiov yap ri 
6 T€Lpe(Tia<; XeyeL relvov eV MevoiKea top tov 
KpeovTO<;, co? diroOavcov, ev9a i) %eia. rov 

5 BpdKovTO^, eXevOepa rj 7roXi9 €k tovtov eh). 
6 Be dirodi'rjaKei XaOoov rov irarepa eX€eLvo<; puev 
T/}? '))XiKia<i, evBaifiwv Be rov Odpaov^. opa yap 
rd rov ^coypdcfyov. ypd(peL iieLpaKiov ov XevKov 

10 ovB^ €K rpvcj)rj<;, dXX' euyjrvxov fcal 7raXaLarpa<=; 
iTveov, olov ro rcov p€Xt')^p6cov dv6o<=;, 01)9 eiratvel 
o rov 'A/)t(7TCi)7'0?, BLa(^pdrrei Be avro arepvoi^; 
ev^acpiai Kal 7rXevpaL<; Kal yXovrw avpL/ierpM 
Kal fn]p^' eppcorai Kal Mfxwv eirayyeXia Kal 

15 ovK drpeirrw revovri, fierex^t Be koI K6fir]<;, oaov 

^ Literally " the principle of proportion.' 

BOOK I. 4 

with scaling ladders. As vet^ however, there is 
no shooting from the battlements, since the Thebans 
apparently hesitate to begin the combat. 

TJie clever artifice of the painter is delightful. 
Encompassing the walls with armed men, he 
depicts them so that some are seen in full figure, 
others with the legs hidden, others from the waist 
up, then only the busts of some, heads only, helmets 
only, and finally just spear-points. This, my boy, is 
perspective;^ since the problem is to deceive the 
eyes as they travel back along with the proper 
receding planes of the picture. 

Nor are the Thebans without their prophet, 
for Teiresias is uttering an oracle pertaining to 
Menoeceus the son of Creon, how that by his death 
at the dragon's hole- the city should thenceforth 
be free. And he is dying, his father being all 
unaware of his fate, an object of pity indeed 
because of his youth, but really fortunate because 
of his bravery. For look at the painter's work I He 
paints a youth not pale, nor the child of luxury, 
but courageous and breathing of the palaestra, as 
it were the choicest of the "honey-coloured " youth 
whom the son of Ariston^ praises; and he equips 
him with a chest deeply tanned, strong sides and a 
well-proportioned hip and thigh ; there is strength 
both in the promise of his shoulders and in his 
supple neck ; he has long hair also, but not the 

^ Cf. 11. 22. 93, Cos 8e hpaKwv iirl x^^fjy ^-^d Eur. Phoen. 931 f. : 
" In that den where the earth-born dragon lay 
Watching the streams of Dirce, must he yield, 
Slaughtered, a blood-oblation to the earth." 

Trans., Way, L.C.L. 
* Plato, cf. Rep. 474, fj.e\ix^<^'pov5, but in Plutarch's 
quotation of the passage, Mor. 56 d, we find /xeXixpow. 



fiij KOfiav. (4) €(f)ear7]K€ Se rfj %em tou Spd- 
Kovro<; ekKOv to ^t(/)o? e'/^SeSu/co? ?)S>/ rrj irXevpa. 
Kal he^cojjLeOa, to iral, ro al/xa koXttov ^ avrw 
viTO(JxovT6<^' eKyjelTai 'yap, Kal rj '^v)(^t] ijBr] 

20 ciTreiai, fiiKpov he varepov Kal rerpLyvLa'^ avrrj<; 
aKovaij. epcora yap rcov KaXcov acofidrcov Kal 
al -^vxal l'a)(^ouaiv, oOev aKovaai avrcop diraX- 
"Xdrroprai. vit€^l6vto<^ 8e avTW rod aJ/xaro? 
OKXd^ec Kal daTrd^erat, top OdvaTov KaXcp Kal 

25 i]hel Tw ofjL/jLari Kal olov virvov eXKOVJi. 

€ nHXEI^ 

(1) Uepl TOP 'NelXov oi Il7])(6i<i dOvpovai irai- 

hia ^v/jL/jL€Tpa rw ovofiarL, Kal 6 NciXo? avTOi<; 

vvrepydwrai rd re dXXa Kal otl KTjpvTTOvcriv 

avTop, 6ao<; At^uTrrtot? 7rpoe)(v07]. irpoadyerai 

30 yovp Kal olop ep^^erai ^ avrcp eK rod vBaTO<; 

/Specj^r] diraXa Kal ixeihiMPra, ixerex^i'V ^e 

olfiai TC avra Kal rov XdXov. Kal ol /lev 

rol<; Mfioi^ avTOv icj^i^dpovaip, ol Be tcop irXoKd- 

301 K. fiwp eKKpefiaPTai, ol he rfj dyKdXrj eyKaOev- 

Sovaip,^ ol Be K03[id^ov<jLP eVl rov areppov. o 

Be dpaBlBcoaip avrol<; dpO'q rd fiep diro rov 

koXttov, rd Be diro rPj<; dyKdXy]<;, co? crrecfedpovf; 

5 re drr avroiv BiarrXeKOiep Ka\ KaOevBoiep iirl 

roip dpdewp lepol Kal eucwSef?.* Kal eTrapa^ai- 

vovaip dXXo dXX(p rd iraiBia (TeiarpoL<^ dfia' 

^ KaATTii/ (" pitclier ") conj. Valckenaer, Hercher ; but cf. 
koKtvov vn^x^h 311 K 26. 

2 €\K€rai conj. Jacobs, but cf. 380. 17. 

" iyicaOevSovaiv Reiske, Jacobs : nadevSovaiy. 

^ dfiwdeis ("divine ") conj. Brunn, cf. 332. 18. 

[To face p. 19. 

BOOK I. 5 

long hair of luxury. There he stands at the 
dragon's hole, drawing out the sword which has 
already been thrust into his side. Let us catch the 
blood, my boy, holding under it a fold of our gar- 
ments ; for it is flowing out, and the soul is already 
about to take its leave, and in a moment you will 
hear its gibbering cry. For souls also have their 
love for beautiful bodies and therefore are loath to 
part from them. As his blood runs slowly out, he 
sinks to his knees and welcomes death with eye 
beautiful and sweet and as it were inviting sleep. 

5. DWARFS 1 

About the Nile the Dwarfs are sporting, children 
no taller than their name ^ implies ; and the 
Nile delights in them for many reasons, but par- 
ticularly because they herald his coming in great 
floods for the Egyptians. At any rate they draw 
near and come to him seemingly out of the water, 
infants dainty and smiling, and I think they are 
not without the gift of speech also. Some sit on 
his shoulders, some cling to his curling locks, some 
are asleep on his arms, and some romp on his 
breast. And he yields them flowxrs, some from 
his lap and some from his arms, that they may 
weave them into crowns and, sacred and fragrant 
themselves, may have a bed of flowers to sleep 
upon. And the children climb up one on another 
with sistra in their hands, instruments the sound of 

^ Cf. the allusion to them in Lucian, Rhetorum Preceptor, 
§ 6 ; a statue of the Nile with dwarfs sporting over it is 
found in the Vatican (Fig. 1). 

* "Cubit-dwarfs." 



ravrl yap evavXa eKeivw tw vSart. (2) KpoKO- 


10 Tft) NetXw TLv't<i irpoaypd^ovaLv, diroKeivrai, vvv 
eV [BaOela rrj hivij, fir) 8eo9 to?? 7raihioL<i ifxireaoL. 
yecopyta^; Se kol vavTL\ia<^ av/ji^oXa Sy]\oL rov 
KelXov eK TOiovSe, w Trat, XoyoV NetXo? AtyvTrrov 
•nXwTijv €pyaa-d/ji€vo<; evKdpircp rfj yfj ')(^prj(j6aL 

15 SiScoaiv VTTo Tcop TreSicov e/CTTO^et?, iv AlOiOTTLa 
Be, oOev dp^^eruL, Ta/iiLa<; avrw Sal/iwv i(p€aT)]/c6v, 
v<f ov irefMireTaL raU oipac^ av/jL/xerpo^;. ye- 
ypaiTTai he ovpavofxi'jK'ii^ e7nvoi)aai koX rov 
TToSa eirex^i ^ TaL<; 7rr)yaL^ olov Yioaeihoyv irpoa- 

20 v6V(jov. 6l<; tovtov 6 TTorayLto? ^Xeirei kuI alrel 
TCL /3p6<pi] avTM TToXXd elvuL. 


(1) MrjXa "Eyocore? ISov rpvycoaip' el Be 
7rXi]0o<; avTO)v, firj davfidar)<;. Nv/i(f)a)v yap Sr] 
TTulSe's ovTOL yivovraL, ro Ovqrov dirav SiaKV- 

25 ^€pvcovT€<;, TToXXol Sid TToXXd, ojv ipMCTLv dvOpco- 
7T0L, Tov Be ovpdvLov (j^aaiv iv rw ovpavw irpdr- 
T€LV rd Oela. fxayv eirrjaOov tl tPj<; dvd rov 
KYjiTOv €ucoBia<; i) ^paBvvec aot tovto ; dXXd 
irpoOviJLO)^ UKOve' Trpoa/BaXel ydp ae /lerd rov 

30 Xoyov Kol rd fj.7]Xa. 

(2) dp)(^OL fxev OVTOL (f)VTa)v opOol iropeuovrai, 

^ cTre'xfi Jacobs, cf. Phil. iuti. 405. G: ex^' P^*> *X*^' '"'P'^* ■^• 

^ Cf. Philostratus, Vita Apollon. 6. 26, where the allusion 
is based on Pintlar (Bergk, Frag. 282). 

BOOK I. 6 

which is familiar to that river. Crocodiles^ how- 
ever, and hippopotami, which some artists associate 
with the Nile in their paintings, are now lying 
aloof in its deep eddies so as not to frighten the 
children. But that the river is the Nile is indicated, 
my boy, by symbols of agriculture and navigation, 
and for the following reason : At its flood the 
Nile makes Egypt open to boats ; then, when it 
has been drunk up by the fields, it gives the people 
a fertile land to till ; and in Ethiopia, where it 
takes its rise, a divinity is set over it as its steward,^ 
and he it is who sends forth its waters at the riffht 
seasons. This divinity has been painted so as to seem 
heaven-high, and he plants his foot on the sources, 
his head bent forward like Poseidon. 2 Toward him 
the river is looking, and it prays that its infants may 
be many. 


See, Cupids are gathering apples ; and if there 
are many of them, do not be surprised. For 
they are children of the Nymphs and govern all 
mortal kind, and they are many because of the many 
things men love ; and they say that it is heavenly 
love which manages the affairs of the gods in heaven. 
Do you catch aught of the fragrance hovering over 
the garden, or are your senses dull } But listen 
carefully ; for along with my description of the 
garden the fragrance of the apples also will come 
to you. 

Here run straight rows of trees with space 

- Cf. the gem published by Overbeck, Kunstmythologie, 
Poseidon, Gemmentafel III. 3 : Poseidon bending forward 
and Nymph. 



Tov fieaov Be avjcov iXevOepla /Sadl^eiv, rroa he 
302 K. airaXi-j Kaikyei tov<; Bp6/jL0v<; oXa Kal KaraKXi- 
devTi arpcofivy] elrai. air' uKpcov Be tmv o^cov 
fifjXa 'Xpvaa Kal irvpaa /cal tjXlcoBtj Trpoadyovrai 
TOV €(T/jLov oXov to)v 'EpcoTcov yecopyelv avrci. 
5 (f)ap6TpaL fiev ovv y^pvaoiraaroL Kal ')(pva'd ^ Kal 
ra ev avTal<^ /SeXt], yvfivrf rovrcov i) dyeXTj irciaa 
Kal Kov(f>ot BLairerovraL TTepiapTi^aavre^ avTa<;^ 
ral^ /uL7)\eai<;, at Be e^eo-r/otSe? al iroLKiXaL Kelvrai 
fiev ev rfj iroa, pLvpia Be avTOiv ra dv6r). ovBe 

10 €aTe(f)(ivcovTaL rd^; K€(j)a\d<; co<; aTroxpdxrrjf; avTOL<; 
T?}? Kofiy^i. iTTcpd Be Kvdvea Kal (poiVLKa Kal 
Xpvcd evLOL<; jjlovov ov Kavrov TrXtjTTei top depa 
^vv dpjjiovia /MovaiKfj. (peu tcov raXdpcov, ei? 
OL"? aTroTiOevTaL rd pbfjXa, co? ttoXXt) fiev irepl 

15 avTOv<; i) crapBco, ttoXXtj Be rj (T/jLdpayBo<;, dX-yjOj]'^ 
B' 1] fidpyi]Xi<;, r) avvO)]K7] Be avrow 'HcpalcrTOU 
voelaOo). ov Be KXifidKcov Beovrai 'jTpo<; rd 
BevBpa Trap avTOV' vyjrov ydp Kal e? avrd 
TTerovrat rd fiPjXa. 

20 (3) Kal Xva firj rov'^ ')(opevovTa<; Xiyco/jiev rj 
T0v<; BiaOeovra<i i) tov^ KaSevBovra^ r) co? ydvvv- 
raL T(ov /uLi]X(ov ipcfyayovre'^, iBcofiev 6 ri irore 
ovroi voovaiv. ol ydp KuXXtaroL tcov ^KpcoTcov 
IBov TeTTape^ vire^eXOovTe^ tcov dXXcov Bvo fiev 

2~y'ai)T(bv avTiTrepLTTOvaL firjXov dXX7]\oi<;, ?; Be eTcpa 
Bvd<; 6 /ii€v To^evei tov eTepov, 6 Be avTiTo^evet 
Kal ovBe uTTeiX't] tol'^ 7rpoa(i}7roi<; eireaTiv, dXXd 
Kal arepva irapey^ovaiv dXXyjXoi'i, 7v €K€l ttov Td 

^ Xpvaa Olearius : xp^'^°-^- 
^ auras Rolide : avrd. 


BOOK I. 6 

left free between them to walk in, and tender 
grass borders the paths, fit to be a couch for one 
to lie upon. On the ends of the branches apples 
golden and red and yellow invite the whole swarm 
of Cupids to harvest them. The Cupids' quivers are 
studded with gold, and golden also are the darts 
in them; but bare of these and untrammelled the 
w^hole band flits about, for they have hung their 
quivers on the apple trees ; and in the grass lie 
their broidered mantles, and countless are the colours 
thereof. Neither do the Cupids wear crowns on 
their heads, for their hair suffices. Their wings, 
dark blue and purple and in some cases golden, all 
but beat the very air and make harmonious music. 
Ah, the baskets^ into which they gather the apples ! 
What abundance of sardonyx, of emeralds, adorns 
them, and the pearls are true pearls ; but the work- 
manship must be attributed to Hephaestus ! But 
the Cupids need no ladders wrought by him to reach 
the trees, for aloft they fly even to w^here the apples 

Not to speak of the Cupids that are dancing 
or running about or sleeping, or how they enjoy 
eating the apples, let us see what is the meaning 
of these others. For here are four of them, the 
most beautiful of all, withdrawn from the rest ; two 
of them are throwing an apple back and forth, and 
the second pair are engaged in archery, one shooting 
at his companion and the latter shooting back. 
Nor is there any trace of hostility in their faces ; 
rather they offer their breasts to each other, in 
order that the missiles may pierce them there, no 

^ Cf. the wool basket of Helen which was the work of 
Hephaestus, Od. 4, 125 dpyvpiov TaKaoov 



f^eXy Trepdaj].^ koKov to atviy/jLa' aKoirei, y^'tp, el 

30 7T0V 2 ^vvL7]/j.L Tou t^wy pdc^ov . (piXla ravja, m 

rral, koI aWi]X(DV 'ifjicpo^. ol jxev yap Slci tov 

fi/jXov 7raL^ovT€<; iroOov dp^ovrai, odev 6 fxev 

d(j)L7]aL (^iXi]aa^ ro /ir]Xov, 6 Be virriaL^ avjo 

VTToSex^'T^CLL rah X^P^'' ^^l^ov co? dvTLCpiXyjacov, €t 

35 Xdfioi, Kal avTiirefji^^rcdv avro' to Be tmv to^otwv 

303 K. ^evyc; i/jL7reBovaiv epwTa r]B'>] (pddvoi'Ta. Kai 

<f)7j/J.c TOV<; fjiev Trai^eiv eirl tm dp^aaOai tov ipdv, 

Toi)? Be To^eveiv eirl tm fir] XPj^ai tou ttoOov. 

(4) eKelvoL fxev ovv, irepl ou? ol irdXXol Oeaiai, 

5 dvfjLW o-v/jLTreTTTcoKaac Kal e)(ei tl<^ avT0v<; irdXr] . 

Xe^o) Kal Ti]v irdXrjV' Kal yap tovto eKXiirapel^;. 

6 fiev yprjKe tov dvTLiraXov 7repLTrTd<; avTfo KaTa 

T(x)V vcoTcov Kal et? irvlypba diroXa/jL^dveL Kal 

KaTaBel toI<; (TKeXeaiv, 6 Be ovTe uTTayopevec Kal 

10 6pOo<; viravidTaTai Kal BiaXvet tj-jv yelpa, vcj)' r)(; 

dyyeTaiy oTpe^Xdiaa'^ eva TOiV BaKTvXcov, jieO^ 

ov ovKeTi ol XoLTTol e^ovaiv ovBe elaiv ev tw 

dirpi^, dXyet Be 6^ aTpe/3Xov/jievo<; Kal KaTeaOiei 

TOV avfMTraXaiaTov ^ to ol-?. odev Bvaxepalvov- 

^ Tre pdffT} Hercher : Trerao-?; F, TTehdarj cet. 
- (1 TTov Schenkl : otrov F, eJ; ri P. 
^ b added by Reiske and Jacobs, 
■* (TVfxTra\ai(TTOv Sclienkl : TraKaiarov. 

^ For Cupids engaged in athletic sports, see the sarco- 
phagus relief in Florence, Baunieister, Denkmaler I, p. oOli, 
fig. 544 (Fig. 2). 


BOOK I. 6 

doubt. It is a beautiful riddle ; come, let us see if 
perchance I can guess the painter's meaning. This 
is friendship, my boy, and yearniiig of one for the 
other. For the Cupids who play ball with the 
apple are beginning to fall in love, and so the one 
kisses the apple before he throws it, and the other 
holds out his hands to catch it, evidently intending 
to kiss it in his turn if he catches it and then 
to throw it back ; but the jiair of archers are con- 
firming a love that is already present. In a word, 
the first pair in their play are intent on falling 
in love, while the second pair are shooting arrows 
that they may not cease from desire. 

Fig. 2, — E roles boxing and wrestling. 

As for the Cupids further away, surrounded by 
many spectators, they have come at each other 
with spirit and are engaged in a sort of wrestling- 
match.^ I will describe the wrestling also, since you 
earnestly desire it. One has caught his opponent 
by lighting on his back, and seizes his throat to 
choke him, and grips him with his legs; the other 
does not yield, but struggles upright and tries to 
loosen the hand that chokes him by bending back one 
of the fingers till the others no longer hold or keep 
their grip. In pain the Cupid whose finger is being 
bent back bites the ear of his opponent. The 
Cupids who are spectators are angry with him for 



15 div 01 Oea)/jL€VOt, tcop ""Epcorwv ci)? ahiKovvri kuI 
iKrraXaiovTL kol /jli]\ol<; avrbv KaraXidovai. 

(5) /jLT]Se 6 Xayco^; y/jLd<; eK6ii'0<; Sia(f)uyeTco, 
trvvdijpdaM/iev C€ avrhv to6? "ILpcoat. tovto to 
Oiipiov v7TOKad/)fi€VOV raL<; fitfK.eai'^ koI (JLTOVfie- 

20 vov TCL TTLTTTOvra ft? ji]!' /xf/Xa, TToXXa Se /cal 
7]/jLi0pa)Ta KaraXeliTOv hiaO)]p(x)aiv ovtol kul kut- 
apdaaovaiv 6 fiev KpoKO \eLp(jiV, 6 he KeKpay(jt)<;, 6 
he dvaaelcov rijv )(Xaiivha, koI ol fiev virepireTOV- 
rac Tou Orjpiou KaTa^owvre<^, ol he [xedeirovcnv 

25 avTO ire^ol Kar t%^'09, 6 5' to? eirippi-\\rwv eavrov 
Mpfjijcre. Kal to Orjpiov dXXi]v eTpdireTO, o he 
eTTi/SovXevet rw aKeXet tov Xayo), top he Kal 
hicoXiaOTjaev rjprjKOTa. yeXcbaiv ovv Kal KaTa- 
TreTTTco/caaiv 6 fiev e? irXevpdv, 6 he 7rpr]vj]<;, ol he 

30 vTTTLOi, TraVre? he ev toI<; tT;? hiafJiapTia^; cr^V- 
paai. To^evei he ou^et?, dXXd TreipcovTai avTOV 
eXeiv ^wvTa lepeiov ttj '' K^pohiTr] i]htaTOV. (6) 
olaOa yap irov to irepl tov Xayco Xeyofievov, C09 
TToXv tt)? W(f)pohiT7]<; fieTeaTiv avTfo. XeyeTai 

35 ovv iTEpl filv TOV Ot']Xeo<; Oi^Xd^eiv Te avTO a 

304 K. eVe/ce /cal diroTLKTeLv irdXiv eirl TavTw ydXaKTr 

Kal eTriKvtaKei ^ he Kal ovhe el? ')(p6ro<; avTcp tov 

TOKSTov k€p6<;. TO he cippev (JTreipei Te, co? (fyvai^; 

dppevwv, Kal diroKviaKei irap' 7re(f)VKev. ol he 

^ Herod. III. 108 iiriKvia-KeTai jxavvov iravrwv Orjpiuv ; 
quoted by Athenacus 400 E with the reading iiriKviaKd. 


BOOK I. 6 

this as unfair and contrary to the rules of wrestling, 
and pelt him with apples. 

And let not the hare yonder escape uS; but let 
us join the Cupids in hunting it down. The 
creature was sitting under the trees and feeding on 
the apples that fell to the ground but leaving many 
half-eaten ; but the Cupids hunt it from place to 
place and make it dash headlong^ one by clapping 
his hands, another by screaming, another by waving 
his cloak; some fly above it with shouts, others on 
foot press hard after it, and one of these makes a 
rush in order to hurl himself upon it. The creature 
changes its course and another Cupid schemes to 
catch it by the leg, but it slips away from him just 
as it is caught. So the Cupids, laughing, have 
thrown themselves on the ground, one on his side, 
one on his face, others on their backs, all in atti- 
tudes of disappointment. But there is no shooting 
of arrows at the hare, since they are trying to catch 
it alive as an offering most pleasing to Aphrodite. 
For you know, I imagine, what is said of the hare, 
that it possesses the gift of Aphrodite to an unusual 
degree. 1 At any rate it is said of the female that 
while she suckles the young she has borne, she 
bears another litter to share the same milk : forth- 
with she conceives again, nor is there any time at all 
when she is not carrying young. As for the male, 
he not only begets offspring in the way natural to 
males, but also himself bears young, contrary to 
nature. And perverted lovers have found in the 

^ This tradition of the fertility of the hare is frequently 
mentioned by ancient writers ; of. Herod. Ill, 108 : Arist. 
dt gen. anim. 777 a 32, TJi-t. anim. 542 b 31, 574 b 30. 585 a 
5 ; Plut. Mor. S29e; Aelian. Hist. aniw. 13. 12. 


5 aroTTOL tcoi> epaarcov koI TreiOco rtva €pcoTiK7]v ev 
avTO) Kareyvayaav /ScaLO) Te^vrj to, TTaihiKa 

(7) ravra fiev ovv KaraXiTTcofiev dvOp(t)7roi<; 
dSiKoi^ Kal dva^ioL<^ rov dvrepaaOaL, av Si fioi 

10 Trjv 'A(f)poSiTr)v /SXeire. ttov 8;) Kal Kara tl twz^ 
/jLrjXwv eKeivj) ; ^ 6pa<; rr/v viravrpov irerpav, 779 
vd/xa Kvavcorarov vTreKrpex^i yXwpov re Kal 
TTOTifiov, Byj Kal 8L0-)(6T€veTaL iTOTOv elvat ral<i 
fit]\eaL<; ; ivravOd /j,oi T?)^' ^ X(^ pohirriv voei, Nf/.t- 

15 (^o}v olfiat avTi-jv iBpvfievcov, 6tl avrd^; eiToii]aev 
'EpcoTcov /jLi]r6pa<; Kal Bid rovro eviraiBa';. Kal 
KajoTTTpov Be TO dpyvpovv Kal to vrro^pvcrov 
eKelvo aavBdXiov Kal at irepovat al ')(^pvaal, 
ravra iravra ovk dpyo)^ dv))7rrac. Xeyet Be 

20 'A^/?o5tT7;? elvai, Kal ykypairrai rovro, Kal 
^v/jL(f)a)v Baypa elvat Xeyerac. Kal 01 "Epcore<; Be 
uTrdp^^ovrai rcbv /llijXmv Kal 'repLecrrcore^; ev^ov- 
rai KaXov avrol^ elvaL rov k?]itov. 


(1) 'H fiev arparid ^lep^vovo^, rd oirXa Be 
25 avrol^ diroKeirai Kal irporiOevraL rov p^eyiarov 
avrwv eVl Op7]V(p, (3epXi)raL Be Kara ro crepvov 
€/jloI BoKelv VTTO tT/? yLteXia?. eupcov ^ ydp ireBiov 
evpv Kal aK')]vd<; Kal reL')(o<; ev arparoireBw Kal 
TToXiv avfiTTecj^pay/jLevrjv reixeaiv ovk olB' ottox; 
30 OVK AWL07re<i ovroL Kal 'Vpoia ravra, Opt-jvelrai 

^ iKiivri Olearius : ixelyr]. ^ Rohde conj. Spwi- 


Fig. 3. — Tht Luath of Memnon. 

[Tofuo' p. 29. 

BOOK 1. 7 

hare a certain power to produce love, attempting to 
secure the objects of their affection by a compelling 
magic art.^ 

But let us leave these matters to men who are 
wicked and do not deserve to have their love 
returned, and do you look, please, at Aphrodite. 
But where is she and in what part of the orchard 
yonder? Do you see the overarching rock from 
beneath which springs water of the deepest blue, 
fresh and good to drink, which is distributed in 
channels to irrigate the apple trees ? Be sure that 
Aphrodite is there, where the Nymphs, I doubt 
not, have established a shrine to her, because she 
has made them mothers of Cupids and therefore 
blest in their children. The silver mirror, that 
gilded sandal, the golden brooches, all these objects 
have been hung there not without a purpose. They 
proclaim that they belong to Aphrodite, and her 
name is inscribed on them, and they are said to be 
gifts of the Xymphs. And the Cupids bring first- 
fruits of the apples, and gathering around they pray 
to her that their orchard may prosper. 


This is the army of Memnon ; their arms have 
been laid aside, and they are laying out the body of 
their chief for mourning ; he has been struck in the 
breast, I think, by the ashen spear. For when I 
find a broad plain and tents and an entrenched 
camp and a city fenced in with walls, I feel sure 
that these are Ethiopians and that this city is Troy 

^ i.e. by making a present of a hare they exercise a sort of 
constraint upon the beloved. 



he yie/jLVwv 6 r/)? 'HoO?. tovtov cK^iKoixevov 
305 K. cifivvaL rfj Tpoia KreiveL, (fiaaiv, 6 rod n7;Xe&)9 
/iieyav I'jKovra /cal ovSev av avrov fxeiw. (2) (jko- 
irei yap, 6ao<; /aev Kelrai Kara tt]<; yr}<;, 6ao<; 8e 
6 TMV /3oaTpv)(wv aaTa')(y<^, ov<^ ol/iai NetXw 
o €Tp€(f)€' KelXou yap AlyvimoL fiev e^ovat Ta9 
eK^oXd^;, AldioiTe<; he Ta<; 7rr)yd<;. opa to etSo?, 
CO? eppwraL Kal tmv 6(f)0a\/jLMv ciiroXwXoTCOv, 
opa TOP LOvXov &)? /caO^ rjXiKiav tw KrelvavTi. 
ovS' av fxeXava ^at?;? rov MepLvova' to yap 

10 ciKpciTw^i ev avTw fiiXav v7ro(f)aiP€i, tl dv6ov<;. 

(3) al he psTew poL haipove<i 'Ho)? eirl T(p 
iraihl irevOovaa KUTrjipi] nroiel tov ''WXlov Kal 
heiTai T?}? Nf/CTO? d(f)LKea6at irpo Kaipov Kal to 
(TTpaTOTTehov iiT Lay^elv , 'Iva eyyevr^Tai ol KXe^\rai 

15 TOV viov, Afo? TTOV TttVTa v€V(TavTO<;. Kal Ihov 
eKKeKXeTTTai Kal eaTLV eirl Teppbaai tt}? ypa(f)rj<;} 
iTov hrj ^ Kal KaTO. tl t% y^]^ ; Td<^o<^ ovha/xov 
^\epLvovo<^, 6 he ^lepLVcov ev AWLOTTia peTa/Se- 
l3Xr}Kco<; €L<; Xldov pieXava. Kal to a')(^fj/j.a KaOij- 

20 p,evov, TO he elSo? eKeivov,^ olpaiy Kal irpocr- 
/^dXXei T(p dydXpaTL ?; a/cri? tov 'HXlov. hoKel 
yap 6 ''HXto? oiovel irXrjKTpov KaTo, aTopa 

^ Ta.(f>os add. Brunn, Symh. 443 ; " his tomb is at the edge 
of the painting." 

^ TTov 57} Jacol)S : airovZi]. 
^ iK€Lvov Fairbanks : e/felfo. 

^ According to Pliny [N.H. 6. 182) Memnon was king of 
the Ethiopians in Africa (not of the Ethiopians in the Far 
East) at the time of tlie Trojan war. The western section of 
Thebes in Egypt was known as Memnoneia, and here on the 
left bank of the Nile still remain the two colossal seated figures 
of Memnon erected by Amenhotep III. They are made of a 



and that it is Memnon, the son of Eos, who is being- 
mourned. When he came to the defence of Troy, the 
son of Peleus, they say, slew him, mighty though he 
was and likely to be no whit inferior to his opponent. 
Notice to what huge length he lies on the ground, 
and how long is the crop of curls, which he grew, 
no doubt, that he might dedicate them to the 
Nile ; for while the mouth of the Nile belongs to 
Egypt, the sources of it belong to Ethiopia. See 
his form, how strong it is, even though the light has 
gone from his eyes ; see his downy beard, how it 
matches his age with that of his youthful slayer. 
You would not say that Memnon's skin is really 
black, for the pure black of it shows a trace of 

As for the deities in the sky, Eos mourning over 
her son causes the Sun to be downcast and begs 
Night to come prematurely and check the hostile 
army, tliat she may be able to steal away her 
son, no doubt with the consent of Zeus. And look I 
Memnon has been stolen away and is at the edge of 
the painting. Where is he ? In what part of the 
earth ? No tomb of Memnon is anywhere to be seen 
but in Ethiopia he himself has been transformed into 
a statue of black marble.^ The attitude is that of a 
seated person, but the figure is that of Memnon 
yonder, if I mistake not, and the ray of the sun falls 
on the statue. For the sun, striking the lips of 

conglomerate limestone and are 20 metres in height above 
the pedestal. The northern one of the two, which has been 
broken in several pieces and set up again, is the figure here 
referred to. The marvellous tone or "voice" presumably 
was produced (before the figure was broken) by the sudden 
expansion of the stone from heat, when the rays of the 
rising sun fell on it. 



i/iiTTLTTTCop T(p Ms/ivovi eKKokelaOaL (f)covy]v 
eKeWev Kal XaXovvrt aocpia/iari Trapa/uvOelcrOai 
25 Tr]V 'Hfiepav. 

v' AMTiVmNH 

(1) Ue^evovTL rrjv OdXaaaav tco YloaeihiovL 
€VT6Tvxv^^^ ol/J-ai Trap' 'O^i-jpcp, ore Kara rov<; 
A')(^aiov^ uTTo Ar/ojv areWerat, kol rj ddXaaaa 
yaXijvrjv dyei irapaTTeinrovaa avrov avroh 

30 iTTTTOi? Kal avTol^ Ki]Teai' Kcifcel^ yap i/celva 
eireTai Kal aaivei tov Yloaethodva w? evrav- 
6a. eKel fiev ovv i^Treipcoroov ol/iai rcov 'lttttcov 
alaOdvTj — ')(^aXK6iTohd^ re yap avTOv<; d^iol 
elvai Kal WKVirera^; Kal pbdariyL TrXfJTrea- 
306 K. uaL — ivravOa Se iTTTroKafiTroL to dp/xa, €(f)vSpoi 
Trt? OTrXa? Kal vevarLKol Kal yXauKol Kal vrj 
A /a oaa heX<^lve<^. KuKel [lev hva-x^epaivetv 6 
Yloaeihoiv eoiKe Kal vefieaav tw Atl kXlvovtl to 
5 EXXrjviKov Kal ^pa^evovTL avTOi<; diro tov 
')(eipovo<;, ivTavOa Be ^aiSpo<; ykypaiTTai Kal 
iXapov ^Xeirec Kal aeao^yjTaL fidXa ipcoTLKM^;. 
(2) A^vjj.d)vi] yap i) /^avaov Oa/j-i^ovaa iirl to 
TOV ^Ivdy^ov vEcop KCKpdTi^Ke tov Oeov Kal 

10 (TTeXXeTat Orjpevawv avTt]v ovirco ^vvLelaav, 
OTL epcLTai. TO yovv 7repL(j)o^ov t/}? K6pii<s 
KUi TO TTaXXeaOat, Kal rj KdXm<; i) ■^(pva)] 
Bia(f>evyovaa Ta^; ■)(€?pa<^ SrjXot ttjv Wfiv/jLcovyjv 
€K7r67rXT})(6aL Kal drropelv, tl /3ouXo/xei'o? 6 

15 Tiocrei^wv eKXetTrei rravavBl ti]v OdXaaaav, 

^ KOLKU Jacobs : Kal. 

BOOK I. 8 

Memnon as a plectrum strikes the lyre^ seems to 
summon a voice from them, and by this speech- 
producing artifice consoles the Goddess of the Day. 


Poseidon's journey over the sea I think you have 
come upon in Homer, when he sets forth from 
Aegae^ to join the Achaeans, and the sea is calm, 
escorting him with its sea-horses and its sea-monsters; 
for in Homer they follow Poseidon and fawn upon 
him as they do here in the painting. There, I 
imagine, your thought is of dry-land horses — for 
Homer 2 maintains that they are '^'bronze-hoofed," 
"swiftly flying," and "smitten by the lash" — but 
here it is hippocamps that draw the chariot, creatures 
with web-footed hoofs, good swimmers, blue- eyed, 
and, by Zeus, in all respects like dolphins. There 
in Homer ^ Poseidon seems to be angry, and vexed 
with Zeus for turning back the Greek forces and for 
directing the contest to their disadvantage ; while here 
he is painted as radiant, of joyous look, and deeply 
stirred by love. For the sight of Amymone, the 
daughter of Danaus,as she visits the waters of Inachus, 
has overmastered the god and he sets out to pursue 
the girl, who does not yet know that she is loved.* At 
any rate the fright of the maiden, her trembling, and 
the golden pitcher falling from her hands make it 
evident that Amymone is astounded and at a loss to 
know with what purpose Poseidon so precipitately 

^ //. LS. 27 ff. 2 II 13. 23 f. 

3 Cf. 11. 5. 37 and 15. 510. 

* The pursuit of Amj-nione by Poseidon was frequently 
depicted on vase paintings, cf. Overbeck, Kunstmithologie, 
Poseidon, p. 370 f. (Fig. 4). 



XevKiiv T€ VTTO (j>v<T€(t)<i ovaav ;\;/3L'cro? irepL- 
(rrlXlBei Kepaaa<^ t?]V auyr]p tm vhaji. inreK- 
arcofiev, o) irat, rfj vvfic^r)' Koi yap KVfxa ■i)hii 
KVpTovrai €9 TOP yd/jLOV, yXavKov en koi tov 
20 x^poirov Tpoirov, 7rop(f)vpovp Se avro 6 Yloaeihcop 

6' EAOS 

(l)"T7ro/jL^pO'^ fiev rj 7/}, cpepet Se KuXa/xov 
KOi (pXoiov, a 8r} dcrirapTa kcli dvrjpoTa hihwaiv 
T) Tcov eXcop 6V(f)VLa, Kol fivpiKT] yeypaTTTat kol 
25 Kuireipop' koX yap ravrd iart rodv eXcop. oprj 
Se oupapo/i7]Kr) 7r€pLl3e/3X7]TaL (pvaew^; ov fj,id<;' 
TCL fiep yap rrjP ttltvp 7Tape)(6/jL€Pa XeiTToyecop 
ridel, TCL he KVirapiTTM KouMPra rrj<^ dpycXcohov^ 

^ Cf. Od. 11. 24.3: TTopipvpfov 5' apa Ki-fia . . , KvpTudfv, 
- Thus enriching tlie marriage chamber, and concealing 

the pair. 

^ <hl. 9. 109 : ra y' aoira >Ta Kai ai^r}JOTa iravra (p 'lovrai, of the 

island of the C3'clopos. 


BOOK I. 9 

leaves the sea; and her natural pallor is illumined 
by the gold of the pitcher, as its brightness is re- 
flected in the water. Let us withdraw, my boy, and 

Fig. 4. — Poseidon pursuing Amymone. 

leave the maiden; for already a wave is arching ^ 
over for the nuptials, and, though the water is still 
bright and pellucid in appearance, Poseidon will 
presently paint it a purple hue.^ 


Tlie earth is wet and bears reeds and rushes, 
which the fertile marsh causes to grow " un- 
sown and untilled,"^ and tamarisk and sedge ^ are 
depicted ; for these are marsh-plants. The place 
is encompassed by mountains heaven high, not all of 
one type ; for some that are covered with pine trees 
suggest a light soil, others luxuriant with cypress 
trees proclaim that their soil is of clay, and yonder 

* Suggested by II. 21. 350 f. : jjivplKai . . . ■t]5e Kvireipov. 

D 2 



Xeyei, iXuTai Se eKelvat ri ciWo ye r) hvo-^ei- 

ZO /J-epov Koi Tpax^ to 6po<; ; ou yap dairdi^ovjai 
/36j\ov ovSe dyaTTCjai OakireaOaL' raurd tol kol 
diroLKOvcn t(ov ireSlcov o)? iv rot<{ opeat paov 
av^ofxevai ro) dvefiw} injyal Be diro^Xv^ovcn 
;}07 K. TO)v opcov, at S?) peovaat kutq) kol KOLvovfievai 
TO vSwp e\o9 l/tt' avTCov to TreSlov, ov fxrjv 
uTaKTov ye ovSe olov 7re(pvpOaL' SnjKTat, Se 
avTov TO vafia viro t>}9 ypa(f)r)<;, 0)9 av kol rj 
5 <^uo"£9 avTO Stijyayev 77 ao(f)}} ttuptcov, /JLatdvhpov<; 
Be 7ro\XoL'9 eXiTTet aeXlvov PpvovTa<^ dyaOov^ 
ravTiXXeaOai toU opviat toU vypol^;. (2) 6pa<i 
ydp TTOV Ta9 vi]TTa<;, co? ecpvBpoL BcoXiaOdvouaiv 
di'a(f)vacocTaL TLva<; olov avXov<; tov vBaTo<;. tl 

10 Br] TO Tcov ')(7jv(ov e6vo<i ; Kal ydp Brj KUKelvoi 
yeypd(paTaL KUTa Tr)v eavTMV (pvaiv enniT oXaLoi 
re Kal TrXcoTrjpe^;. tov<; Be iirl fxaKpolv toIv cTKeXolv, 
T0U9 TrepiTTov^ TO pd/jL(j)o<i ^€P0v<; olfiai alaOdvrj 
Kal dfipov<; dXXov dXXov TTTepov. Kal Ta 

15 a')(^r]/uiaTa Be avTcov TTOLKiXa' 6 fiev ydp eVt 
7reTyoa9 dvairavei too iroBe KaTa eva, 6 Be i/ru^et 
TO TTTepov, 6 Be eKKaOaipei, 6 Be f/pr]Ke tl e/c tov 
vBaT0<;, 6 Be el<; ttjp yrjv dirovevevKev eTTiaLTLcraa- 
6ai TL €Kel6ev. 

20 (3) 7-}VLO\ela6aL Be 701)9 kvkvov^ vtto tmv 
^KpcoTcov 6avfia ovBeV dyepw^oi ydp 01 deol 
Kal Beivol TraL^eLv €9 701)9 6pvi6a<;, o6ev fii]Be ttjv 
r)VL6')(r)(TLV dpya)<; 7rapeX6a)/iev fii]Be avTO to 

^ Jacolis : TOV &vji>. 

^ Cf. //. 11. 256: ave/uLjTpecpes fyx^s, "a wind-nurtured 


BOOK I. 9 

fir trees — what else do they mean than that the 
mountain is storm-swept and rugged ? For firs do 
not Hke rich soil nor do they care for warmth ; 
accordingly their place is at a distance from the 
plains, since they grow more readily in the moun- 
tains because of the wind.^ And springs are 
breaking forth from the mountain sides ; as they 
flow down and mingle their waters below, the plain 
becomes a marsh ; not, however, a disordered marsh 
or the kind that is befouled with mud; but the course 
of its waters is directed in the painting just as if 
nature, wise in all things, directed it, and the stream 
winds in many a tortuous meander, abounding in 
parsley and suited for the voyaging of the water- 
fowl. For you see the ducks, I am sure, how they 
glide along the water-course blowing jets of w^ater 
from their bills. ^ And what of the tribe of geese ? 
Indeed, they too are painted in accordance with their 
nature, as resting on tiie water and sailing on it. 
And those long-legged birds with huge beaks, you 
doubtless recognize as foreign, the birds delicately 
coloured each with different plumage. Their at- 
titudes also are various ; one stands on a rock 
resting first one foot and then the other, one dries 
its feathers, one preens them, another has snatched 
some prey from the w^ater, and yet another has bent 
its head to the land so as to feed on something 

No wonder that the swans are ridden by Cupids ; 
for these gods are mischievous and prone to sport 
with birds, so let us not pass by without noticing 
either their riding or the waters in which this 

^ For avXovs cf. Od. 22. 18 ; avhhs ava p'lvas iraxvs fiKdev 



vBcop, ev o) ravra. ro fiev yap Sr] vScop tovto 

25 KoXkiaTOv Tov €Xov<; TTTjyrj^; avro SLSova7]<; avro- 
OeVy avviararaL Se et? /coXv/jb/SijOpav TrayfcdXyjv. 
oia jieaov yap tov vBaro^i afxdpaina vevei rd 
fiev evdev, rd he eKeWev, rjhelf; daTd')(ye<^ Kal 
PdWovTE'^ dv6eL ro vBcop. irepl tovtov<; ijvlo- 

30 y^ovcTLv "Epwre? i€pov<; xal 'X^pvao^aXivov^ 6pvi<; 
6 fxev irdaav rjviav ivhihov<;, 6 Be dvaKoirrwv, 6 
Be eiriarpe^cov, 6 Be irepl ryp vvaaav iXavvcov — 
Kal TTapaKeXevofjievwv roi? kvkvol<^ d/coveiv BoKei 
Kal dTTeiXovvTcov dXXrjXoL<i Kal rccOa^ovrcov' 

35 ravra yap roU 7rpoao)7roi<; eTreartv — 6 ^e Kara- 
^dXXcL rov ireXa^;, 6 Be Kara^e^XrjKev, 6 Be 
308 K. rjydrrrjaev eKrreaelv rov 6pvi6o<;, &)? Xovaatro 
ev r(p iTTTToBpo/jLa). (4) kvkXw Be ral^ o'^Oat'; 
i(j)eardaiv ol fiovaiKwrepOL rcov kvkvwv eird- 
Bovre^ oljiai rov opOiov co? iTpo<^ rpoirov rol<; 
6 dfiiXXay/jiivotfi. arj/jLelov tt}? <^Brj<; 6pa<; rb Trrrjvbv 
fieipaKioV dve/jLO<; rovro Zecjyvpof; rrjv wBrjv rot? 
KVKVoi^ evBLBov<;, yeypairrai Be diraXov Kal 
XapUv €i? acvty/jLa rov 7rv€v/uLaro<;, Kal at 
7rrepvye<; ijirXcovrac rol<; kvkvol<^ 7rpo<; ro irXijr- 

10 reaOat viro rov dve/xov. 

(5) IBov Kal 7rora/jLo<; v-ne^ep)(^eraL rov eXov^ 
evpv<; Kal viroKV/xaLvayv, Bia^alvovai 8' avrov 
aliToXoL Kal vo/jieU eirl ^evyfiaro^. el Be rcov 
alyojv eiraLVOir}'; rov ^coypdcpov, on. avrd<; viro- 

15 aKiprdiaa^ Kal dyepco^ov^ yeypa(^ev, i) ro)V rrpo- 
jSdrcov, ore a)(^oXalov avrol^ ro (Sdhidfia Kal 


BOOK I. 9 

scene lies. Here indeed is the most beautiful 
water of the marshy issuing direct from a springs 
and it forms a swimming-pool of exceeding beauty. 
In the midst of the pool amaranth flowers are nod- 
ding this way and that, sweet clusters that pelt 
the water with their blossoms. It is among these 
clusters that Cupids are riding sacred birds with golden 
bridles^ one giving free rein, another drawing in, 
another turning, another driving around the goal- 
post. Just imagine that you hear them urging on 
their swans, and threatening and jeering at one 
another — for this is all to be seen in their faces. 
One is trying to give his neighbour a fall, another 
has done it, still another is glad enough to have 
fallen from his bird that he may take a bath in the 
race-course. On the banks round about stand the 
more musical swans, singing the orthian strain, ^ I 
think, as befits the contestants. The winged youth 
you see is an indication that a song is being sung, 
for he is the wind Zephyrus and he gives the swans 
the keynote of their song. He is painted as a tender 
and graceful boy in token of the nature of the south- 
west wind, and the wings of the swans are unfolded 
that the breezes may strike them. 

Behold, a river also issues from the marsh, a 
broad rippling stream, and goatherds and shepherds 
are crossing it on a bridge. If you were to praise 
the painter for his goats, because he has painted 
them skipping about and prone to mischief, or for 
his sheep because their gait is leisurely as if their 
fleeces were a burden,^ or if we were to dwell 

^ "Orthian strain," a familiar high-pitched melody. 
2 Cf. Hesiod, Op. 234, " Their woolly sheep are burdened 
with fleeces." 



olov a-^6o^ ol jxaWoi} rci^; re avpiy'ya<; el 
hie^ioLjJLev fj tou? ^yoco/xei'ou? aurat?, &>? virearaX- 
fxevM T(p arofiari avXovcn, afjbitcpov eiraweao- 

20 fxeOa rri<^ ypacpij^; kol oaov et? p,iixi]aLv 7]/<eL, 
<TO(j)Lav 5e ovK eTraiveaoiieOa ovhe Kacpov, a Brj 
Kpdriara Bok€L Tr]<; re')(vr]<;. (G) rt? ovv rj 
aocpla; ^euy/ia (poivLKcov iTTL/SiffXrjKe rw Trorafiw 
KOL pLuXa ijBvv eTT avTw Xoyov' €lBa}<; yap to 

25 Trepl tmv (^oivlkcov Xeyojievov, on avrayp 6 fiev 
dpayjv Tis, f) Be OifKeia, kol irepl rod ydfxov acpcov 
BiaK7]Koco<;, OTL dyovrat, Td<; Orfkeia^ Trept/SaXXov- 
T69 avTd<; TOL<; KXdBoL^ koI eiriTeivovre^ avrov^; eV 
auTa9, «^' eKarepov tov yevou<; eva Kara fiiav 

30 oxO^lv yeypacpev. elra 6 fiev epa Kal eTTLKXiverai 
Kal virepdXXeTai tov Trora/JLOV, Trj<; Be 6T]Xeia<^ en 
d(f)€aTd)aT]<; ovk e')(^cov eTrtXa/Seadat Kelrai kol 
BovXevet ^ev^a^ to vBcop, Kal ecTTi tol<; Bia/3al- 
vovaiv da(paXr]<; viro tt)? tov ^Xolov T/oa^u- 

35 t7]to<;. 

309 K. c AM<I>mN 

(1) TrJ? Xvpa<; to o-6(f)ia/xa Trpwro? 'Ep/jii]<; rryj- 
^aaOai XeyeTai KepdToiv Bvolv fcal ^vyov Kal 
')(eXvo<; Kal Bovvai fxeTa tov ' AttoXXw Kal ra? 
Moucra? 'A/i(jiLOVi tco ^ij^auo to Boipov, 6 Be 
5 OLKMV ra? 07;/3a? oviro) TeTei)(Laixeva^ d^rjKS 
Kaid Tcov XlOcov fieXif Kal aKovovTe'; ol XiOot 
avvOeovai' TavTa yap tcl ev tj} ypa(f)fj. 

^ ol jxaWoi Jacobs : ^ /uiaWoi'. 

BOOK I. 10 

on the pipes or on those who play them — the way 
they blow with puckered lips — we should praise an 
insignificant feature of the painting and one that has 
to do solely with imitation ; but we should not be 
praising its cleverness or the sense of fitness it 
shows, though these, 1 believe, are the most 
important elements of art. Wherein, then, lies its 
cleverness ? The painter has thrown a bridge of 
date palms across the river, and there is a very 
})retty reason for this ; for knowing that palms are 
said to be male and female, and having heard about 
their marriage, that the male trees take their brides 
by bending over toward the female trees and em- 
bracing them with their branches, he has painted a 
palm of one sex on one bank and one of the other 
sex on the other bank. Thereupon the male tree 
falls in love and bends over and stretches out over 
the river ; and since it is unable to reach the female 
tree, which is still at a distance, it lies prone and 
renders menial service by bridging the water, and it 
is a safe bridge for men to cross on because of the 
roughness of its bark. 


The clever device of the lyre, it is said, was 
invented by Hermes, who constructed it of two horns 
and a crossbar and a tortoise-shell ; and he presented 
it first to Apollo and the Muses, then to Amphion of 
Thebes.^ And Amphion, inasmuch as the Thebes of 
his day was not yet a walled city, has directed his 
music to the stones, and the stones run together when 
they hear him. This is the subject of the painting. 

1 Cf. Paus. 9. 5. 8. 



(2) 7rp(6Ti]v ovv SiaOeoj rijv Xvpav, el KaO' 
avT7]v yeypairrai. to fievyap Kepa<;^' alyos l^dXov^' 

10 7roLT)Tai (j)aai, ')(prjTaL he avrco o fiev ixovaiKO^ 6? 
TrjV Xvpav, 6 Se to^ottj^ e? ra oUeca. fxeXava 
Kol TTpiovcora 6pa<; ra Kepara kol Beiva ivapd^ai, 
^vXa Be, oaa Sel rf) Xvpa, irv^ov rrchra aTpv(f)vov 
Kal Xeiov top o^ov — eXe(pa<; ovSa/xov t)]<; Xvpa^, 

15 ovTTO) 01 dvO pwiTOi 6t8oTe9 ovTe avTo TO Orjpiov 
ovTe 6 Ti T0i9 Kepacnv avTOv ^pi]aovTai — Kal 77 
%eXu9 IxeXaiva fjuev, Bu]/cpL0(i)TaL Be Kara ttjv 
cf)vcnv Kal Xayapov<; Trepi^e/SXrjTat kvkXov<; dXXov 
^vvdirTOVTa<^ akXw ^av9ol<i rot? 6cf)daXfjL0i<;, 

20 vevpal he tcl fiev viro tt] fiaydBt, TrpoaKecvTat Kal 
TOt? 6ijL(f)aXol<; aTravTOjat, Ta he vrro tco ^vyw 
KolXat ^ SoKovar ayn)iid irov tovto avTCov 
dvaXoyd)TaTOP dvaKeKXiaOac a(pd<; opOw^ ^ ev Trj 

25 (3) 6 Be 'AiJL(f)io)V Tt cf)7]aL ; tl dXXo ye rj^ 
Telvei Tov vovv e? t^^jv TryjKTiBa Kal TTapacpaivec 
T(oi> oBovTwv oaov drro^pri tw liBovTi ; aBei Be 
ol/jLai T7]P yrjv, oTLirdvTcov yevereipa Kal fnjTtjp ovcra 
Kal avTo/JLUTa ijBi] rd Tei^n BiBwcnv. rj ko/xt] Be 

30 rjBela fxev Kal KaO^ eavTrjv evaXvovaa jiev tm 
/leTcoTTO), (TvyKaTLOvaa Be tm lovXo) irapd to ov<; 
Kal ')(^pvaov TL em^aivovaay tjBlwp Be fieTa t7]<; 
/xtT/3a9, 'y]P (paaip 01 tcov dirodeToyv TrocrjTal 

^ koFAoi Jacobs : Ko7\a. 

2 opOws Benndorf : opdohs or opOds. 

^ After 17 tlie M8S. give \pd\\(i Koi ti krepa x^^p ', Jacobs 
deletes r] ereoa x^^p 5 Benndorf deletes the whole phrase, 
comparing 310 K 7. 

^ Cf. //. 4. 105: Td^ov . . . f^dhou aly6s. 

BOOK I. lo 

Look carefully at the lyre first, to see if it is 
painted faithfully. The horn is the horn "of a 
leaping goat/' ^ as the poets say, and it is used by 
the musician for his lyre and by the bowman for his 
bow. The horns, you observe, are black and jagged 
and formidable for attack ^ All the wood required 
for the lyre is of boxwood, firm and free from knots — 
there is no ivory anywhere about the lyre, for men did 
not yet know either the elephant or the use they were 
to make of its tusks. The tortoise-shell is black, but its 
portrayal is accurate and true to nature in that the 
surface is covered with irregular circles which touch 
each other and have yellow eves ; and the lower 
ends of the strings below the bridge lie close to the 
shell and are attached to knobs, Avhile between the 
bridge and the crossbar the strings seem to be with- 
out support, this arrangement of the strings being 
apparently best adapted for keeping them stretched 
taut on the lyre. 

And what is Amphion saying ? ^ Certainly he 
keeps his mind intent on the harp, and shows his 
teeth a little, just enough for a singer. No doubt 
he is singing a hymn to Earth because she, creator 
and mother of all things, is giving him his walls, 
which already are rising of their own accord. His 
hair is lovely and truthfully depicted, falling as it 
does in disorder on his forehead and mingling with 
the doAvny beard beside the ear, and showing a glint 
of gold ; but it is lovelier still where it is held by the 
headband — the headband '' wrought by the Graces, a 

^ Cf. the frontispiece for a reconstruction of this lyre. 

2 The text is faulty. Probably the sense is "What do 
you say Amphion is doing? What else than keeping his 
mind intent . . ,'J " 



\dpiTa<^ KafJLUV, ayaX/ia r^hiarov Kal irpoa- 
310 K. e-)(^eaTaTOv rfj Xvpa. Bokm /jloi tov 'Ep/jLt']v epwn 
KaT€i\y/jL/ii€vov Sovvai tm AficpLovt a/jL(f)a) ra 
8ct)pa. Kal Tj ')(\a/jiv<;, 7)v ^opel, KaKeivfj irapa 
TOV 'Ep/jiov Ta%a* ov yap icj)' €v6<; fievet XP^~ 

5 fxaTo<;, dWa Tpeirerai Kal Kara rijv 'Ipiv /xerav- 
del. (4) KaOijrat 8e eirl koKwvov rep fxev irohl 
Kpovcov avpLiJ.e\e<s, rfj he^ia Se irapa'irXi'jTTwv rdf; 
v€vpd<;' yjrdWei Kal rj erepa %et/? opdaU Tai<; 
t6)v haKTvXwv 7rpo^o\at<;, oirep (p/irjv irXaa- 

10 TLKTjv aTravOaSieiadaL fiov^jv. elev. (5) rd Se 
TOiv \id(Dv TTw? e')(^ei ; irdvre^; eirl rrjv (pSrjv 
avvOeovai Kal aKouovac Kal yiverai relxo'i. Kal 
TO pev i^(pKoh6p,r)Tai, to Be dva^aivei, to he 
dpTL KaTe/3d\ovTo} (piXoTip-oi Kal T^^et? ol \i6oi 

Xo'Kal Oi-jTevovre^^ p,ouaiKf}, to Be Tel)(o<; eirTdiTvXov, 
oaoL tt}? \vpa<; ol tovol. 

La cI)AE©nN 

(1) Xpvcrd TU)v 'HXidScov to, hdKpva. ^aiOovTi 

X6yo<s avTCL pelv tovtov yap iralSa HXl'ov yevo- 

pi€vov €7TiTo\p,r]aaL T(p irarpcpw hi^pw Kara 

20 epcoTa rjVioxf')creco<; Kal /xr; KaTaa-^ovra ttjv i]viav 

a<^aXrjvaL Kal ev tw ^Wpihavw ireaelv — Tavra 

^ KaT(fid\ovTo Schenkl ct al. : KanXi^ovro or /fortAaSej/. 

^ Plato, PhaedriLS 252a quotes a passage on Love from 
the Secret Verses (Jowett, "apocryphal writings") of 
Homer. The subject is discussed by Lobeck, Aglaophamusy 
861 f. 



most lovely ornament/' as the poets of the Secret 
Verses^ say — and quite in keeping with the lyre. 
My own opinion is that Hermes gave Amphion 
both these gifts, both the lyre and headband, because 
he was overcome by love for him. And the 
chlamys he wears, perhaps that also came from 
Hermes ; for its colour does not remain the same 
but changes and takes on all the hues of the rain- 
bow.2 Amphion is seated on a low mound, beating 
time with his foot and smiting the strings with his 
right hand. His left hand is playing, too, with 
fingers extended straight,^ a conception which I 
should have thought only plastic art would venture. 
Well, how about the stones ? They all run to- 
gether toward the singing, they listen, and they 
become a wall. At one point the wall is finished, at 
another it is rising, at still another the foundation is 
just laid. The stones are eager in rivalry, and happy, 
and devoted slaves of music ; and the wall has seven 
gates, as the strings of the lyre are seven. 


Golden are the tears of the daughters of Helius. 
The story is that they are shed for Phaethon; 
for in his passion for driving this son of Helius 
ventured to mount his father's chariot, but because 
he did not keep a firm rein he came to grief and fell 
into the Eridanus — wise men interpret the story as 

2 Does this mean that Hermes descends by the rainbow ? 
Certainly the rainbow {i.e., Iris) is like Hermes, a messenger 
from the gods to men, 

^ i.e. the left hand is raised, after the stroke, and the 
fingers, pointing toward the spectators, are foreshortened. 



TOt? fiev ao(f)ot<i irXeove^ia Tt? elfac Sokcl tov 
TTf/JcoSof?, 7roLt]Tat<; Be Kal ^(oypd(f)ot(; Xttttol koI 
cipfia — Kal avyy^elrai ra ovpdvia. (2) aKoiret 

25 yap' vv^ fi€i> €k /i€a7]fi^pia^ eXavvei ti]v yp^epav, 
6 Be 7]\iov kvk\o<^ et? yrjv pewv e\K€L tov<^ dare- 
pa<^. at Be "^flpai rd^; irvXa^ eKXiirovaat (pevyov- 
aiv eU Ti]v diravTcoaav avral^; d')(\vv, Kal ol 
'lttttol tT;? ^evy\r)<; eKireaovre^ otarpw (pepovrac. 

30 dirayopevei Be t) Tf] Kal rd<; ')(^elpa^ alpeu dvco 
payBaiov tov 7rvpb<; 69 avTr]v 16vto<;. eKiriirTeL 
Be TO fieipdKLov Kal KUTacpepeTaL — Tijv tc yap 
311 K. KOfirjv €/jL7re7rpi]aTaL Kal ra CFTepva v7roTV(peTaL 
— TTOTa/iu) Te ^HpiBavd) epbireaelTat Kal Trape^et 
fivOov TLva Tw vBaTL. (3) KVKVoi yap Br} dva- 
(pvao)VT€<; r)Bv tl evOev Kal evOev^ Kal irou]- 
5 aovTai wBtjv to fxeipdKtov, dyeXac Te avTcov 
dpOelaai KavaTpco TavTa Kal "iaTpcp aaovTai, 
Kal ovBev dv7]Koov eaTai tov tolovtov \6yov, 
Zecpvpo) t€ 'Xp^o'OVTai 7rpo<; ttjv wBtjv eXacppw 
Kal evoBiw' XeyeTat yap avvavXiav tov 6pi}vov 

10 TOi? KVKVOI'^ 6p,o\oyr}aai. raOra tol Kal Trdp- 
eaTL Toh opviaiv, ware opa - Kal yfrdWeiv 
avTov<i olov opyava. 

(4) TO, Be eirl tt} o^drj yvvaia, at ovttco BevBpa, 
(paal Ta9 'llXidBa<; errl tw dBeX^w /jLeTa(f)VPai 

^ TL ivOev Kol ivQiv Jacobs : r)) (uQ^v or rh iunvQiv. 
^ opa Welcker: wpa. 

1 Cf. Lucretius 5. 392 ff. 

^ Cf. //. 8. 485 f. : iv 5' eTrea' ' CiK^avw Kap-irphv (pdos rjeXloio, 
(\KOVTa vvKTa /nfKaivav ^irl ^eidwpov &poupav. 
3 Cf. mfra Phil. II, 34. 


[ To face p. 47. 


indicating a superabundance of the fiery element in 
nature,^ but for poets and painters it is simply a 
chariot and horses — and at his fall the heavens are 
confounded. Look ! Night is driving Day from 
the noonday sky^ and the sun's orb as it plunges 
toward the earth draws in its train the stars. ^ The 
Horae^ abandon their posts at the gates and flee 
toward the gloom that rises to meet them, while the 
horses have thrown off their yoke and rush madly on. 
Despairing, the Earth raises her hands in supplication, 
as the furious fire draws near her. Now the youth 
is thrown from the chariot and is falling headlong ^ — 
for his hair is on fire and his breast smouldering with 
the heat ; his fall will end in the river Eridanus 
and will furnish this stream with a mythical tale. 
For swans scattered about, breathing sweet notes, 
will hymn the youth ; and flocks of swans rising aloft 
will sing the story to Cayster and Ister ; ^ nor will any 
place fail to hear the strange story. And they will 
have Zephyrus, nimble god of wayside shrines, to 
accompany their song, for it is said that Zephyrus 
has made a compact with the swans to join them in 
the music of the dirge. This agreement is even 
now being carried out, for look I the wind is playing 
on the swans as on musical instruments. 

As for the women on the bank, not yet com- 
])letely transformed into trees, men say that the 
daughters of Helius on account of their brother's 

* The fall of Phaethon is depicted, e.g. on an Arretine 
bowl (Fig. 5) and a Roman sarcophagus, both figured in 
Roscher, Lexikon d. griech. u. ram. Myth. III. 2, p. 2195 f. 

^ The swans were said to spend the summer on the Cayster 
river in Lydia and the winter on the Danube (Ister) among 
the Hyperboreans. Cf. Himerius 79, \ld. 



15 Ka\ 6t9 SevBpa Xij^ai SciKpvd re cK^iivai. /cal ?; 
ypacf)r) ravra olSe' pi^a<; yap ^aWo/nevr) Tal<; 
Kopv(j)aL<; ra fxev et9 o/KpaXov SevSpa avrat, ra? 
8e %6t/3a9 o^oL (pddvovat. cf)€v r;)? KOfjLy]^;, &>? 
alyeipov irdvra. (fiev rcjv Sa/cpvcov, 009 xpvad. 

20 Kal TO fiev TrXrj/i/jLvpov iv rfj rcov ocpOaX/jicov 
ehpa "^^apOTralfi eTravyd^et rah KopaL^; Kal olov 
uKTlva €\k€L, to Be Tai9 irapeial^ evTvyyavov 
IxapfxaipeL irepl to eKeivt] €pev6o<;, tcl he aTd^ovTa 
KUTCL Tov (jTepvov '^pvao<; 7;8>/. (5) dprfvel Kal 

25 6 TTOTa/jLO'; dveywv t^9 3tV?;9 Kal tw fxev ^aeOovTi 
KoXrrov VTre^ei — to yap (T)(^P]fia Be^o/Jbevov — Ta9 
Be 'HXcdBa^i yewpyrjaei avTiKa' aupai^ yap Kal 
Kpv/JL0L<;, 01)9 dvaBlBcoaL, XiOovpyijaei Kal ire- 
aovTa vTToBe^eTai Kal Bid ^aiBpov tov vBaTOf; 

30 dird^ei tol<; iv TlKeavu) ^apfidpoi<; Ta tcov 
alyeipwv '^r)yfiaTa. 

(1 ) — Ta Be eirl ttj o-^Oy yvvaia^ irapafiocoai, 
TvapaKaXelv Be Kal 701)9 'iTrTrov^; eoLKacTL fir] 
plyp-ai Ta iraiBia fii]Be aTroirTvaai, tov )(aXiv6v, 
312 K. eXelv Be Kal avfiiraTijcraL Ta Orjpia, ol Be aKOvov- 
aiv ol/xai Kal ttoiovcjl TavTa. 6ripd(javTa<^ Be 
avT0v<i Kal BacTa yprjKOTa^i BiairopO/jLevei vav^ 

^ TO . . . yuvaia deleted by Kaj'ser, as repeated from 
311.10 K. The beginning of this sketch is lost. 

^ Amber was explained l)}- the ancients as the "tears of 
the daughters of Helius." The river Eridanus is a mythical 


BOOK I. 12 

mishap changed their nature and became trees^ and 
that they shed tears. The painting recognizes the 
story, for it puts roots at the extremities of their 
toes, while some, over here, are trees to the waist, and 
branches have supplanted the arms of others. Behold 
the hair, it is nothing but poplar leaves ! Behold 
the tears, they are golden ! While the welling tide 
of tears in their eyes gleams in the bright pupils 
and seems to attract rays of light, and the tears on 
the cheeks glisten amid the cheek's ruddy glow, 
yet the drops trickling down their breasts have 
already turned into gold. The river also laments, 
emerging from its eddying stream, and offers its 
bosom to receive Phaethon — for the attitude is of 
one ready to receive — and soon it will harvest the 
tears of the daughters of Helius;^ for the breezes 
and the chills which it exhales will turn into stone 
the droppings of the poplar trees, and it will catch 
them as they fall and conduct them through its 
bright waters to the barbarians by Ocean us. 


[The w^omen on the bank] are shouting, and 
they seem to urge the horses not to throw their 
young riders nor yet to spurn the bit, but to catch 
the game and trample it underfoot ; and these, I 
think, hear and do as they are bidden. And when 
the youths have finished the hunt and have eaten 

stream in the far west near the end of the world, where 
lived the daughters of Helius. Geographers later connected 
it with the Po or the Rhone, which \a.\ on the routes by 
which amber came to the Greeks from the North Sea and the 
Baltic, where lived " the barbarians b}' Oceanus.'' 



air 6 T?}? ^vpa)7ry]<; e? TrjP 'Aalav crTaSiof? 
6 /jLaXiard ttov Terra/ja? — tovtI yap to iv fieaw 
TOLV eOvolv — Kal avreperai irXeovaiv. 

(2) Ihov Kol irelajxa ^dWovTai, Bex^rat Be 
avTov<i OLKta fxaXa rjSela Oa\d/jLOv<; viroc^aivovaa 
Kol dvSp(i)va<; Kal OvpuScov tX^V* ^^'' Telxo^ Be 

10 Trepi^e/SXrjrac Kal iirdX^ei^ ^X^f. to Be koK- 
Xiarov avTf]<;, i^jilkvkXo'^ TrepLearrjKe ajod rfj 
OaXdaar) Kippo€tBr]<; viro rod iv avrfj XlOov, 
yeveai^ €k Tnjycov rw XiOw' Oepfiov yap vd/xa 
vireKpeov rd t^}? Karco ^pvy[a<^ opi] Kal to pevfxa 

15 eU Ta? Xidoro/xLa<; eadyov V7r6/jLl3pov<; ipyd^erai. 
rwv irerpcov evia^ Kal vBarcoBrj iroLel rijv eKcpvaiv 
rcov Xl6o)V, o6ev avrcov Kal vroXXd rd ;^/3&)yLtaTa. 
OoXepov fxev yap ev6a Xifivd^ec Kippo€iBe<; BlBcoai, 
KaOapov Be oirov KpvaraXXoeiBe^ eKeWev, Kal 

20 TToiKiXXei Ta? TreV/Qa? ev TroWaZ? BtaiTLvoiievov 
raU Tpo7ra2<;. 

(3) Tj aKTT] Be vyj/rjXr) Kal roLovBe ixvOov c^epei 
avfi/SoXa. Kopij Kal iraU d/jL(p(o KaXd> Kal 
(jiOLTMVTe ravrtp BiBaaKdXw TTpoo-eKavOrjaav dX- 

25 X7]XoL<; Kal Trepi^dXXetv ovk ova7]<; dBeca*; 
ojp/JLTjaav diTodavelv diro ravr^ial tt)? 7reTpa<; 
Kavrevdev rjpOrjaav et? tt^v OdXaaaav ev vard- 
rai'; Kal irpoDrat^i irepi/SoXaU. Kal 6 "Rpco<; eVt 
rf) irerpa reivei rrjv %e?y9a e<; rrjv OdXarrav, 

30 u7roai]/jLaLvcov rov fxvOov 6 fwy/oa^o?. 

(4) r) Be e(pe^P]<i olKia, XVP^^^^ '^^ yvvaiov 

^ The marble of Hierapolis is liere described ; cf. Strabo, 
p. 629, Vitruvius 8. 3. 10. 

" Cf. Xenophon, Coiiviv. 4. 23 avfKponwv els ravTo. hiSaaKa- 


BOOK I. 12 

their meal^ a boat carries them across from Europe 
to Asia, about four stades — for this space intervenes 
between the countries — and they row themselves 

See, they throw out a rope, and a house is receiving 
them, a charming house just showing chambers 
and halls for men and indications of windows, and it 
is surrounded by a wall with parapets for defence. 
The most beautiful feature of it is a semi-circular 
stoa following the curve of the sea, of yellowish 
colour by reason of the stone of which it is built. 
The stone is formed in springs ; for a warm 
stream flowing out below the mountains of Lower 
Phrygia and entering the quarries submerges some 
of the rocks and makes the outcroppings of the stone 
full of water so that it assumes various colours.^ 
For the stream is foul where it is sluggish and 
produces a yellowish colour ; but where the water 
is pure a stone of crystal clearness is formed, and it 
gives to the rock various colours as it is absorbed in 
the many seams. 

The lofty promontory gives a suggestion of the 
following tale : A boy and girl, both beautiful 
and under the tutelage of the same teacher, burned 
with love ^ for each other ; and since they were not 
free to embrace each other, they determined to die 
at this very rock, and leaped from it into the sea in 
their first and last embrace. Eros on the rock 
stretches out his hand toward the sea, the painter's 
symbolic suggestion of the tale. 

In the house close by a woman lives alone ; 

Aelo eVeiVqi) . . . irpoaeKavdr). "This hot flame of his was 
kindled when they used to go to Gchool together." Trans. 
Todd, L.C.L. 



€^€\7]\v06^ Tov daT€o<; 8t' 6-)(Xov vecdv apird- 
aeaOai 'yap avro €(f)aaav Kal d^ezSco? eKco/xa^ov 
fcal S(t)poi<; irreipcov. i) 8' oljjiai KOfiyfrov n e? 

35 auTOu? e^ovaa Kvi^et ra /ji€tpd/cia Kal Bevpo 
vTT6^e\6ovaa ol/cet t7]v i^vpdv ravrrjv ol/ciav. 
:il3 K. GKey\raL 'yap 6l>^ oyy^vpwrar Kpi]/jLi>o<; rfj OaXdrrj] 
€(f>6aT^]Ke rd fiev Kkvl^ofieva virooXLaOiiKoo^, ra Be 
dv(o v7r€pK6L/i6vo<^ ecf)a\6v riva ravryp dvk\wv 
oiKiav, v(f)^ ?/? Kal 7] ddXarra Kvavcoripa (palve- 
5 rai Ka6i€/Jiev(ov e? avrrjv twv 6(f)6a\/jicop, Kal rj 
7?) TTapex^raL rd i^eox? Trdvra irXrjv rod KivelaOai. 
€9 Tovro i]KOvaav to (ppovpiov ovSe 009 aTroXeXoi- 
TTaaiv auT7]v ol ipMvre^i, dXX 6 fiev kv avoir pwpov, 
6 he j^pvaoiTpwpov, 6 he dXXo<; d\Xo tl rcov 

10 ttoiklXcov aKaTLcov e/A/3e/3?7/ca)9 TrXet, kco/jLO<; avrr}, 
KaXoi T6 Kal iaTecpavco/xevoi. Kal 6 jiev avXel, 
6 Se KpoTelv ^ cf)7jaLv, 6 8e aSeu ot/jLac, (7Te(l)dvov<; 
8e dvappLTTTOvai Kal cf)LX7]/iaTa. Kal ovSe iper- 
rovaiv, dXX' iirexovat rrjv elpeaiav Kal icjiop/jil- 

15 t^ovjai Tw Kpy]/ii>a). to Se <yvvaLOV diro rrj^; 

olKia^ olov €K irepLcoTTi]'; opa ravra Kal yeXa 

Kara rod kco/jlou, ^(XiSoyaa eh tou? epowra^ co? 

ov irXelv ijlovov, dXXd Kal velv dvayKat^ovaa. 

(5) Kal 7roi/jLvaL<; ivrev^r) irpox^P^v Kal 

20 /jLvk(d/jL€V(ov aKovcrrj /3oo)V Kal avplyyayv /So/) 
TTepLrj-^^i^aeL ere kol KVV7jyeTaL<; evrev^rj Kal 
yecop'yoU Kal TTOTa/jLoU Kal XL/ivai<; Kal injyaU 
—eK/JLe/JLaKTac 'ydp rj 'ypacfyrj Kal rd ovra Kal rd 
yivofxeva Kal (jo<^ dv yevoiTO evia, ov hid 7tX)]6o<; 

^ KpoTflv Olearius : Kponl. 

BOOK I. 12 

she has been driven out of the city by tlie im- 
portunity of her suitors ; for they meant to carry lier 
off, and pursued her unsparingly with their attentions 
and tempted her with gifts. But she, I think, by 
her haughty bearing spurred them on, and coming 
hither in secret she inhabits this secure house. For 
see how secure it is : a cliff juts out into the sea, its 
base bathed by the waves, and, projecting overhead, 
it bears this house out in the sea, a house beneath 
which the sea seems darker blue as the eyes are 
turned down toward it, and the land has all the 
characteristics of a ship except that it is motionless. 
Even though she has reached this fortified spot her 
lovers do not give her up, but they come sailing, one 
in a dark-prowed boat, one in a golden-prowed, 
others in all sorts of variegated craft, a revel band 
pursuing her, all beautiful and crowned with gar- 
lands. And one plays the flute, another evidently 
applauds, another seems to be singing ; and they 
throw her crowns and kisses. And they are not 
rowing any longer, but they check their motion and 
come to rest at the promontory. The woman gazes 
at the scene from her house as from a look-out 
tower and laughs down at the revelling crowd, 
vaunting herself that she is compelling her lovers 
not merely to sail but also to swim to her. 

As you go on to other parts of the painting, 
you will meet with flocks, and hear herds of cattle 
lowing, and the music of the shepherds' pipes will 
echo in your ears ; and you will meet with hunters 
and farmers and rivers and pools and springs — for 
the painting gives the very image of things that 
are, of things that are taking place, and in some cases 
of the manner of their taking place, not slighting 



25 avTcov paSiovpyovaa t7]v dXtjOeiav, aXX' eVt- 
reXovaa to e/cdarov olfcelov, o)? kuv el ^ ev 
TL €'ypa(f)€P — ear^ dv icp' lepov cKpiKco/jieda. Koi 
TOP €K€L veoov olfiaL 6pa<; kol ar^Xa^;, at Trept- 
iBpuvrac avTcpj Kal top iirl tw arofxaTi irvpaov, 

30 0? 7]pT7]Tai e? (ppvKTcoplav TOdv vewv, at irXeovaiv 
Ik tov TiovTov. 

I7 ^ (G) " TL ovv ovK eir dXXo dyei^; ; iKavco<; 

yap fjLoi rd tov BoaTropov Siavev6r]TaL.^' tl 

^^a6L<; ; XeXoLTre fie to tcov dXtewv, o KaT dp-)(a<^ 

35 €.Tn]yyeCXdpui-]v . IV ovv fxi-j irepl afiiKpcov Bie^ioi- 

314 K. fjL€v, dXXd irepl wv Xeyeuv d^tov, tou? /lep /ca- 

Xdfio) OrjpodPTa^ 7; tcvpTW Tey^pdl^ovTa^ rj 6t r/? 

dvLfxa hiKTVOv rj epapdTTei Tpiaipap, d(f)iX(i)/xep 

TOV Xoyov — afXLKpop yap dKOvaei irepl avTCJp 

5 Kal cf)aP6LTai aoL fiaXXop t)Si)afiaTa t?}? ypa(^i)<; 

— Tou? 8e e7Ti')(^eipovpTa^ toU 6vvpol<^ iScofiev 

d^LOi yap ovToi Xoyov Sid fxeyeOo^ t?)? Oqpa'^. 

(7) (^oiTwaip ol Ovvvoi Tjj e^o) OaXaTTrj irapd 

TOV YloPTOV yepeaiv ip avTw a)(^6pTe<i Kal pojjid^^ 

10 Td<i fiep l')(6vo3P, Td<^ he IXvcop Kal ^(vfMMP eTepoyp, 

ov<; "laTpo<; e? avTOP cj^epec Kal Matcort?, vcf)' oov 

yXvKVT€po<; Kal 7roTi/ji(OTepo<i dXX7]<; $aXdTT7]<; 

6 IIoz^TO?. veovai he olop aTpaTicoTcop (pdXay^ 

eTTi OKTW Kal e(^' eKKaiheKa Kal SU togol Kal 

15 vTroKV/jiaTi^ovaip dXXyXoi<i, dXXo<; dXXw eirt- 

peopTe^, ToaovTOP ^d6o<; oaov avTcop to evpo'^. 

^ ws Kh.u el Jacobs : ojcrave] /c&j/ et. 

- In the earl}' editions the following part of tlie Twelftli 
Picture was treated as an independent sketch, numbered 13, 
and entitled 'AAjeTr, "Fishermen." 


BOOK 1. 13 

the truth by reason of the number of objects shown, 
but defining the real nature of each thing just as if 
the painter were representing some one thing alone 
— till we come to a shrine. You see the temple 
yonder, I am sure, the columns that surround it, and 
the beacon light at the entrance which is hung up 
to warn from danger the ships that sail out from the 
Euxine Sea. 


'^ Why do you not go on to another painting ? 
This one of the Bosphorus has been studied enough 
for me." What do you mean? I have yet to speak 
of the fishermen, as 1 promised when I began. Not 
to dilate on small matters, but only on points worth 
discussing, let us omit any account of those who fish 
with a rod or use a basket cunningly or perchance 
draw up a net or thrust a trident — for you will 
hear little about such^ and they will seem to you 
mere embellishments of the painting — but let us 
look at the men who are trying to capture tunn}^- 
fish, for these are worth discussing because the hunt 
is on so large a scale. For tunny-fish come to the 
outer seal from the Euxine, where they are born 
and where they feed on fish and sediment and 
vegetable matter which the Ister and Maeotis bring 
to it, rivers which make the water of the Euxine 
sweeter and more drinkable than that of any other 
sea. And they swim like a phalanx of soldiers, 
eight rows deep and sixteen and twice sixteen, and 
they drop down in the water, one swimming over 
another so that the depth of the school equals 

1 i.e. the Mediterranean. 



(<S) ISeaL fxev ovv, KaO' ti? aXiaKOVTai, /xvpi'ai' 
Koi 'yap aihiipov eariv eV avTOv<; 0)]^aaOai kul 
(^dpidaKa eTTiirdaaL koI /iiKpov rjpKeae Slktvov, 

20 oTcp dirox^pt^ Koi cr/jLLKpov n rr}? dy€\7]<;. 
dpiari] Be ySe y) dtjpa' aKOTricopetTat yap rt? ac/)' 
vyjnjXov ^v\ov ra^v<s /aev dpLdfirjaat, rrjv Be 
oyjfiv LKavo^i. Bel yap avrw ireirrjyevai fxev tov<; 
6(f)6a\p,ov<^ e? T7]v OdXarrav e^LKvelaOai re 

25 TroppcoTaTd), Kav i/uL^dWovra^; tov<^ ^'X^i^? '^Brj, 
^or]<; T€ o)? fxeyiCTTT]^ Bel avro) Trpo? tov<; iv rot? 
dKartoi^;, kol tov dpiOfiov \eyei, kol ra? /iivpidBa<; 
avTMV, 01 Be d7ro(ppd^avT€<; avrov'^ /SaOet Kal 
KXeiaTw BiKTvo) Be)(^ovTaL Xajjurpdv aypav, vcf)' 

30 7^9 Kal TrXovrelv eroL/mov rep tt}? 0)]pa<; i)yep,6vL. 

(9) ^Xeire Trpo? T7]P yp(i(l)r)v rjBrj' /caroyfret 
yap avra Kal Bpoifxeva. 6 fiev aK07ncopo<; e? 
Tr)v OdXarrav /SXeirei BiaTre/jiTrwv rov<; 6(j)6aX/jLOV(; 
e? rrjv rod dpi6/jLov avXXyjyp-iv, ev yXavKW Be 

35 ro) rPfs OaXdrrrj^i civOec rd rcov l')(0v(ov ')(p(t) jxar a' 
/jLeXav€<; fxev oi dvco BoKOvatv, rjrrov B' ol e<^efr}9, 
315 K. ol Be puer eKelvov^ yBi] TrapayjrevBoprai rr]v oyjriv, 
elra aKLa>BeL<;, elra vBapol v7rovoi]aar Kara- 
/Saivovcra yap 69 to vBwp ?; o\^f9 djjb^Xvvejai 
BiaKpilBovv rd ev avrw. (10) o Be rcov dXtecov 
5 Bf]p.o<; 'ijBeU Kal ^avOol rrjv XP^^^ ^'^^ '^^^ 
SepeaOai. Kal 6 pev rrjV kcott^jv ^evyvvaiv, 6 Be 
eperret p.dXa Bie^qyByjKon rCo /Spax^'OVL, 6 Be 
eiTiKeXeverat ray 7reXa<;, 6 Be iraiei rov fu] 
eperrovra. jBor] Be rjprau rcov dXiecov efXTreirra)- 

10 Korcov 7]B7] rwv IxOvcjv 6t9 TO BiKrvov. Kal rov<i 
/lev ypi'^Kaai, rov<; Be aipovaiv. dpLi-jxavovvre'^ 
Be ri ;^/3?J(J0i^Tat rw irXyjOei Kal rrapavoiyovaL 


BOOK I. 13 

the width. Now the ways of catching them are 
countless ; sharp iron spears may be used on them 
or drugs may be sprinkled over them, or a small net 
is enough for a fisherman who is satisfied with some 
small portion of the school. But the best means of 
taking them is this : a look-out is stationed on a 
high tree, a man quick at counting and keen of 
vision. For it is his task to fix his eyes on the sea 
and to look as far as he can ; and if perchance he 
sees the fish approaching, then he must shout as loud 
as he can to those in the boats and must tell the 
number of the fish, how many thousands there are ; 
and the boatmen compassing them about with a 
deep-laid net that can be drawn together make a 
splendid catch, enough to enrich the captain of the 

Now look at tlie painting and you will see just 
this going on. The look-out gazes at the sea and 
turns his eyes in one direction and another to get 
the number ; and in the bright gleam of the sea the 
colours of the fish vary, those near the surface seem 
to be black, those just below are not so black, those 
lower still begin to elude the sense of sight, then 
they seem shadowy, and finally they look just like the 
water ; for as the vision penetrates deeper and deeper 
its power of discerning objects in the water is 
blunted. The group of fishermen is charming, and 
they are brown of complexion from exposure to 
the sun. One binds his oar in its place, another 
rows with swelling muscle, another cheers his neigh- 
bour on, another strikes a man who is not rowing. 
A shout rises from the fishermen now that the fish 
are already in the net. Some they have caught, 
some they are catching. And at a loss what to do 



Tou SiKTvov KOI avyx^povcTiv iviov<i Siacpvyecv 
Kol BccKTreaelv' roaovrov e? t?;i> d/jpav rpv- 
15 ^(bcriv. 


(1) BpovT7] iv et'Set crKkripw Kal ^Aarpairr] 
(T6\a<; €K Tcov ocfyOaX/jicvv lelo-a irvp re payhalov 
i^ ovpavov rvpavviKrj<; olKia^ eTTei\7]fXfievov \oyov 
TOiouSe, el fiTj ayvoeU, aTrrerai. (2) iTvpo<i 

20 ve(j)e\r] irepia'X^ovaa ra<; ©7//3a? eh rrjv rou 
K.dS/jLov crreyyv pijyvurai, KcofxdaavTO'^ ein Trjv 
^e/jie\T]v Tov Ato9, Kal diroWvTaL fiev, &)? hoKov- 
fiev, 7] XefJieXr], rlfCTerat Be Aiovvao^ olfiat vrj 
Ala 77/909 TO irvp. fcal to fxev r/j? Se/jLe\f]<; elSo<; 

25 d/jLvSpop BiacfyalveTat lova-r](; e? ovpavov, kol al 
Movaat avTrjv eKel aaovTai, 6 Se Aiovvao^; Trj<^ 
fiev firfTpo^i eKOprpaKei payelaij^; ttjv yaarepa, 
TO Be TTvp d)(\va)8e<i epyd^erai (^aihpo<; avTo<; 
olov daTTjp Ti? dwaaTpdiTTcov. (3) Biaa)(0vaa 

30 Be 7] (f)\o^ dvTpov tl tm Aiovvaw aKLaypac^el 
iravTO'^ 7]Biov ^ Aaavplov re Ka\ AvBlov eX.t/t€9 re 
yap Trepl avTo TeO/jXaac Kal klttov Kopvfi^oL Kal 
r}Brj dfjbireXoL Kal Ovpaov BevBpa ovtco tl eK0vaT]<; 
316 K. dva(T)(^6vTa T)}<; y*}?, w? Kdv ^ tm irvpl etvat eina. 
Kal ov ^prf Oavfid^eiVi el aTe(pavoL to irvp eirl 
TW Aiovvaw 7) yrj, i) ye Kal avpi^aK^evGei avrip 
Kal olvov d(j)va(Teiv €k jnjywv BcoaeL ydXa re olov 

* Kav Jacobs : Kal. 

1 Thunder (Bronte) and Lightning ^Astrape^. Cf. Plin}', 
N.E., 25. 96 : pinxit (Apelles) et quae pingi non possunt, 


BOOK I. 14 

with so many they even open the net and let some 
of the fish swim away and escape : so proud are they 
of their catch. 


Bronte stern of face, and Astrape ^ flashing 
light from her eyes, and raging fire from heaven that 
has laid hold of a king's house, suggest the following 
tale, if it is one you know. A cloud of fire 
encompassing Thebes breaks into the dwelling of 
Cadmus as Zeus comes wooing Semele ; and Semele 
apparently is destroyed, but Dionysus is born, by 
Zeus, so 1 believe, in the presence of the fire. And 
the form of Semele is dimly seen as she goes to the 
heavens, where the Muses will hymn her praises : but 
Dionysus leaps forth as his mother's womb is rent 
apart and he makes the flame look dim, so brilliantly 
does he shine like a radiant star.- The flame, divid- 
ing, dimly outlines a cave for Dionysus more charm- 
ing than any in Assyria and Lydia ; for sprays of ivy 
grow luxuriantly about it and clusters of ivy berries 
and now grape-vines and stalks of thyrsus ^ which 
spring up from the willing earth, so that some grow 
in the very fire. We must not be surprised if in 
honour of Dionysus the Fire is crowned by the Earth, 
for the Earth will take part with the Fire in the 
Bacchic revel and will make it possible for the revel- 

tonitrua, fulgura, quae Bronten, Astrapen, Cerauuobolian 

2 On the birth of Dionysus, see Overbeck, Kanstmythologie, 
Zen^, p. 4101 

^ The wand carried by followers of Dionysus, properly a 
wand wreathed with ivy and with a pine-cone at the top. 



5 uTTo /la^Mv eXKeiv to fiev eV jScoXov, to he iic 
TreVpa?. (4) ciKove tou Uav6<;, o)? tov ^Lovvaov 
aSeiv €0iK€v iv Kopv(f>aL<; tov KiOaLpcovo<; vttogklp- 
T(ov Ti evLov. 6 KL^aipoiv Be oXocpupeTui iv eiSei 
avOpcoTTOv TO, fiiKpov vaTcpov ev avTW a^^ koi 
10 KiTTOv (pepei (TT e^avov cnroKkivovTa t?}? K€(j)aXfi<; 
— aTe(j)avovT(U yap Srj avTco a(f)6Spa ciKoyv — 
eXcLTrjv re avTcp 7rapa(f)VT€V6L Meyaipa Kal 
7ry]yr]v ava^aivei vSaTO<; eirl rw 'A/cratcoro? oljiai 
Kal IlevOew'; a'tfiaTi. 


15 (1) ' Otl Tr)vW.ptdSvr)p 6 (^//crei'? aSiKa Spo)i> — • 
01 3' ovK aSiKci (j)aaLV, ciW' 6k Aiovvaou — /caTe- 
Xiirev ev Ala Tjj injafo KaOevhovaar, Tu^^a irov 
fcal TiTOr)<; StaKijKoa';' ao(f)al yap eKelvai to, 
TOiavTa Kal BaKpvovaiv eV avTol<;, orav eOeXwaiv. 

20 ov fJLrjV BiofjLai. Xeyeip ^rjaea fiev elvai tov ev Trj 
vrjL, Aiovvaov Se tov ev Trj yfj, ovS^ w? dyvoovv- 
Ta ^ e7ri(7Tpe(f)0ifi av e? rr/t* eirl tCov ireTpoyv, 
(jt)<; ev fiaXaKw KeiTai tw vttvo). 

^ Benndorf would read 07 

voovna a 

1 Cf. P:ur. Bacch. 726: 

"The liills, the wild things all, were thrilled 
With ecstasy: naught but shook as on they rushed " : 
and 707 f. : 

" One grasped her thyrsus staff, and smote the rock. 
And forth up leapt a fountain's showery spray, 
One in eartii's bosom ])lanted her reed-wand, 
And up therethrough the (Jod a wine-fount sent, 
And whoso fain would drink white foaming draughts 

BOOK I. 15 

lers to take wine from springs and to draw milk from 
clods of earth or from a rock as from living breasts. ^ 
Listen to Pan, how he seems to be hymning Dionysus 
on the crests of Cithaeron, as he dances an Evian ^ 
Hing. And Cithaeron in the form of a man laments 
the woes ^ soon to occur on his slopes, and he wears 
an ivy crown aslant on his head — for he accepts the 
crown most unwillingly — and Megaera causes a fir 
to shoot up beside him and brings to light a spring 
of water, in token, I fancy, of the blood of Actaeon 
and of Pentheus.* 


That Theseus treated Ariadne unjustly — though 
some say not with unjust intent, but under 
the compulsion of Dionysus — when he abandoned 
her while asleep on the island of Dia,^ you must 
have heard from your nurse ; for those women are 
skilled in telling such tales and they weep over 
them whenever they will. I do not need to say 
that it is Theseus you see there on the ship and 
Dionysus yonder on the land, nor will I assume you 
to be ignorant and call your attention to the woman 
on the rocks, lying there in gentle slumber. 

Scarred with their tinger-tips the breast of earth, 
And milk gushed forth unstinted." 

Trans. Way, L.C.L. 
2 Evios is an epithet of Dionysus, derived from the cry 
Euo7 (Evoe) uttered by his worshippers. 

^ The rending of Pentheus asunder by his mother Agave 
and the Bacchantes. 

* According to Eur. Bacch, 1291 f. Pentheus was killed on 
the same spot as Actaeon, 

^ The ancient name of Xaxos, where Theseus stopped with 
Ariadne on his way back from Crete, where with her aid he 
had killed the Minotaur. 



(2) ovS' aiTo^prj Tov i^(O'ypd(f)0v eTraLvelv, d(j) 

25 u)V Kav dX\o<; iiraivolTO' paSiov yap diravri 
Kokrjv fiev TTjV WpLuSvrjv <ypd(f)€iv, koKov he tov 
®7]a€a, Acovvaou re jjLvpia ^dafxara toU ypdcpeiv 
rj TrXdrrecv l3ov\o/i€voi<;, o)V Kav fxiKpov rvxi) Ti?, 
yprjKe tov Oeov. koI yap ol Kopv/jL^oi aTe(^avo<:; 

30 oVt69 Alovvctov yvdipiafxa, Kav to Si]/jLiovpyj]p,a 
<j)avXci)<; €X{]i Kal K€pa^ vTreKcpvopLevov tmv Kpo- 
Td(po)v Aiovvaov S7]\oi, Kal 7rdpSa\i<; vTreKcpaivo- 
jievT) av TOV Oeov av/j.l3o\ov' dXX' ovt6<; ye 6 
317 K. Aiovvao^; ck /lovov tov epdv yeypaiTTai. GK.evr) 
pev yap -qvOiapLevij Kal Ovpaot Kal ve/3piB€<;, 
eppLiTTai TavTa co? efo) tov Kaipov, Kal ovSe 
KvpL^d\oL<i al T^dK)(ai, ')(p(JovTac vvv ovSe ol 
5 XdTvpot avXovaiv, dWd Kal 6 Udv KaTeyei to 
(TKipTijp^a, CO? p,T] SiaXvaeie tov vttvov t/}? Kopi^^, 
dXovpyiht. re (rretXa? kavTOV Kal Tt]v K€(paXr]v 
poBoL^; dvOiaa^i epx^Tai irapa ttjv 'ApidSvijv 6 
Aiovvao^;, p,edv(ov epcoTC cpyjal jrepl tmv dKpaTco<; 

10 ipd)VT(ov 6 T7]io<;. (3) 6 &r]aev<; Be epa p,ev, 
dXXd TOV Tcov ^AOfjVMV KaiTvov, 'ApidBvTjv Be 
0VT6 olBev eTL ovTe e^i^w iroTe, (f)7]pl B' avTov 
eKXeXrjadaL Kal tov Xa/SvpivOov Kal pirjBe elirelv 
e)(^eLv, e^' oTcp ttotc 6? Tr]v Kp^Ttjv errXevaev 

15 ovTQ) povov TO. €K TT/jcopa? ^XcTrei. opa Kal ttjv 
*ApidBvr}v, p,dXXov Be tov vttvov yvpvd p,€v el<i 
6p,(f)aX6v aTepva Tama, Beprf Be vTTTia Kal aTraXr] 

^ Anacreon, Frag. 21, Edmonds, Lyra Graeca II, L.C.L. 

2 Cf. Od. 1. 58: " IJut Odysseus, in his longing to see 
were it but the smoke leaping up from his own land, 3'earns 
to die." Trans. Murray, L.O.L. 

^ Cf. Theocritus, 2. 45 f. : " be that mate forgotten even 

Fig. 6. — The slttpiny Ai ttulnc (lent/ltd by I 

[To face jt. (33. 

BOOK I. 15 

Nor yet is it enough to praise the painter for 
things for which someone else too might be praised ; 
for it is easy for anyone to paint Ariadne as beautiful 
and Theseus as beautiful ; and there are countless 
characteristics of Dionysus for those who wish to 
represent him in painting or sculpture, by depicting 
which even approximately the artist has captured 
the god. For instance, the ivy clusters forming a 
crown are the clear mark of Dionysus, even if the 
workmanship is poor ; and a horn just springing 
from the temples reveals Dionysus, and a leopard, 
though but just visible, is a symbol of the god ; but 
this Dionysus the painter has characterized by love 
alone. Flowered garments and thyrsi and fawn-skins 
have been cast aside as out of place for the moment, 
and the Bacchantes are not clashing their cymbals 
now, nor are the Satyrs playing the flute, nay, even 
Pan checks his wild dance that he may not disturb 
the maiden's sleep. Having arrayed himself in fine 
purple and wreathed his head with roses, Dionysus 
comes to the side of Ariadne, '^ drunk with love " as 
the Teian poet ^ says of those who are overmastered 
by love. As for Theseus, he is indeed in love, but 
with the smoke risin^c from Athens,^ and he no longer 
knows Ariadne, and never knew her,^ and I am sure 
that he has even forgotten the labyrinth and could 
not tell on what possible errand he sailed to Crete, so 
singly is his gaze fixed on what lies ahead of his prow. 
And look at Ariadne, or rather at her sleep *; for her 
bosom is bare to the waist, and her neck is bent 
back and her delicate throat, and all her right side 

as old Theseus once forgot the fair-tressed damsel in Dia." 
Trans. Edmonds, L.C.L. 

* Cf. The Sleeping Ariadne, Fig. 6. 



(f)dpvy^, /j,aax<^i\r} Se i) he^ta (j>av€pa iracra, i) he 
irepa x^lp eTrUeirai rfj -^Xalvj], fiyj alcrxvprj tl 6 
20 avefJLO^. olov, o) Aiovvae, kuI co? 7581; to aaOfia. 
el Be /jLi]Xa)v rj /Sorpvcov airo^ei, (piXyjaw^ ep€L<i. 


(1) 'H UaaKpdi] rod ravpov epa /cal iKerevet 
Tov AalSaXov cro(j)iaaadaL riva ireLOco rov Oi^piov, 
6 he epyd^erat 0ovv KoiXrjv TrapaifKrjaiav dyeXaia 

25 /9o6 TOV ravpov eOdhi. koI /Jrt? p,ev y) evvt) acjiwv 
eyevero, BijXol to tov MtvcoTavpov et^o? aTOTTO)? 
avvTeOev ttj (fyvaer yeyparrTai he 01)^ rj evvt] vvv, 
dXX' ipyaaTJjpiov fiev tovto ireirolriTai tov Aat- 
hdXov, TrepiecTTrjKe he avrco dydX/jLUTa to, fiev ev 

30 /jL0p(f)ai<i, TCL he ev to) hiopOovaOai, /Se^rjKOTa ijh^ 
/cal ev eirayyeXla tov ^ahl^eiv. tovto he apa rj 
318 K. irpo AathdXov dyaXfiaToiroila ovira) €<; vovv 
e/Se^XrjTO. avTo<; he 6 AaiSaXo? dTTiKL^ei /xev 
fcal TO elho<; v7repao(f)6v tl Kal evvovv (BXeirwv, 
aTTiKL^ei he Kal avTo to aX'rjp-ct' cpaiov yap 
5 Tpl/Scora tovtov dixTre^eTai 7rpoayeypaiJifxevii<^ 
avTW Kal dvv7roh>]aia<;, 7; /idXiaTa ht) 01 WttikoI 
Koa/xovvTai. (2) KdOrjTat he ecj)' dpfiovla Trj<i 
0oo<; Kal Tou? "E/D&)Ta? ^uvepyov^ TroielTai tov 
/xiT^avyj/jLaTOi;, co? \\(f)pohiTr]<; tl avTM eTVLhelv. 

1 Cf . Robert, Der Pasiphae- Sarkophag, XIV Hall. Winokel- 
mannsprogr., where Cupids are present but not assisting in 
the work. Man, Rom. Mitth. XI (1896), p. 50, published a 


BOOK I. i6 

is visible^ but the left hand rests on her mantle 
that a gust of wind may not expose her. How fair 
a sight, Dionysus, and how sweet her breath ! 
Whether its fragrance is of apples or of grapes, you 
can tell after you have kissed her ! 


Pasiphae is in love with the bull and begs Daedalus 
to devise some lure for the creature ; and he is 
fashioning a hollow cow like a cow of the herd to 
which the bull is accustomed.^ What their union 
brought forth is shown by the form of the Minotaur, 
strangely composite in its nature. Their union is 
not depicted here, but this is the workshop of 
Daedalus ; and about it are statues, some with forms 
blocked out, others in a quite complete state in that 
they are already stepping forward and give promise of 
walking about. ^ Before the time of Daedalus, you 
know, the art of making statues had not yet conceived 
such a thing. Daedalus himself is of the Attic type 
in that his face suggests great wisdom and that the 
look of the eye is so intelligent; and his very dress 
also follows the Attic style ; for he wears this dull 
coarse mantle and also he is painted without sandals, 
in a manner peculiarly affected by the Athenians. He 
sits before the framework of the cow and he uses 
the Cupids as his assistants in the device so as to 
connect with it something of Aphrodite. Of the 

Pompeian wall-painting which depicts Pasiphae, Daedalus 
with a young assistant, and the wooden cow, Fig. 7, p. 67. 

^ Greek legend emphasized the skill of Daedalus as a 
sculptor b}^ saying that he made statues which could walk 
about and even could speak. Cf. Eur. Hecuba, 838. 



10 evapy6l<i fi€V tmv Kpcorcov /cal ol to rpunavop, co 
Tral, aTp6(j)0VT€<^ /calpt] At* ol rw aKeirapvu) \eai- 
vovTt<i ra fi7]7ra) 7]Kpi/3co/J.ei'a tP]<; ^oo<; kuI ol 
o-TaO/jLco/ievoL tijv ^vfXfieTpiav, e(j> rj^; i) ^i-jpLiovpyia 
jSaiveL. ol 8e irrl rov iTpLovo<^ evvoidv re VTrep/Se- 

15 fiXyJKaaL iraaav Kal aocplav, oiroa)] \eLp6<; re koX 
')(^pco/jLdTcov. (3) Xkottci ydp' irplwv i/jL^e^Xrjrai, 
Tft) ^v\(p Kal Bu]K6L avrov 'IjBr), Bidyovai Be 
avTOv ovroL ol "E/Jwre? o /lev €k t^? yr]<;, 6 8' aTTO 
/i7j')(^ain]<; 6p6ov/j,6V(o re koX irpovevovre. rovrl 

20 8' evaWd^ iiyoDpueOa' 6 fiev ydp vevevKev co? 
dvacrrrja6/JL€vo<;, 6 Be dvearTjKev co? vevacov, Kal 
6 /JLev d-TTO rl]<; 7^9 eVl to arepvov dva- 
7r€/jL7rei to daOfia, 6 B' diro rov fierecopov Kara ^ 
rr)v yaarepa TTLfiTrXarat Kdrco (jvvepeiBwv roo 

25 (4) 'llIlaoi(f)d7] Be e^d) Treplrd /BovKoXLairepia- 
Opel rov ravpov, olopbevq rrpoad^eaOai avrov ro) 
elBet, Kal rfj aroXfj Oelov re aTroXa/xirova-rj Kal 
virep Trdaav Ipiv ^Xerrei re dfjLiJxavov — Kal ydp 
ytvcoaKei, ottolcov ipd — Kal 7re pi/SaXXeiv ro 6t]piov 

30 cop/jL')]Kev, 6 Be tT;? fiev ovBev ^vviy](Ti, /SXeirei Be 
rrjv eavrov /3ovv. yeypairrai Be 6 fxev ravpo<; 
dyepcoxo'i re Kal 7]ye/xd)v tt)? dy€Xr]<;. evKepco^; re Kal 
XevKo<; Kal l3e^7]Kd)<^ i]Bri Kal ^a6v<; rrjv (pdpvyya 
Kal TTicov rov av')(€va Kal IXapov fiXeTrwv €<? rrjv 

35 ^ovv, 7] Be dyeXaia re Kal dvero<; Kal \evKr] irdaa 

^ Kara. Beiinclorf : Kal. 

1 Lit. "all skill of hand and colours." 


BOOK I. i6 

Cupids, my boy, those are visible who turn the drill, 
and those by Zeus that smooth with the adze portions 
of the cow which are not yet accurately finished, and 
those that measure off the symmetrical proportions 
on which craftsmanship de- 
pends. But the Cupids that 
work with the saw surpass 
all conception and all skill in 
drawing^ and colour. For 
look ! The saw has attacked 
the wood and is already pass- 
ing through it, and these 
Cupids keep it going, one on 
the ground, another on the 
staging, both straightening 

bending: forward 

Fig. 7. 
movement to be 

up and 

in turn. Let us consider this 
alternate ; one has bent low as if about to rise up, 
his companion has risen erect as if about to bend 
over ; the one on the ground draws his breath into 
his chest, and the one who is aloft fills his lungs down 
to his belly as he presses both hands down on the saw. 
Pasiphae outside the workshop in the cattle- 
fold gazes on the bull, thinking to draw him to 
her by her beauty and by her robe, w^hich is 
divinely resplendent and more beautiful than any 
rainbow. She has a helpless look — for she knows 
what the creature is that she loves — and she is eager 
to embrace it, but it takes no notice of her and 
gazes at its own cow. The bull is depicted with 
proud mien, the leader of the herd, with splendid 
horns, white, already experienced in love, its dewlap 
low and its neck massive, and it gazes fondly at the 
cow ; but the cow in the herd, ranging free and 



319 Iv. €7TL fieXaLVT] rjj Ke^aXf), aira^Lol Be rov ravpov 
a/cLpTij/jia yap viroc^aiveL Kopi]^ S/; TLVO<i vwocpev- 
yovarjf; ipaarov v^piv. 

I'i mnoAAMEiA 

(1) 'II pukv eicirX'T^^i^ eir Olvo/ndo) tco 'ApKuSi, 
ol Se eV avTw /3ocovt6<; — dKov6L<; yap irov — ?/ 
Te ^ApKaSia iarl Kal ottoctov i/c r/}? UeXoTrov- 
vrjCTov. ireTTTWfce Be avvrpi/Sev to dpfjua rex^rj 
^IvpTiXov, TO Be 'lttttcov avyfceiTat TeTTupwv 
TovTL yap 69 p-ev Ta TToXep^iKa outto) eOapaelTO, ol 

10 Be dy(ove<; eylvcoaKov t€ avTO Kal eTi/jLcop' Kal ol 
AvBol Be (piXLTTTTOTaTOL 6Vt69 €7rl fiev HeXo7ro<i 
TeOpLTTiroi Te r)aav Kal i^Bfj cippaTtTat, fieTa 
TavTa Be TeTpappvfiov Te 7]\lravT0 Kal XeyovTai 
irpwTOL Toi/? OKTco a^elv. 

15 (2) "Opa, iral, tov<; p,€v tov Olvop^dov, o)? Beivol 
Te elat, Kal (T(f)oBpol opp^ijaai Xvtttj^; t€ Kal 
d<l)pov p,€aTOL — tovtI Be irepl tov^ 'ApKdBa<; 
evpoL<; fidXiaTa — Kal o)? p,eXave<;, eTreiBr] evr' 
aVoTTOi? Kal ovK ev(f))]p.0L<^ e^evyvvvTO, TOv<; Be tov 

20 ITeA-OTTo?, ft)? XevKoi Te elai Kal ttj rjrla Trpocrcfio- 
poL YleiOnv^; Te eTatpot Kal ')(p€p,eTL^opre<i ijp.epov 
Ti Kal ev^vveTOV t/}? z-tV?/?, tov Te Olvofiaop, co? 
I'aa Kal Atop.yjBr](; 6 %pq,^ l3dp^ap6<; Te KetTai 

^ The stor}' is that Oenomaiis promised his daughter 
Hippodanieia to the suitor who should beat him in a chariot 
race, but with tlie understanding that he siiould slay the 
unsuccessful suitors. Thirteen suitors had thus met their 
death, when Myrtilus, the charioteer of Oenomaiis, gave the 
race to Pelopsby removing the pin that held a wheel in his 
master's chariot. The chariot race of Pelops and Oenomaiis 


[To face p. G9. 

BOOK I. 17 

all white but for a black head, disdains the bull. 
For its pose suggests a leap, as of a girl who avoids 
the importunity of a lover. 


Here is consternation over Oenomaiis the Ar- 
cadian ; ^ these are men w^ho shout a warning for 
him — for perhaps you can hear them — and the 
scene is Arcadia and a portion of the Peloponnesus. 
The chariot lies shattered through a trick of Myrtilus. 
It is a four-horse chariot ; for though men were not 
yet bold enougli to use the quadriga in war, yet in 
the games it was known and prized, and the Lydians 
also, a people most devoted to horses, drove four 
abreast in the time of Pelops and already used 
chariots, and at a later time devised the chariot with 
four poles and, it is said, were the first to drive 
eight horses abreast. ^ 

Look, my boy, at the horses of Oenomaiis, how 
fierce they are and keen to run, full of rage and 
covered with foam — you will find such horses 
especially among the Arcadians — and how black 
they are, harnessed as they were for a monstrous and 
accursed deed. But look at the horses of Pelops, 
how white they are, obedient to the rein, comrades 
as they are of Persuasion, neighing gently and as if 
aware of the coming victory. And look at Oenomaiis, 
how like he is to the Thracian Diomedes as he lies 

is not infrequently depicted on vase-paintings, of. Arch. Zeit. 
1853, PI. 5.) ; Mon. Inst. II. 32. 

^ Cf. Xen. Cyrop. 6. 4. 2 : T(Tpdppv/j.ov apina Koi 'iTrirccu oktv, 
"And Abradatas's chariot with its four poles and eight 



Kal a)/xo9 TO et3o?. olfiai Be ovBe tw YleXoTTL 

25 n7ricrTtj(T€i<;, &)? HoaeiScov irore avrou yyaaOrj rry? 

wpa? olvo'X^oovvra iv SittiiXw T0t9 Oeol^; koI 

dyaaOeU dveOi-jKev e? tovtI to ap/xa fieipaKiov ye 

7)8?; oina. TO Be ap/ia icra ttj yrj ti]v OdXaTTav 

hLa(TTei')(6L, Kal ovBe pavl<; dir avT7]<; Tn-jBa ei? tov 

30 d^ova, fie/Sala Be, ttj yfj eoiKvla, viroKeiTai Toh 

iVttoz?. (3) Tov fjuev ovv Bp6/.L0v 6 YleXoyfr re Kal 

7] 'iTTTroBdfieia vLKoyaiv e^eaTrjKoTe dji^w tm 

320 K. dpfiaTi kuksZ av^vyeuTe, dXXijXwv Be oi/ro)? 

jjTTTjaOov, &)? iv opfxfj TOV 7repi/3dXXeiv elvai. 

ecTTaXTat Be 6 fiev tov AvBiov re Kal d^pov 

TpOTTOV IjXiKiaV T€ KOI 0)pav dyWV, TjV KOI /jLlKpO) 

5 TTpoadev elBe<;, OTe tov^ Ittttou? tov HoaeiBwva 
e^rjTei} /; 8' eaTaXTai tov ya/JLLKov Tpoirov dpTi 
TTjv irapeidv dvaKaXvTrTovcra, 6t€ e? dvBpo^; 
TjKeiv vevLKTjKe. TTi-jBa Kal 'AX^eto? ^k t/)? Blvii<s 
KOTLVOV TLvd e^alpcov (TTe(f)avov roG UeXoiri irpoa- 

10 eXavvovTL ttj 6-)(^dr]. 

(4) Ta Be ev tm LiT7roBpo/j,rp aijfiaTa ol /ivrj- 
(TTrjpe^ eKel eOdivTOVTO, ov<; diroKTeivcov 6 Olvofiao'^ 
dvefidXXeTO tov tt]^ OvyaTpo^ yd/jLov eirl Tpia- 
KaiBeKa 7]By] veoL<;. dXXd ?; yrj vvv dvOrj (f)uet 

15 irepl TOt? cn]p,aaLV, co? ixeTe^aev tl KUKelioi tov 
aTe(f>avovadaL BoKelv e-nl ttj tov Olvo/xdov Blktj. 
^ ilyJTfi Reiske and Jacobs : e'C'/jrei. 


BOOK I. 17 

there, a barbarian and savage of aspect. But as to 
Pelops, on the other land, you will not, 1 think, be 
inclined to doubt that Poseidon once on a time fell 
in love with him for his beauty when he was wine- 
pourer for the gods on Mount Sipylus,^ and because 
of his love set him, though still a youth, upon this 
chariot.^ The chariot runs over the sea as easily as 
on land, and not even a drop of water ever splashes 
on its axle, but the sea, firm as the earth itself, 
supports the horses. As for the race, Pelops and 
Hippodameia are the victors, both standing on the 
chariot and there joining hands ; but they are so 
conquered by each other that they are on the point 
of embracing one another. He is dressed in the 
delicate Lydian manner, and is of such youth and 
beauty as you noticed a moment ago when he was 
begging Poseidon for his horses ; and she is dressed 
in a wedding garment and has just unveiled her cheek, 
now that she has won the right to a husband's 
embrace. Even the Alpheius leaps from his eddy to 
pluck a crown of wild olive for Pelops as he drives 
along the bank of the river. 

The mounds along the race-course mark the 
graves of the suitors by whose death Oenomaiis 
postponed his daughter's marriage, thirteen youths 
in all.'^ But the earth now causes flowers to spring 
up on their graves, that they too may share the 
semblance of being crowned on the occasion of 
Oenomaiis' punishment. 

1 Cf. Find. 01. 1. 61 f. 

2 Cf. Pinrl. 01 1. 139 f. 

' Cf. Find. 01. 1. 127 f : eVel rpeTs ye Kai 54k' ai'Spa oAfaais 
ip'ivras avaffdWerai, ydjxQv dvyarpSs. 




(1) VeypaiTTai /xiv, o) iral, kuI to, ev tm 
KiOatpwri, BaK)(^o)v X^P^'^ ^^^ viroivoi irerpat 
Kai veKTap etc iSorpvwv fcal o)? <yd\aKTL Trjv 

20 jSCdknv t) yf] XnraLvei. kul lSov kltto<^ eprrei 
Kai 6(f)€i<; opdol fcnl Ovpaov^ SevBpa olpai fJueXi 
ard^ovra. Kai I'jSe ctol i) iXdrrj ^^/xal yvvaiKMV 
epyov CK Aiovvaov jxeya, TreirrwKe he rov ilevOea 
dTroaeiaafievr] rah B«/c;!^af9 iv el'Set XeopTO^;. al 

25 he Kara^aivovai ^ to Oi'jpafia fit^rijp eKeivj] Kai 
dhe\(f)al firjTpof; al fiev dTropprjyvvaat ra? ')(,^lpa<^, 
?} he eTTLGTTOdaa rov vtoi> t>}? x^^'^'V^' €l'7roi<; 8' 
dp Kai ft)? dXaXd^ovaiu, outu><^ eviov avTac'i to 
daO/na. Ai6rvao<^ he avTo<> fJLev iv Trepiwirfi rov- 

30 Twv earrjKev eyu,7rX 7/cra? rrjv irapeidv ^^Xov, rbv 
he oJarpov 7rpo(T^aK)(€iiaa<; Tal<; yvvai^iv. oure 
opcbai yovv rd hpdtfxeva Kai oiroaa iKerevei 6 
Uei'Oev<; XeovTo<i dKoveiv (paal (Spvxo^pevov. 
321 K. (2) Tavrl p-ev rd iv rfo opei, rd he iyyv<; ravra 
Sfj/Sac 7/8?; Kai l\dhp,ov oreyt] Kai dpf]i'o<^ inl rfj 
dypa Kai avvapporrovaiv oi Trpoa/jKovre'; rov 
veKpov, 66 TTT} awOeii] T(p Td(f)(p. TTpoaKeiTai Kai 
5 i) KecpaXf) rod UevOeco'; ovKeri d/ji(f)i/3oXo<i, dXX' 
oXa Kai r(p Aiovvaw iXeelv, vewrdn] Kai diraX}) 
rrjv yevvv Kai Trupat] ta? K6/iia<;, a? ovre Ktrro^; 

^ dvpaov Pierson : dvpcroi. 

^ Kara^aivovcri Reiske : Ka\ ^aifovffi, 

1 Cf. Hartwig, " Der Tod des Pentheus," Jahr. Jnst. VII 
(1892). p. 153f., PI. V. 

2 Cf. Eur. Eacch. 142 f., 101L,ci. supra, p. 60. 

3 Cf. ihid. 1109, 1141 for the felling of the fir, and Pentheus 
imagined to be a lion. 


Fig. 9.— The Death of Fentheus. 

ITofacep. 73. 

BOOK I. i8 


Here are also painted, my boy, scenes from Mount 
Cithaeron — choruses of Bacchantes, and rocks flow- 
ing with wine, and nectar dripping from clusters 
of grapes, and the earth enriching the broken soil 
with milk. 2 Lo ! ivy creeps over the ground, 
serpents stand erect, and thyrsus trees are dripping, 
I think, with honey. This fir you see lying on the 
ground is a great deed of women inspired by 
Dionysus ; it fell as it shook off Pentheus in the 
form of a lion ^ into the hands of the Bacchantes. 
They rend in pieces their prey — that mother of his 
and his mother's sisters, they tearing off his arms 
while she is dragging her son by the hair.* You 
would even say they w^ere raising the shout of 
victory, so like the Bacchic cry^ is their panting. 
Dionysus himself stands where he can watch them, 
puffing out his cheek with passion and applying the 
Bacchic goad to the women. At any rate they do 
not see w^hat they are doing, and in the supplication 
of Pentheus they say they hear a lion's roaring. 

That is what is taking place on the mountain ; 
but here in the foreground we now see Thebes and 
the palace of Cadmus and lamentation over the J)rey, 
while the relatives try to fit the corpse together that 
it may perhaps be rescued for burial. There lies the 
head of Pentheus, no longer a dubious thing, but 
such as to excite the pity even of Dionysus — very 
youthful, with delicate chin and locks of reddish hue, 
not wreathed with ivy or bryony or sprays of vine, 

* Cf. ibid. 1127 f., which describes the tearing oflF of 
Pentheus's arms. 

'" i.e. their lips seem to form the cry "Evoe."' 



i]pey\rev ovre a/iLXaKO<; i) d/jLireXov KXfjfia ovre 
av\6<; eaeiae t/9 out oJarpo^, eppcovvvro /lev 

10 VTT avTMV KUi ippcovvvev avTci^;, ifiaiveTO he avro 
TO fir] fiera Aiovvaou /xalveaOai. 

(3j 'EXeeiva Kal ra tojp jwuikcop I'lycofieOa. 
oca fiev yap iv tm KiOaipayvL i)yv6rj(7av, ola he 
evravOa ytvwcTKOvatv. airoXeXoiTre he avTO,^ ov^ 

15 // fjiavia fiovov, aWa Kal 7) poojjLr], KaO^ tjv 
e^dK\evaav. Kara fiev yap tov KiOaipcova 
opa<;, ft)9 fxearal rod dOXov (pepovraL avve^al- 
povaai ryv '^x^ '^^^ opov<;, evTavOa he irapl- 
aravTai Kal et? vovv tmv f^e^aKX^vpievwv yKovaiv, 

20 i^dvovaal re Kara r?}? 7/}? t^? fiev e/? yovara rj 
Ke(j)aXrj ^pidet, t/}? he eh oifiov, r} Wyavr) 
TrepLpdXXeiv pev tov vlov cop/jLy]'ce, Otyelv he 
6<cvei. 7rpo(Tp.efjiLKTat 3' avTJ} to tov TratSo? 
alfia TO /i€P e? ')(,^lpa<^, to he 6? irapeidv, to he 

26 e? Ta yvp,vd tov p^a^ov. 

(4) 'H he 'Appovla Kal 6 Kdhp.o<; elal p,eu, dXX* 
ovx OLonrep ijaav hpuKOVTe'^ yap ijhrj €K prjprbv 
ywovTai, Kal <j)oXl<^ i)hy] avTov^ ^X^^' 4>povhoi 
TToSe?, (f)povhoc yXovTOi, Kal rj pi€Ta/3oXr) tov 

30 eihov^ epirei dvw. 01 he eKTrXijTTovTat Kal irept- 
/SdXXovaiv dXX}]Xov<;, olov ^vve)(0VTe<; to, Xoiird 
TOV crcofiaTO'^, co? eKelva yovv avT0v<; p.rj <j)vyr). 


(1) NaO? Oe(opl<; Kal vav<s XrjaTpiKy]. ttjv fxev 

Atovvao^ evOvvei, ttjv 3' ep-fie/SyjKaat Tvppyvol 

322 K. XrjaTal tt)? irepl avTOV^ daXdTTr)<^. 1) fiev hr) 

^ The ship used for convej'ing a sacred mission. 

BOOK I. 19 

nor are they tossed in wild disorder by flute or 
Bacchic frenzy. From those locks he derived his 
vigour^ and he imparted vigour to them ; but this 
itself was his madness^, that he would not join 
Dionysus in madness. 

Pitiful also we must consider the state of the 
women. For of what things were they unaware on 
Cithaeron, and of what things do they here have 
knowledge I Not only has their madness left them, 
but also the strength they possessed in the Bacchic 
revel. On Cithaeron you see how, inspired by the 
conflict, they rush headlong, rousing the echoes on 
the mountain side, but here they are still and have 
come to a realization of what they did in their 
revels ; sinking to the ground one rests her head on 
her knees, another on her shoulder, while Agave 
is eager to embrace her son but shrinks from touch- 
ing him. Her son's blood is smeared on her hands 
and on her cheek and on her naked breast. 

Harmonia and Cadmus are there, but not as 
they were before ; for already they have become 
serpents from the thighs down and already scales are 
forming on them. Their feet are gone, their hips 
are gone, and the change of form is creeping 
upward. In astonishment they embrace each other 
as though holding on to what is left of the body, 
that this at least may not escape them. 


A mission ship ^ and a pirates' ship. Dionysus 
steers the former, on board the latter are Tyr- 
rhenians, pirates who ravage their own sea.^ The one 

2 i.e. the Tyrrhenian sea. 



lepa vav<;, ^a/c)(6U6L iv avrj} ^Lovvao'i Kal iirip- 
podovaiv ai Ba/c;^at, apfjbovia he, o-nocyr) opyid^ei, 
KaTi]X€i T/}? OaXuTT}]^, i) Se uTrex^i tm Aiovvaco 
5 ra eavTfj<; vcora, KaOdirep i) AvScov yrj, rj Be 
irepa vav<; pLaivovrai Kal rf]^ elpe(7ia<; eKXavOdv- 
ovrai, TToWoi? Se avrwv aTroXcoXaaiv 7;S;; at 
X€ipe<;. (2) Tt? 7) ypa<f>i] ; rov Aiovvaov, w ttcu, 
Xo^^coaL Tvppijvol Xoyov e? avTov<; r}KOvro^, &)<? 

10 6?]Xv<; T€ eh] Kal d'yupT7]<; Kal 'X^pvaov^ rrji' vavv 
iiTTo rod iv avrrj itXoutov yvvaid re avro) 
ofiaproiii Avhia Kal ^drupoi Kal^ avXifral Kal 
vapOT]KO(f)6po<; yepwv Kal olvo<^ ^lap(ov€io<; Kal 
avTo<; o }^\dpa)v. Kal Ildua<; avrw ^vp^-rrXelv 

15 aKOvovTe<; ev elhei rpdywv avrol fxev d^eaOai 
e/xeXXov^ Td<; ^dK)(a<;, alya<; 8e din^aeiv €KeiPOi<;, 
a<; 7) Tvpp^]V(ov yr) jBoaKec. (3) 'H p,ev ovv 
XrjarpiKr] vav<^ rov p.d)(ip,ov irXel rpoTTov eVo)- 
Tiai re yap KareaKevaaTai Kal epi/SoXa) Kal 

20 athrjpal avry %et/9e9 Kal al')(^pLal Kal hpeirava 
iirl hopdrcov. &)? 8'^ €K7rX7]TTOL tol/? ei'Tvyxd- 
vovTa<; Kal Orjpiov n avrol^ eKc^aivoLJO, yXavKol^; 
fiev yeypairrai ypaopLaai, /3XoavpoL<i he Kara 
iTpcppav 6(f)0aXpLot<; olov /BXeirei, XeTrrrj Se rj 

25 iTpvpn-a Kal p^rjvoeiSt)^ KaOdirep rd reXevrcovTa 
Tojv l\6v(iiv. (4) 'li he rov Aiovvaov vav<; ra 

1 ical Benndorf deletes, cf. 322, 26 ff. k. 
- a^eadai ijueWov Hercher : ^(aOai. 
^ 5' adiled b}' Pveiske and Kayser. 

^ Narthex : a plant with hollow stalk which furnished the 
Bacchic -wands. 

2 Cf. Od. 9. 147 f. Maron was a priest of Apollo, who 
gave Odysseus wine in gratitude for protection. Later, 


BOOK I. 19 

is a sacred ship ; in it Dionysus revels and the 
Bacchantes cry out in response to him, and orgiastic 
music resounds over the sea, which yields its broad 
surface to Dionysus as readily as does the land of the 
Lydians ; on the other ship they go mad and forget 
to row and already the hands of many of them 
are gone. What does the painting mean ? Tyr- 
rhenian sailors, my boy, are lying in wait for 
Dionysus, as word has come to them that he is 
effeminate and a vagabond and a mine of gold so 
far as his ship is concerned, because of the wealth it 
carries, and that he is accompanied only by Lydian 
women and Satyrs and fluteplayers, and an aged 
narthex-bearer,! and Maronian wine, and by Maron ^ 
himself. Hearing that Pans sail with him in the 
form of goats, they planned to carry off the Bac- 
chantes for themselves and to turn over to the 
Pans she-goats,^ such as are raised in the land of 
the Tyrrhenians. Now the pirate ship sails with 
warlike mien ; for it is equipped with prow-beams 
and beak, and on board are grappling-irons and 
spears and poles armed with scythes. And, in order 
that it may strike terror into those they meet and 
may look to them like some sort of monster, it is 
painted with bright colours, and it seems to see with 
grim eyes set into its prow,* and the stern curves up 
in a thin crescent like the end of a fish's tail. As 
for the ship of Dionysus, it has a weird appearance ^ 

because of the fame of his wine, he was thought of as an 
attendant of Dion3'sus. 

^ i.e. in place of Bacchantes. 

* It was customary to paint eyes on the prow of Greek 
ships, apparently with the idea that thus the ship might see 
its wa}'. 

^ See critical note. 



fxev aWa Trerpa jioi SielfcaaraL,^ cfyoXiScoTf] 
8e opdrac to 6? irpv/ivap'^ kv/jl/SciXcov avrfi 
irapaWa^ iprjp/xoapivcov, IV, el Koi Xdrvpol 

30 TTore vtto ol'vou Kadevhoiev, 6 Ai6vvao<; /ly 
ay\ro4>i^rl irXeoL, tj-jv he Trpwpav e? ')(^pvarjv 
TTcipBaXiv eiKaaTai, re koI e^fj/crai. (f)i\ia Be 
rfp Aiovvacp tt/jo? to ^mov, eTreiSr) OepfioTarov 
t6)v ^(p(ov earl /cal TrrjBd Kov(f)a koI Xaa evciBi. 

35 o/oa? yovv Koi avro to Orjplov — cFV[X'JT\eovaa<^ rw 
Aiovvao) Kol 7T7]Ba)(Ta<; eirl rov<; Tvppr}vov<; purjirw 
323 K. Ke\evovTO<;. 6vpao<; Be cvrocrl eV p,ecr7]<; i^eo)? 
€K7re(f)VKe ra rod larov irpdaacov, Kal laria 
fieOijTTTaL dXovpyfj peravyd^ovra ev rw koXtto), 
')(^pvaai Be evvc^avrai ^aKyat, ev T/jlcoXo) /cat 
5 Aiovvaov rd ev AvBla. fcarrjpecfir] Be rrjv vavv 
dfiTreXo) kol /clttw (^aiveaOai kol fiorpv^; virep 
avTrj<; alwpelaOai Oavfia fxev, dav/iaaicorepa Be 
r) Trrjyrj rod olvov, d><; kolXt] avjov rj vav<^ €kBI- 
Borac KOL avrXelraL. 

10 (5) 'AXX' eVt Tou? Tvppi]vov(; cwpev, ew? elaiv 
6 yap Atovvao^ avrov^ €Kfiijva<; evrpexovat Tot? 
Tvppr)voi<; IBeai BeXcplvayv ovtto) eOdBwv ovBe 
eyx^wpiwv rfj OaXdaarj. Kal ru) jxev rd irXevpa 
Kvdvea, rw S' 6XiaOy]pd rd arepva, tm B 

15 eKcpverai Xo(pid irapd rw /jLeTa(ppev(p, 6 Be 
eKBiBcocn rd ovpaia, Kal tm fiev rj KecjiuXr] 

^ The text is corrupt in the M8S., irerpa/xoi^i eUaa-rai. 
Various conjectures have been proposed, rtpari (Capps) 
VV AP (Jacobs) elfKatrrai. 

^ Trpv/uLvav Jacobs : irpdipav. 

^ Cymbals where, in a ship of war, shields would be 


BOOK I. 19 

in other respects, and it looks as if it were covered 
with scales at the stern, for cymbals ^ are attached 
to it in rows, so that, even if the Satyrs are overcome 
by wine and fall asleep, Dionysus may not be with- 
out noise on his voyage ; and its prow is drawn out 
in the semblance of a golden leopardess. Dionysus 
is devoted to this animal because it is the most excit- 
able of animals and leaps lightly like a Bacchante. 
At any rate you see the very creature before you ; ^ it 
sails with Dionysus and leaps against the Tyrrhenians 
without waiting for his bidding. And the thyrsus 
here has grown in the midst of the ship^ and serves 
as a mast, and sails dyed purple are attached to it, 
gleaming as they belly out in the wind, and woven 
in them are golden Bacchantes on Mount Tmolus 
and Dionysiac scenes from Lydia. That the ship 
seems to be embowered with vine and ivy and that 
clusters of grapes swing above it* is indeed a marvel, 
but more marvellous is the fountain of wine,^ for the 
hollow ship pours forth the wine and lets it drain away. 
But let us turn to the Tyrrhenians while they 
still remain ; for under the maddening power of 
Dionysus the forms of dolphins ^ are creeping over the 
Tyrrhenians — not at all the dolphins we know, how- 
ever, nor yet those native to the sea. One of the 
men has dark sides, one a slippery breast, on the 
back of one a fin is growing, one is growing a tail, 
the head of one is gone but that of another is left, 

2 i.e. the figure-head which forms the prow. 

^ Cf. the ship of Dionysus on a black-figured kylix, JFien. 
Vorlegehldf.ter, 1888, PI. VII. \a. 

* Cf. Horn. Homns 7. 38 ff. for a description of the vine. 

^ Cf. ibid. 7. 35 f. for the fountain of wine. 

^ Cf. ibid. 7. 51 f. for the transformation of the sailors 
into dolphins. 




(6) '^O he Xiovvao^i iic irpcppa^i <ye\a ravra koI 
20 Ke\ev€L tvl^ TvpprjuoU tci fiev elhif l-y^OvaLV e^ 
avOpcoTTcov, TCI he yOrj ')(pr)aTot<; Ik (f)av\(ov. 
oy^i^aeTaL >yoi)v jiiKpov varepov UaXaL/icov eVl 
3eX(^tz^o? ovhe e<ypi)'yopai'^ ovro^;, aXV vtttlo^; eir 
avTOu Kadevhoiv, koI 'Apicov he 6 eirl Tatvdpw 
25 hrjXol T0U9 heXcfylva'^ eraipovi re elvat dv6pco7roi<; 
Kal ooSt)? cf)L\ov(i Kal o7ov<i napaTa^aaOai tt/oo? 
X-pard^i VTTep dvOpoo-ncov Kal /iovaiK7]<i. 


(1) KeXaa'al fiev to -ycopiov, oaov ai 7n]yal 

Kal TO dvTpov, eKTTohcov he 6 Mapava<; rj ttol- 

30 fiaivcov rj fiera t7]v epiv. /juyj eiraiveL to vhwp' 

Kol jdp el TTOTifiov Kal yaXijvov yeypaiTTai, 

TTOTi/jLcoTeprp evTeu^i] tco ^OXv/j.7r(o. KaOevhet,^ 

he /leTa T7]v avXijaip d^p6<; ev d/3pOL<; dvOeat 

avyKepavvv's tov IhpcoTa tjj tov Xeificovo<;^ hpoaot, 

324 K. Kal 6 Ze(f)vpG<; eKKaXel avTov irpoaiTvecov Trj 

KOfiT), 6 he dvTLirvel tw dvefi(p^ cXkcov to diro 

TOV GTepvov aaOfia, KdXafioi Te avXovvTS^ 7]ht] 

irapdKeiVTai tw 'OXv/itto) Kal aih/jpia en, oh 

5 eTTLTpvirdiVTaL ^ 01 avXoi. (2) 'E/^wi^re? he avrov 

^ KadfvSei Kayser : Kai a^ai. 

' \€i/j.a)pos Olearius : x^ 'M^'^'o^- 

^ di'TiTTi 6? TCf avf/xcv Jacobs : avaTri'tt rov ap^fxov. 

* iniTtivtrctiVTai .Salmasius : iitiSpvirrovTai. 

^ It is implied that henceforth the transformed pirates will 
have the traits which later Greek legends attribute to 


BOOK I. 20 

the hand of one is melting away, while another 
laments over his vanishing feet. 

Dionysus on the prow of his ship laughs at the 
scene and shouts orders to the Tyrrhenians as fishes in 
shape instead of men, and as good in character instead 
of bad.^ Soon, at any rate, Palaemon will ride on a 
dolphin's back, not awake, but lying prone upon it 
sound asleep ; and the Arion at Taenarum^ makes it 
clear that dolphins are the companions of men, and 
fond of song, and worthy to take the field against 
pirates in defence of men and the art of music. 


The place is Celaenae, if one may judge by the 
springs and the cave ; but Marsyas has gone away 
either to watch his sheep or because the contest is 
over. Do not praise the water ; for, though it 
looks sweet and placid, you will find Olympus ^ 
sweeter. He sleeps after liaving played his flute, a 
tender youth lying on tender flowers, whilst the 
moisture on his forehead mingles with the dew of 
the meadow ; and Zephyrus summons him by 
breathing on his hair, and he breathes in response 
to the wind, drawing the air from his lungs. Reeds 
already yielding music lie beside Olympus, and also 
the iron tools with which the holes are bored 
in the pipes. A band of Satyrs gaze lovingly 

^ i e. the bronze statue of Arion seated on a dolphin, 
which Herodotus (1. 24) describes. 

^ i.e. the figure of Olympus which he is about to describe. 
Olympus was a pupil of Marsyas and beloved by him ; cf. the 
red-figured vase painting, Roscher, LexUcon. d. gr. ii. rom. 
Myth. III. 861. 



^arvpoH' Ti? dyeX^] KaraOecourac to fieipaKLOv 
ipvOpol Ka\ a€a7]p6T€<^, 6 fiev rov arepvov 6iy€LP 
S6u/jievo<;, 6 Se ificpvi'aL rfj Seprj, 6 he airdaaL tl 
€7riOv/j,(hv (^i\r)fia, dvOi] re eViTraTTOucrt Kal 
10 irpoaKwovcFLv OD<i dyaX/jta, 6 cro(/)60TaT09 he avTCOv 
€Ti Oep/jLov Oarepov avXov^ tj-jv jXctyrrav dva- 
a7rdcra<i eadiei /cal rov "OXufiirov ouro) (^iXelv 
OieTai,(j)i]al Se Kal diToyevaao-OaL rod TTvevjiaTO^. 


(1) TtVi avX€L<;, "0Xv/jL7r€ ; tl Se epyov /lov- 

15 aLKpj(; iv ipiipaa ; ov ttoi/jl/jp aoi Trdpeariv, ovk 
al7r6Xo<^ ovSe Nv/x(f)aL<; avXet^;, at KaX(i)<; av 
v7rQ)p-)(^7]aavTO ro) auXw, /xaOcop Se ovk olha 6 
TL y^aipeif; tw eVl t^ ireTpa vSan Kal /SXeVei? 
eV avTo. TL ii6Te\ci)v avrov ; Kal yap ovt6 

20 KeXapv^eL aoL Kal Trpo? tov avXov VTraaeTaL ^ 
ouT€ hiafierpovixev aoL ttjv ij/aepav, o'i ye /3ou- 
XoL/j,e6' dv Kal e? vvKTa<; dirorelvaL to avXi^pa. 
el Be TO KdXXo<; dvaKpiveL's, tov vBaro<; dfieXeL' 
r}li€L<; yap iKavcoTepoL Xe^aL tcl ev aol diravTa. 

25 (2) To iJiev o/uLfia aoL ')(^a poir 6v , iroXXd 8e avTOV 
7r/509 TOV avXov to, Kevrpa, d(f)pv<; Se avTw irepi- 
^ej3\.'>]TaL SLaat]/j.aLvovaa tov vovv tmv avXtf- 
fidrcov, rj Trapetd he TrdXXeaOai Sokcl Kal olov 
V7rop-)(^eLaOaL tm p.eXeL, to irvevpia Se ovSev 

30 eiraipeL tov irpoadnrov viro tov ev tm avXrp 

^ Schenkl omits rov before avKov. 

^ u-nacmai Kolule and (Joniperz : virocaTai. 


BOOK I. 21 

upon the youth, ruddy grinning creatures, one 
desiring to touch his breast, another to embrace his 
neck, anotlier eager to pluck a kiss ; they scatter 
flowers over him and worship him as if he were a 
divine image ; and the cleverest of them draws out 
the tongue of the second pipe which is still warm 
and eats it, thinking he is thus kissing Olympus, 
and he says he tasted the boy's breath. 


For whom are you playing the flute, Olympus? 
And what need is there of music in a desert place ? 
No shepherd is here with you, nor goatherd, nor 
yet are you playing for Nymphs, who would dance 
beautifully to your flute; and 1 do not understand 
just why you take delight in the pool of water by 
the rock and gaze into it.^ What interest have 
you in it ? It does not murmur for you like a brook 
and sing an accompaniment to your flute, nor do we 
need its water to measure off the day ^ for you, 
we who w^ould fain prolong your music even into 
the night. If it is beauty you are investigating, 
pay no heed to the water ; for we are more com- 
petent than it to tell all your charms. Your eye is 
bright, and many a })rovoking glance comes from it 
to the flute ; your brow overarching the eye in- 
dicates the meaning of the tune you play ; your 
cheek seems to quiver and as it were to dance to 
the melody ; your breath does not pufl" out your 

^ Cf. Narcissus gazing at his reflection in a pool, Descrip- 
tion 23 infra, p. 89. 

2 An allusion to the water-clock used in the courts to time 
the speeches. 



elvai, y Kofxi] re ovk apyi] ovre Kelrat KaOdirep 
iv aariKM /jLeipaKifo XiTTMaa, dW' iyyjyeprac fxev 
325 K. viTo Tov avx/^ou, 7ra/oe;^eTafc he avxiJLripov ovSev 
ev o^eia fcal ^(Xwpci rfj ttltvi. Ka\o<; yap o 
aT€(pai'0<^ Kal Setvo'^ eiTL7rpey\rai toI<; ev 6)pa, ra 
le dvO)] irap6evoL<i dvac^veaOco koI yvvatOL^ epev- 
5 6o<; eavTol<i epya^eaOco. (f)T]fXi aoi Kal rd arepva 
01) iTvevparo^ epbirXea elvat fiovov, dX\d Kal 
evvoia<=; /jiOvcnKrj<^ Kal hiaGKe'\\rew<^ rojv avKrj- 
fidrcov. (3) AIe^/3£ rovrcou ae to vScop ypdcfiet 
KaraKvirrovra e? avro diro t?}? Trerpa^;. el oe 

10 koTrjKOTa eypa(j)ev, ovk dv eva')(r}[iova rd vtto 
TO) crrepvcp ehei^ev eTriTroXaioi ydp ai /xt/z/ycrei? 
T(ov vBdrcov diTO tov crvvt^dveiv ev avTol^ Ta 
/i-qKt]. TO Be Kal KXv^ea-Sat ctol tyjv aKidv eaTco 
pev Kal irapd tov avXou t^^v 7T7]yy]v KaraiTveovTo^, 

15 eaTco Se Kal irapd tov Zecf^vpov TavTa TrdvTa, hi 
ov Kal av ev tw avXelv Kal 6 avXo<; ev tm irvelv 
Kal i) TT-qyrj ev tm KaTavXelaOai. 


(1) Y^aQevhei 6 ^drvpo^, Kal vcpeip^errj rfj 

(payvrj irepl avrov \eycop.ev, p,r] e^eyeipriTai Kal 

20 SiaXvcFt] ra opcopeva. XllSa<; avTOV oI'vm TeBi]- 

paKev ev ^Ppvyua irepl avrd, co? opdf;, Ta Spy], 

^ Olympus is standing far enough back from the pool, so 
that he sees onl}' the reflection of his head and l)reast ; these 
are bent forward so as to be nearly ])arallel to the surface of 
tlie water, and therefore the reflection is not unduly fore- 


BOOK I. 22 

cheeks because it is all in the flute ; your hair is 
not unkempt, nor does it lie smooth, made sleek 
with unguents as in a city youth, but it is so dry 
that it is fluffy, yet without giving the impression 
of squalid dryness by reason of the bright fresh 
sprays of pine upon it. Beautiful is such a crown 
and well adapted to adorn beautiful youths ; but let 
flowers grow for maidens and let them produce 
their rosy colour for women. Your breast, I should 
say, is filled not merely with breath for the flute, but 
also with thoughts of music and meditation on the 
tunes you will play. As far as the breast the 
water pictures you, as you bend down over it from 
the rock ; but if it pictured you full length, it would 
not have shown you as comely from the breast 
down ; for reflections in the water are but on the 
surface, imperfect because stature is foreshortened 
in them.^ The fact that your reflection is broken by 
ripples may be due to your flute breathing upon the 
water of the fountain, or all that we see may be due 
to Zephyrus, who inspires you in playing the flute, 
the flute in breathing its strain, and the spring in 
being moved by the flute-playing. 

22. MIDAS 

The Satyr is asleep ; let us speak of him with 
bated breath, lest he wake and spoil the scene 
before us. Midas has captured him with wine in 
Phrygia ^ on the very mountain-side, as you see, by 

shortened ; whereas, if he had been standing near enough to 
the water to see the rest of his body, the reflection of it 
would have been very much foreshortened. 

2 The story is told by Xen. Anab. 1. 2. 1.3, and Philo- 
stratuSj Vita A poll. 6. 27. 



Tijv Kp)]injv OLVOXoyj(Ta<^, ev r) Kelrai 7rapaj3\v^wv 


Zarvpcov Se t)Bu fiev to acpoSpov, ore 6p- 

25 \ovvTai, rjSu Se to ficofjUoXoxov, ot€ fxethLMat. 

Koi €p(t)cnv 01 yevvaloL ical vTroiroLOvvTai Ta<; 

AvSa<; aLKdXXovT€<s avTa<; Te^^in]. KUKelvo 

avTCov eTL' aK\7]pol ypdcfyovTUL Kal UKpaTOL to 

al/jia KoX rrepiTTol tcl oiTa koI kolXol to la'^iov, 

30 dykpwxoi irdvTa Kal to iirl to, ovpala lttttol. 

(2) To Se Oj]pa/ia tov WlSov tovto yeypaiTTaL 

fjLev oaa eKelvoi, KaOevSei Be viro tov ol'vou to 

aaOpLa eXKwv co? Ik ixe6ri<;. koX t) /lev KpyjvJ] 

326 K. iriiroTaL avTw paov i) 6Tepw kv\l^, ai Se Kvfxcpai, 

Xopevovai ToyOd^ovaat tov ^uTvpov inl rco 

Kadevheiv. &)? d/Bpo^; 6 MtSa?, o)? 8e padvpo<;. 

/jLiTpa<; eTTtpbeXeLTat Kal ^oaTpvx^ov Kal Ovpaov 

5 (fiepet Kal aToXi^v ey^pvaov. Ihov Kal wra 

/xeydXa, v(f)' cjv ?;56t9 ol oc^OaXpuol SoKovvT€<i 

virvrfKol (^alvovTai Kal peOekKovai ti^v rjBovijv 

et? TO V(o6p6i\ alvLTT0/ji€V)]<; (TTrovSfj t;'}? ypa(j))']<; 

eK/ie/jLrjvvaOai TavT ijS'] Kal SiaSeSoadat toU 

10 dvdpd)7roi<; iv KaXd/jifo, p.t] KaTaa')(ova'ri^ Ty]<; 

7779 a i^Kovaev. 

^ The older type of representing Satyrs is here described : 

2 On a black-figured kylix by Ergotiinus ( IViencr Vorlcge- 
b/dft^r, 1881, PI. IV. 2) the captured Seilenus is being led 
to Midas by attendants carrying a rope and a wine skin ; cf. 
also the red-figured amphora, Fig. 10, p. 87. 

^ Tlie ears of an ass, which Apollo gave JNIidas because 
he presumed to think his own music superior to that of 

* The story runs that Midas concealed the ass's ears from 
everyone but liis hairdresser, who was sworn to secrec}' ; 
but the latter whispered the secret to a hole in the earth, 


BOOK I. 22 

filling ^vith wine the spring beside which lie lies 
disgorging the wine in his sleep. 

Charming is the vehemence of satyrs when they 
dance^ and charming their ribaldry when they 
laugh ; they are 
given to love, 
noble creatures 
that they are, 
and they sub- 
due the Lj'dian 
women to their 
will by their ^^^- In- 

artful flatteries. And this too is true of them : they 
are represented in paintings as hardy, hot-blooded 
beings, with prominent ears, lean about the loins, 
altogether mischievous, and having the tails of 

The Satyr caught by Midas'^ is here depicted 
as satyrs in general are, but he is asleep as a result 
of the wine, breathing heavily like a drunken man. 
He has drunk up the whole spring more easily than 
another would have taken a cupful, and the 
Nymphs dance, mocking the Satyr for having 
fallen asleep. How dainty is Midas and how he 
takes his ease ! He is careful of his head-dress and 
his curling locks, and he carries a thyrsus and wears 
a robe woven with gold. See the long ears,^ which 
give his seemingly attractive eyes a sleepy look and 
turn their charm into dullness ; for the painting 
purposely hints that this story has already been 
divulged and published abroad among men by the 
pen, since the earth could not keep secret what it 

and bushes that grew there when shaken by the wind told 
the storv to the world. 



(1) 'H yi\v iri'i'yri ypd(f)€i rov NdpKiaaov, r) 
Se ypa(f)r} ttjv irijyrjv Kol rd rov ^ap/claaov 
irdvra. /jbetpd/ciop dpri 6)]pa'^ d-TTtjWayfieuou 

15 m]yfj 6(f)eaT7]K€i' eXKOv rivd e'^ avrov Ifxepov 
KOL ep6)V T% eavTov (opa<;, dcnpdirreL he, &)? 
opa<^, e? TO vhwp. (2) To fxev ovv avrpov 
' A\e\(pov fcal Nu//.0coj^, yeypairrai Be rd eUora' 
(f)avXov re ydp Te-^v)]<^ rd dydX/uLara kol \i6ov 

20 Tov ^ eurevOev, fcal rd fiev TrepiTerpnTrai vwo 
Tov ')(p6i'ov, rd Se ^ovkoXwv rj iroLpevcov TratSc? 
7r6pL€K0\lrav en vi^moL Koi dvaiaOi^TOt tov deov. 
Koi ovSe d/3dK)(^euT0<; 7) irriyij tov i^iovvaov olov 
dva^r]vavT0^ avTrjv rat? Krival<^' d/jiireXw yovv 

25 Koi KiTTW TjpeTTTat Koi eki^L /caXaU /cal ^oTpixov 
/jbeTeaxv^^ f<^^i' ^ o6ev ol Ovpaor Kcop-d^ovai, re 
eTT* avTi]v^ ao(f)ol 6pvL6e<^, co? e/cdaTou dpfjLOvia, 
Ka\ dvdi-j Xevicd ttj Trrjyfj TrepiirecpvKev ovirw 
ovTa, aXX" eVl toj /jLecpa/clfo ^vofxeva. Ti/uLwaa 

30 Be T) ypa(f)rj T^/^' dXijOeiap kol hpocrov tl Xei/Sei 
diTo TMV dvOewv, ol^ Kal fxeXtTTa e(f)i^dvet Ti?, 
ovK olBa etV e^airaTrjOelaa vtto t>]<; ypa(f)t]<^, 

^ TOV added by Ka3'ser. ^ /cat added by Lindau. 

^ avrii V Keiske : outtj. 

^ Narcissus gazing at his reflection in a pool is the subject 
of a Ponipeian wall-painting, Fig. 11, p. 89 (Ternite, 
Waiulgcinaclde, III. 4. 25). 


BOOK I. 23 


The pool paints Narcissus, and the painting 
represents both the pool and the whole story of 
Narcissus.^ A youth just returned from the hunt 
stands over a pool_, drawing from within himself a 
kind of yearning and falHng in love with his own 
beauty ; and, as you see, he sheds a radiance in- 
to the water. The cave is sacred to Acheloiis and 
the Nymphs, and the scene is painted realistically. 
For the statues are of a 
crude art and made from a 
local stone ; some of them 
are worn away by time, 
others have been mutilated 
by children of cowherds or 
shepherds while still young 
and unaware of the presence 
of the god. Nor is the pool 
without some connection 
with the Bacchic rites of 
Dionysus, since he has made 
it known to the Nymphs of 
the wine-press ; at any rate it is roofed over with vine 
and ivy and beautiful creeping plants, and it abounds 
in clusters of grapes and the trees that furnish the 
thyrsi, and tuneful birds disport themselves above 
it, each with its own note, and white flowers grow 
about the pool, not yet in blossom but just springing 
up in honour of the youth. The painting has such 
regard for realism that it even shows drops of dew 
dripping from the flowers and a bee settling on the 
flowers — whether a real bee has been deceived by the 
painted flowers or whether we are to be deceived into 


Fig. 11. 


el're j]/u.a<^ e^i]iraT?]G6ai ^(py) eliai avTi']v. aXX.' 
527 K. earco. (3) IXe fxevTOi.^ /jieipd/cioi', ov ypacj)/] rt? 
€^7]7rdT7]a€U, ovSe )(p(t)/j.a(TLV rj Kiipw 7TpoaT6T}]Ka<;, 
dW eKTVTTMaav ae to vScop, olov elhe^i avTO, ovk 
oLaOa ovre to tt)? Tnjyri^ €X€j)(ei<; a6(f)ia/jLa, 
5 vevaac Seiv'^ kol TrapaTpeyjrai, lov etSov; kol 
Ti-jV X^lpci viroKLvrjaaL Kal pbrj iirl tuvtov eaTarai, 
av 5' coaiTep eTaipw evTV)(cov TuKeWev 7repi/J.€V€i<^. 
etTa GOi 7) TTiryr) /jlvOw ')(^pi](J€Tai; ol'TO? fiev ovv 
ouS' iiraiei tl i)imo)v, aXV €/X7T67rT0)K€P iirl to 

\0 vBcop avTOL'^ wal kol avTOL<; 6/j,/iaaiv, avTol^ 
Be 7]/jL6t<;, oiarrep 'ye'ypaiTTai, Xiyw/iei'. 

(4) 'Op6ov dvairaveTai to fieipd/ciov ivaWd^av 
tol> TToSe Kal Ttjv %ei/3a eTTe')(ov TreinfyoTL tCo 
aKOVTLW iv dpiaTepa, ?'; 8e|'ia Be TrepirJKTat 6iV to 

15 ia')(^iov dvaay^elv t€ avTov kol (T^rnia irpaTTew 
eKKeipLevoiv twp jXovtcov Bid T}]v twv dpiaTepwi 
eyKXiaiv.^ BeiKvveL Be /; %eip depa fiev, KaO' o 
fcvpTovTai 6 dyK(jL>v, pvTiBa Be KaO^ o aTpe/3Xov- 
Tai 6 KapTTO's Kal (jKidv rcapeyeTai avvi^dvovaa 

20 6i9 TO Oevap, Xo^al Be al^ dKTLve<; tT/? aKLd<; 
Bia Tr]v etao) eTTiaTpocprjv tmv BaKTvXwv, to Be 
ev Tw (TTepvM daO/ia ovk olBa elVe KwrfyeTiKov 
eTL eLT€ yBr] epwTiKov. to ye fiyv opLfxa iKavMS 
€pMVT0<;, TO yap ^apOTrov avTOv Kal yopyov eV 

25 (pv(Teco<i irpavvet Tf? ecpitdvcov l'/jLepo<;, Bokcl 8' 

^ ixivroi Kayser : jxtv 16. 

2 SeTi/ Schenkl, Z4ov Kayser : 5e or re. 

*• avToi Kayser: avro. 

* (yKKiaiv Keiske : iKKXiaiv. 


BOOK I. 21, 

thinking that a painted l)ee is real^ I do not know. 
But let that pass. As for you, however, Narcissus, 
it is no painting that has deceived you, nor are you 
engrossed in a thing of pigments or wax ; but you 
do not reahze that the water represents you exactly 
as you are when you gaze upon it, nor do you see 
through the artifice of the pool, though to do so you 
have only to nod your head or change your expres- 
sion or slightly move your hand, instead of standing 
in the same attitude ; but acting as though you had 
met a companion, you wait for some move on his 
part. Do you then expect the pool to enter into 
conversation witli you ? Nay, this youth does not 
hear anything we say, but he is immersed, eyes and 
ears alike, in the water and we must interpret the 
painting for ourselves. 

The youth, standing erect, is at rest ; ^ he has 
his legs crossed and supports one hand on the spear 
which is planted on his left, while his right hand is 
pressed against his hip so as to support his body and 
to produce the type of figure in which the buttocks 
are pushed out because of the inward bend of the 
left side. The arm shows an open space at the 
point where the elbow bends, a wrinkle where the 
wrist is twisted, and it casts a shadow as it ends 
in the palm of the hand, and the lines of the 
shadow are slanting because the fingers are bent in. 
Whether the panting of his breast remains from 
his hunting or is already the panting of love I do 
not know. The eye, surely, is that of a man deeply 
in love, for its natural brightness and intensity are 
softened by a longing that settles upon it, and he 

^ Cf. the attitude of Oenomaiis in the east pediment of the 
temple of Zeus at Olympia. 



to-axf Kal avTepacrOai, ^Xeirovcn^^; avrov r/}? 

aKLa<;, w? vtt avrov opdrai. (5) HoXya Kal 

irepl tT;? ko/jLT]^; eke)(^9r] civ, el dtjpcovrc avru) 

iv6Tvxofji€V. fivpiat yap avTy<; al KLVi]aei<; iv 

30 Tw hpofxw Kal p^dWov, iireiSdv viro dvi/Jiov tivo<; 

ejJUTVOV^ jevfjTai, rv)(OL 8' dv Kal \6yov vvv. 

d/jL(j)i\acf)ov<; yap ovcr^]^ avT}]<^ nal olov )(pvari<; 

TO /xev 01 Tei>ovTe<^ icpeXKorrai, to S' vtto to)v 

WTCDV KpLverai, to Be tw jxeTOtiTrw imaaXeveL, to 

35 Se Tfi V7n]vr} eTTippel. laot ^ re dfji(j)a) ol Ndp- 

32S K KiaaoL to elSo^; I'aa e/ucpaiPOVTe'; dXXt']X(ov, irX-qv 

6aoi> 6 /lev €KK6iTaL tov depo<^, 6 he ttjv 7T)]yi]v 

vTTohehvKev. icpeaTrjKe yap to /xeipaKiov tm ev ^ 

vBaTi kcTTWTL, fxaXXov he dTCVL^ovTL e? avro Kal 

5 olov hi-yjron'Tt tov KdX\ov<;. 


(1) 'AvdyvcoOi Ti]v huKivOov, yey pairrai yap 

Kal (pyjacv dvacpvvai, r?}? yi}^ enl p^etpaKlo) KaXu) 

Kal 6py]veL avTO d/xa rw ypc yeveaiv ol/iaL irap^ 

avTOv Xa/Sovaa, ore drreOave. Kal firj ere XeipLoov 

10 dva^dXy rovro, Kal yap evravOa eKire^vKev^ 

^ Xaoi Jacobs : etV/. 

2 Ty eV added by Capps. 

1 Hyacinthus, a j^outhful favourite of Apollo, was accident- 
ally slain b}' the discus thrown b}' the god, and the event 
was coniniemorated b}' the hyacinth which is said to have 
sprung from his blood. The accident is here explained as 
due to Zephyrus, tlie wind which diverted the discus from 
its true course. 


BOOK I. 24 

perhaps thinks that he is loved in return, since the 
reflection gazes at him in just the way that he looks 
at it. There would be much to say about the 
hair if we found him while hunting. For there 
are innumerable tossings of the hair in running, 
especially when it is blown by a wind ; but even 
as it is the subject should not be passed over in 
silence. For it is very abundant and of a golden 
hue ; and some of it clings to the neck, some is 
parted by the ears, some tumbles over the forehead, 
and some falls in ripples to the beard. Both the 
Narcissi are exactly alike in form and each repeats 
the traits of the other, except that one stands out 
in the open air while the other is immersed in the 
pool. For the youth stands over the youth who 
stands in the water, or rather who gazes intently 
at him and seems to be athirst for his beauty. 


Read the hyacinth, for there is writing on it ^ 
which says it sprang from the earth in honour of 
a beautiful youth ; and it laments him at the be- 
ginning of spring, doubtless because it was born 
from him when he died. Let not the meadow delay 
you with the flower, for it grows here^ also, no 
different from the flower which springs from the 

Furtwangler, Ant. Gemmen, PI. XX. 31, publishes an 
Etruscan scarab representing Hyacinthus ; the youth is 
bending forward, drops of blood fall from his head, and at 
his feet is the discus that caused his death (Fig. 12, p. 9-5). 

2 Referring to the letters AI AI ("woe, woe") on the 
petals of the flowers. 

^ i.e. in the curling hair of the j'outh Hyacinthus in the 



OTToia T/y? 7/}? a/eV^e. Xeyet Be 1) <ypa(j)j] koI 
vaKLvOiVTjV eli'ai rro fieipaKiw ryjv k6/xi]v kol to 
alfia e/jb/Siov ry yfj yiio/ievov^ ei? oUelov ri 
')(p(io(jai TO arOo<;. pel Se utt' at'T/)? tT;? K€(pa\y]<; 

15 €/JL7Te7rT(t)fcoTO<; avTrj tou Sla/cov. Setvr] fiev 
r) oia/iapTLa Kal ovBe Trtcrr?; XeyeTat kutcl 
Tov A7r6Wo)vo<;' iirel Se ov aocpLGTal tcov 
/ivOcov yKOfiev ovSe airLaTelv eTOi/jLOt, OeaToi he 
fiovov TMV <yey pa/ijiievfov, e^eTacTM/iev tijv ypacfyrjv 

20 Kal irpwTov ye tj-jv ffaX/SlSa tov hiaKOv. 

(2) BaX/3i? hiaKe')(^UL>pL(JTaL fiLKpa Kal citto- 
')(pcoaa evl ecTTcoTi, el firj to KaToiriv Kal to 
he^Lov aKeXo<; avexovaa, irpavf] ra e/xirpoaOev, 
Kal Kov(f)L^ovaa OciTepov toIv cjKeXolv, o y^prj 

25 avvava/SdXXeaOai Kai av/jLrropevecrdai ttj Be^id. 
TO Be ax^l/^ci TOV Blcjkov avexovTO<^' i^aXXd^avTa 
Ty]v Ke(f)aX7]v iirl Be^ici ^Ph fcvpTOvaOat tocjov, 
baov VTro/SXeylrat to, rrXevpd, Kal piirTeli' olov 
dvLpLoovTa Kal irpocrepijBdXXovTa tol<; 8effot9 

30 irdaL. (3) Kat 6 ' XiroXXwv ovtco 7ra)9 eBlcr- 
KevaeVy ov yap av dXXa}<; d(py]Kev, epLTreacov Be 
6 BlaKo^; e? to /ueipdKLOv to fiev KecTat Kal eV 
329 K. avTOv ye tov Blokov — AaKcoi'iKov fieipdKLOv Kal 
TTjv Kvrj/jL7]v opOov Kal BpojJLWv ovK dyvfxvaaTOv 
Kal /3pa)(iOva vireyelpov ^^Br) Kal ti-jv copav tcov 
^ Some ^ISS. give 'Kt.v6^iivov for "yivSixevov. 

' Cf. Od. 6. 231 : Ko^as, vaKivdivcp &t'dei bjxo'ias. 
2 It was a stone slab marked with incised lines which gave 
a firm footing to the athlete ; cf. Ausyrahunc/en in Olympia, 


BOOK I. 24 

earth. The painting tells us that the hair of the 

youth is '^ hyacinthine," ^ and that his blood, taking 

on life in the earth, has given the 

flower its own crimson colour. It flows 

from the head itself where the discus 

struck it. Terrible was the failure to 

hit the mark and incredible is the story 

told of Apollo ; but since we are not 

here to criticize the myths and are not 

ready to refuse them credence, but are ^^^- ^^• 

merely spectators of the paintings, let us examine 

the painting and in the first place the stand set for 

throwing the discus. 

A raised tli rower's stand ^ has been set apart, so 
small as to suffice for only one person to stand on, and 
then only when it supports the posterior portions and 
the right leg of the thrower, causing the anterior 
portions to bend forward and the left leg to be 
relieved of weight ; for this leg must be straightened 
and advanced along with the right arm. As for the 
attitude of the man holding the discus, he must 
turn his head to the right and bend himself over 
so far that he can look down at his side, and he 
must hurl the discus by drawing himself up and 
putting his whole right side into the throw. 
Such, no doubt, was the way Apollo threw the 
discus, for he could not have cast it in any other 
w^ay ; and now that the discus has struck the youth, 
he lies there on the discus itself — a Laconian youth, 
straiglit of leg, not unpractised in running, the 
muscles of his arm already developed, the fine 
lines of the bones indicated under the flesh ; but 

V. 35. The present description closely folloMs tlie well- 
known Discobolus of Myron. 



ocTTMV viTeK(j)alvov — (ITT ear pair TaL he ^ XiroXKwv 
6 en €(peaTa)(; rfj ^aXj^lhi /cal Kara 7?}? ^Xeirei. 
7T€7rr]<yei'aL (f)7]a€i<; aurov, roaouTov avT(o t>)? 
€K7r\7)^€(o<; e/j-TreTTTCOKev. (4) W/jLaO//^ ye 6 
Ze(f)vpo<; ve/jiea)]aa<s avTw /cat rov SlaKOP e? to 
lietpuKLOv irapei^, Kal yeXcof; SoKel ru) dve/JLM 
10 ravra Kal rwdd^et Trepicoiryv ex(ov. 6pd<^ he 
oljjLai avTov ev Trrrfpco rw Kpordcfxp Kal afSpo) tq) 
eiSei, Kal areijiavov ^epeu ttuvtcov dvOewv, 
fiLKpov he varepoi' Kal ttjv vaKLvOov avrol^ 


15 (1) To Tov otvov pevfia ro ev "Avhpca ttj vr](j(£i 
Kal 01 /jLedvovTe<; rov rrorajjiov "Avhpioi X0709 
elal tT;? 'ypa(f)ij<;. \\vhpLOL<i jdp 5?; eV Aiovvaov 
77 77) VTTOivo^ pijyvvrat Kal iroTapiOV avrol^ dva- 
hihaxTLV el pev euOvjJLriOeiri^ vhcop, ovttq) fieya, el 

20 he olvov, /jL€ya<i 6 irojapo^ Kal 6elo<^' earc yap 
TovTov dpvaa/jievo) KelXov re virepihelv Kal 
"IdTpov Kal TTOv (pdvaL Trepl avTcov, otl KaKelvoi 
^eXrlov; dv ehoKovv oXlyot flip, dXXd tolovtol 

25 (2) \\ai ahovaii' olp^at ravra yvvaioL^i dp.a Kal 
iraihloti; earecpavco/ievoi, KLrrw re Kal (jfxiXaKL, 
OL ^ fiev ^(opevovre^ e^' €Karepa<; 6)(6ij^, 01 he 
KaraKeifxevoi. elKO<; he irov KdKelva elvai rrj<; 
(i)h7]<;, ct)9 hovaKa p.ei> 'A^^eXwo?, Y[t]veio<i he 

30 TeyUTT); (f)epei, IlafcrroXo<; 8e . . . - dv6i] Xolttoi', 
ovroal he o 7rorafio<; 7rXovaiov<; r d7ro(f)aipe 

^ Kul before ol deleted Ijy Reiske. 
'■^ Westermann notes the lacuna. 


BOOK I. 25 

Apollo with averted face is still on the thrower's 
stand and he gazes down at the ground. You will 
say he is fixed there, such consternation has fallen 
upon him. A lout is Zephyrus, who was angry 
with Apollo and caused the discus to strike the 
youth, and the scene seems a laughing matter to 
the wind and he taunts the god from his look-out. 
You can see him, I think, with his winged temples 
and his delicate form ; and he wears a crown of all 
kinds of flowers, and will soon weave the hyacinth in 

among them. 


The stream of wine which is on the island 
of Andros, and the Andrians who have become 
drunken from the river, are the subject of this 
painting. For by act of Dionysus the earth of the 
Andrians is so charged with wine that it bursts forth 
and sends up for them a river ; if you have water 
in mind, the quantity is not great, but if wine, it is 
a great river — yes, divine I For he who draws from 
it may well disdain both Nile and Ister and may 
say of them that they also would be more highly 
esteemed if they were small, provided their streams 
were like this one. 

These things, methinks, the men, crowned with 
ivy and bryony, are singing to their wives and 
children, some dancing on either bank, some re- 
clining. And very likely this also is the theme 
of their song — that while the Acheloiis bears reeds, 
and the Peneius waters Tempe, and the Pactolus 
. . . flowers, this river makes men rich, and power- 
ful in the assembly, and helpful to their friends, and 



Kal 8vvaTov<; ra iv ajopd koX iirifxekel'^ tcjv 
cf)iX(ov Kal Ka\ov<; Kal rerpaTryJx^c^; eK [itKpojv 
€(TTL yap KopeaOevTL avrov avWeyeadai ravra 

35 Kal eadyecrOaL e? t?;i^ yviofii^v. aSovat Be ttov, 
330 K. on /jl6vo<; irorafiMV ovtol /JLijre ffovKo\Loi<; earl 
/3aT0(; fxy]0* Ittttol'^, dXX! olvoxoelrai fxev i/c 
Aiovvaov, TTLperai Be ciKi^paro^i, /jL6voL<i dv9pa)7roi<; 
pecov. ravrl pbev ciKoveiv i)yov Kal aBovrcov avrd 
ii'icov, Kare'^jreWia/iievcov rt]v cpcovrjp vtto tov 

5 oXvov. 

(3) Ta fxevTOi^ opcofieva t?}? ypa^i^]^' 6 fiev 
7roTa/j,o<; iv ^orpixov evvfj Kelrai rrjv irrjyrjv ckBc- 
Bov^ dKpar6<; re Kal opycov to elBo<;, OvpcroL B' avrw 
7r€pi7re(f)VKaaL KaOdirep ol KdXapboi tol^ vBaai, 

10 TTapa/jLeiyjravTL Be rh^v yrjv Kal ra ev avrfj ravra 
avfiTToaia Tplr(ove<; ijBt] irepl rd<i eV/9oXa9 cnrav- 
ro)vr€<^ dpvovrai k6x^ol<; rod o\'vov. Kal ro fxev 
irivovaiv avrov, ro Bi* dva(f)vaa)aiv, elal B^ ol Kal 
fieOvovcri rcov Tpircovwv Kal 6p)(ovvrat. irXet 

15 Kal Atovvao^ eirl KcofMou r?}? "AvBpov Kal KaOcop- 
/jLLarat fiev y vav<; 7]Bi], Xarvpov<i Be dva/il^ Kal 
Arjvd^i dyec Kal ^€L\r)vov<; oaot-. rov YeXayrd re 
ciyei Kal rov Kco/xov, IXapcordrco Kal ^vfiiro- 
riKcordrco Baifiove, d)<; yBiara 6 7Torap.o<; avrw 

20 rpvywro. 


(1) O KOfitBrj Trat? o en iv crirapydvoi^, 6 rd'i 
^oO? eh TO pP]y/j,a r/}? 7/)? iXavvcov, en KdKelvo^ 
6 avXoov ra /SeXrj rov ^AjroXXcovof;, 'E/)/x>i? 

* jueVroj Schenkl : fxty. 

BOOK I. 26 

beautiful and^ instead of short, four cubits tall ; for 
when a man has drunk his fill of it he can assemble 
all these qualities and in his thought make them his 
own. They sing, I feel sure, that this river alone 
is not disturbed by the feet of cattle or of horses, 
but is a draught drawn from Dionysus, and is drunk 
unpolluted, flowing for men alone. This is what 
you should imagine you hear and what some of them 
really are singing, though their voices are thick with 

Consider, however, what is to be seen in the 
painting : The river lies on a couch of grape- 
clusters, pouring out its stream, a river undiluted 
and of agitated appearance ;i thyrsi grow about it like 
reeds about bodies of water, and if one goes along past 
the land and these drinking groups on it, he comes at 
length on Tritons at the river's mouth, who are dip- 
ping up the wine in sea-shells. Some of it they 
drink, some they blow out in streams, and of the 
Tritons some are drunken and dancing. Dionysus 
also sails to the revels of Andros and, his ship now 
moored in the harbour, he leads a mixed throng 
of Satyrs and Bacchantes and all the Seileni. He 
leads Laughter and Revel, tAvo spirits most gay 
and most fond of the drinking-bout, that with the 
greatest delight he may reap the river's harvest. 


The mere babe still in swaddling clothes, the 
one who is driving the cattle into the cleft of 
the earth, who furthermore is stealing Apollo's 

^ A river of pure wine undiluted with water, and turgid, 
as if under the influence of wine. 



ouTO?. fiaXa i)helai al /cXoiral rov 6eov' (paal 

25 yap rov 'E>pfxrjV, ore rrj ISlaia eyevero, ipciv rov 
KXeirreiv koI elhevai touto, ovtl ttco ravra 
irevia Bpcov 6 9e6<s, dW' ev^poavvr) SlBov<; koX 
Trai^cov. el Be ^ovXet koI ^^(^vo^; avrov KUTLSelu, 
opa ra iv rfj ypa^fj. TLfCTerai p.ev iv Kopvcpal'^ 

30 Tov 'OXvfXTrou, kut avrov avco, to e8o<? rciiv 
Oecov. . €Kel Se "0/x?7/:o9 ovre o/i/Spayv alaOd- 
veaOal (pijatv ovre dve/iwv ciKovetv, dXX^ ovSe 
X^ovL ^Xi]6r}vaL irore avro hC virepffoXijv, elvai 
331 K. he Oelov aTe;\^i^a>? Aral eXevOepov aTrcivrcop iradcov, 
a)v fxerex^i' to, roiv dvdpooiToyv opTj. (2) ^Eprav6a 
TOV 'Epp.rjv diTOTexdevTa '^flpai KOfJii^ovTai. 
yey pa(f)e /cciKeU'a^^, co? wpa efcdaT7]<;, Kal cnrap- 
5 ydvot^ avTov dfi7rLa")(^ovaLV eTTLirdTTOvaat, Ta 
KdXXtara tmv dvOewv, co? fii^ daijjKov tvxu TOiv 
airapydvcov. Kal al fiev eirl ti]V fiijTepa tov 
'Rp/jiov TpeiTovTai Xe^^ Kei/ievr]v, 6 3' v7reKSv<; 
Tcov arrapydvcdv 7]St] ^aSl^ei Kal tov OXv/xttov 

10 Kdreiai. yeyrjOe he avTw to 6po<; — to yap 
/jLeiSla/jia avTov olov dvdpcoTrov — voet Be top 
"OXv/jLttov x^lpovTa, otl 6 'Ep/jiij<; eKel eyeveTO. 

(3) Tt? ovv 7] KXoTn] ; /Soi)? vepiOfieva<; ev tw 
TOV 'OXv/jLirov nrpoTToBi, TavTa<; B-qrrov to,^ 

15 xp^(^0K€pa)^ Kal virep x^ova XevKd^ — dvelvTaL 

^ Cf. the red-figured vase in the Museum Gregorianum, 
Baunieister, Dcnhndler, fig. 741. 

2 Cf. Alcaeus, Frag. 2, Edmond's Lyra Qraeca I ; the story 
is told at length in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. 

3 Homer, Od. 6. 4'2flf. "Neither is it shaken by winds, 
nor ever wet with rain, nor does the snow fall upon it, but the 

BOOK I. 26 

weapons — this is Hermes.^ Very delightful are the 
thefts of the god ; for the story is that Hermes, 
when Maia bore him, loved thievery and was skilled 
in it, though it was by no means through poverty 
that the god did such things, but out of pure delight 
and in a spirit of fun. If you wish to follow his 
course step by step, see how the painting depicts 
it. He is born on the crest of Olympus,^ at the 
very top, the abode of the gods. There, as Homer 
says,^ one feels no rain and hears no wind, nor is it 
ever beaten by snow, it is so high ; but it is ab- 
solutely divine and free from all the ills that pertain 
to the mountains which belong to men. There the 
Horae care for Hermes at his birth.* The painter 
has depicted these also, each according to her time, 
and they wrap him in swaddling clothes, sprinkling 
over him the most beautiful flowers, that he may 
have swaddling clothes not without distinction. 
While they turn to the mother of Hermes lying 
on her couch of travail, he slips out of his swaddling 
clothes and begins to walk at once and descends 
from Olympus. The mountain rejoices in him — for 
its smile is like that of a man — and you are to 
assume that Olympus rejoices because Hermes was 
])orn there. 

Now what was the theft ? ^ Cattle grazing on 
the foothills of Olympus, yonder cattle with golden 
horns and whiter than snow — for they are sacred 

air is outspread clear and cloudless." Translation of Murray 
in L.C.L. 

* Cf. Alcaeus, Frag, 3, Edmonds, Lyra Graeca I. ; Philo- 
stratus, Vita Apollon. 5. 15. For the Horae, cf. infra, II. 34, 
p. 269. 

5 Hermes' theft of the cattle is depicted on the vase 
mentioned in note 1. 



>yap T(p ^AttoWwvl — ciyet arpo^cjv eh y^cicrixa 
T?}? 7^9, ovy^ CO? aiToXoLvro, aX)C o)? a(f)avi(Tdelev 
6t? fiiav rj/iiepav, ear av tov ^AttoWo) Buktj 
Tovro, Kol o)? ovhev fierov avrw tov yeyovoro^ 

20 vTroSverai to, airdpyava. i]k6L Kal 6 ^ AiroWcov 
irapa rijv ^latav airaiTOiV Ta<; /3ov<;, rj Se 
aTTLarel Kal Xrjpelv ol'erai. tov Oeov. (4) BouXet 
p.aOelv 6 TL Kal Xiyet ; BoKel yap fxoi p,r) (fxovij^; 
fjLOVOv, aWa koX \6yov tl eir LhrjXovv tm 

25 7rpo(T(07ra)' eoiKSV co? peWcov 7rpo<; ti-jv ^lalav 
Xeyeiv TavTa. " dScKel fie 6 ao<^ vl6<i, ov %^€9 
ere/ce?" Td<; yap /Sou?, ah ex^ipov, €/jLl3el3\t]Kev 
e? T7]v yrjv, ovK olh^ ottol ti)^ yP]<;. diroXelTai 
hii Kal ififfefiXrjaeTaL KaTcoTepo) irpo tcov ySocoi^." 

30 ?; 8e Oav/jLci^ec Kal ov 7rpoaSe)(€Tai top \6yov. 
(5) "Et' avTOiV dvTiXeyovTWV aXX^yXot? 6 Kp/xf]^ 

'iCFTaTai KaTOTTLV TOV 'AtToWwI^O? Kal K0V(f)(O(; 

eiTLiTrjhr^aa^ rot? ixeTac^pevoi^ dylro(f>7]Tl Xvei to, 
To^a Kal (JvXoiV fiev BteXadev, ov prjv rjyvoijdi] 
35 aeavX7]K(t)<;. ivTavOa t) aocpla tov ^coypdcpov 
Sia'X^ec yap tov ^AttoXXco Kal iroiel ^aipovTa. 
332 K. /jLe/jLeTpyjTat he 6 yeXco^i olo<i icpt^dvcov tw 
Trp OCT (OTTO) 6vp.ov iKVLK(oa7]<; 7]8ov)}<;. 


BOOK I. 26 

to Apollo — he leads over a winding course into a 
cleft of the earth, not that they may perish, but 
that they may disappear for one day, until their loss 
vexes Apollo ; and then he, as though he had had 
no part in the affair, slips back into his swaddling 
clothes. Apollo comes to Maia to demand back the 
cattle, but she does not believe him and thinks the 
god is talking nonsense. Would you learn what 
he is saying ? For, from his expression he seems 
to me to be giving utterance, not merely to sounds, 
but to words ; he looks as though he m ere about 
to say to Maia, '' Your son whom you bore yester- 
day wrongs me ; for the cattle in which I delight 
he has thrust into the earth, nor do I know 
where in the earth. Verily he shall perish and 
shall be thrust down deeper than the cattle." But 
she merely marvels, and does not believe what he 
says. While they are still disputing with one 
another Hermes takes his stand behind Apollo, and 
leaping lightly on his back, he quietly unfastens 
Apollo's bow and pilfers it unnoticed,^ but after 
he has pilfered it, he does not escape detection. 
Therein lies the cleverness of the painter ; for he 
melts the wrath of Apollo and represents him as 
delighted. But his laughter is restrained, hovering 
as it were over his face, as amusement conquers 

^ The same scene is described at length in Horace's Ode 
to Mercury, I. 10. 11. 9-12: 

Te boves olini, nisi reddisses, 
Per dolum aniotas, Puerum minaci 
Voce dum terret, viduos pharetra 
Risit Apollo. 




(1) To Toiv hvolu apfia I'ttitolv — to yap eVt 
rerrdpcov oviro) to2<; rjpwai hia ^6ipo<; y]V, el firj 
5 dpa "KKTopi Tw Opaael — ^epei tov ^A/jL(f>idp€ct)v 
€K Stj/Smi' eiravLovTa, oirore avrw tj yij Xeyerai 
Siaa)(^elp, &)? fiavrtivoLTO iv rfj 'Attikt} kuI 
d\7]devoL croc^o? iv iravcrocpOLf;. eirrd ovroi o'l^ 
HoXvveiKet tw Si-j^aicp T7]v clp)(r)v KaraKTcofievoi 

10 ovS€l<i evocTTrjae TrXrjv ^ Ahpaarov koI A/i(f)tcipeco, 
Tou? Be XoiTTou? 7] KaS/xeia KaTea')(€V. diroiXovro 
he 01 fiev ciXXoL Sopacri fcal Xi9ol<; koX jreXeKeai, 
KaTrareu? he Xeyerat Kepavvw ^e/SXfjaOai, 
irpoTcpo'^ olfxai KOfinfo /SaXcov tov Ata. 

15 (2) Ovroi fiev ovv erepov Xoyov, KeXevei he i) 
ypacpy) ^Xeiret-v e? jjlovov tov 'Aficpuipecov (pevy- 
ovTa KaTCL T?}? yr}<^ avTOt<; aTep^fjuaaL koI avTrj 

hd(f)Vr]. KOl ol LITTTOL XeVKol Kal 7] hiV71 TOiiV 

Tpo)((ov aiTovhrj<^ ep^irXew^i Kal to aaOp^a tcov 

20 'iTTTTwv diro 7ravT0<; tov p,v/CT7]po<;, d(f)pa) he rj yrj 

hieppavTai /cal 7) ')(aLT7] p,€TaKXLveTaL, hLafip6')(^0L<i 

T€ virb ihpa)T0<; ovat irepiKeLTai Xctttt] k6vi<; 

rjTTOv /juev fcaXov^ uTTocpaLvovaa tov<; ittttov;, 

dXr)6eaT€pov<; he. 6 he 'A/jL(f)idpeco<; tcl p.ev aXXa 

25 MirXiaTai, fiovov he dp,eXel Kpdvov<^ dviel<; ttjv 

^ 01 added by Schenkl. 

^ Cf. p. 69, supra. 

2 For Amphiaraiis on his chariot, cf. Benndorf-Xeuniann, 
Das Grahmal von Gjolbaschi, p. 194f., PI. XXIV A, 5, 

^ i.e. at the Amphiaraum at Oropus in northern Attica, a 
dream-oracle and health-resort. 

^ Cf. II. 3. 243. 


[To/ace 2>. 105. 

BOOK I. 27 


The two-horse chariot — for the four-horse chariot^ 
was not yet in use by the heroes except by Hector 
the Bold — is bearing Amphiaraiis ^ on his way back 
from Thebes at the time when the earth is said 
to have opened to receive him^ in order that he 
may prophesy in Attica ^ and utter true answers, 
a sage among men most sage. Of those seven who 
sought to gain the kingdom for the Theban Poly- 
neices none returned save Adrastus and Amphiaraiis ; 
the rest the Cadmeian soil received.* These were 
slain by spears and stones and battle-axes, all but 
Capaneus, who, it is said, was struck down by a 
thunderbolt after he had first, as I recall, struck at 
Zeus with a boastful taunt. ^ 

Now those others belong to another tale, but 
the painting bids you look at Amphiaraiis alone as 
in his flight he sinks beneath the earth, fillets and 
laurel and all. His horses are white, the whirling 
of his chariot wheels shows urgent haste, the panting 
breath of the horses issues from every nostril, the 
earth is bespattered with foam, the horses' manes are 
all awry, and fine dust settling on their bodies wet 
with sweat makes them less beautiful but more 
true to life. Amphiaraiis otherwise is in full armour, 
but he has left off his helmet, thus dedicating^ his 

^ Aeschylus gives the boast of Capaneiis, Septem : 427 f. 
Trans. Smyth, L.C.L. : 

" For whether Heaven wills it or wills it not, he vows he 
will make havoc of the city, and that even the rival fire of 
Zeus, though it crash upon the earth in his path, shall not 
stay his course. . . ." 

^ di/ieis with double meaning, (a) "leaving it free to the 
light" and (b) "dedicating it." 


K6(f)a\7]v ^ AiroWayvL, ^Xeircov lepov Kal XPV^' 
/jLco8€<;. (3) Tpd(f)€t Be Kal top 'D^pcoirov veaviav 
ev y\avKOi<; <yvvaiOL<; — ra Be ian SaXarrai — 
ypc'Kpet Kol TO (f)povriaTi]piov WfKJiidpeco, pr/yfia 
30 lepov fcal OeiaoBe^;. avrov kol ^ Wi'^Oeia Xevy^ei- 
fjLOvovaa, avrov Ka\ oveipwv ttvXt] — Bet yap toi<; 
eKsl ixavrevop,evoL<; virvov — kol ^'Ovetpo^; avT6<; 
333 K. ev dveL/jteva) rw etBei yeypairiai koli eaOr^ra e^^c 
X6VK7]i> eirl fieXaivr], to oljuai vvfCTwp avTov /cal 
fieO^ i)liepav. e')(eL Kal Kepa<; ev Talv x^polv w? 
TO, evvirvia Blcl Trj<; dX.TfOov'^ dvdycov. 


5 (1) M?) TrapaOeiTe 7]fxd<;, m OrjpevTal, /x?;Se 
eiTiKeXeveade roi? Xttttol^, Trplv vfiMV e^iyyevaw- 
fiev, 6 Ti ^ovXeade Kal 6 tl OrjpdTe. vfjieh fxev 
yap eirl ')(Xovvr]v avv (^are 'iea6ai, Kal opco ra 
epya tov Otjplov — Td<; eXaia<; e^opoopvxe Kal rd^; 

10 dfiireXov^ cKTeTfMTjKe Kal ovBe (tvktjv KaraXe- 
XoLirev ovBe iirfXov rj jxifXdvOrjv, Trdvra Be 
e^rjprjKev Ik Tr)<^ 77)9 ra fxev dvopvTTwv, Tot? Be 
€p,7ri7rT(ov, T0t9 Be jrapaKPco/xevof;. opw Be avrov 
Kal rr)v %atT>;i^ (f>pirrovra Kal irvp efM^Xerrovra, 

15 Kal OL 6B6vre<; avrw irarayovaiv e'c/)' vp>d<;, w 
yevvalor Beivd yap rd roiavrl drfpia ore €K 

^ The personification of tlie town of Oropus on the sea- 
shore, where the oracle of Amphiaraii.s was situated. 

^ i.e. the Gate of Horn, through which come dreams that 
are true ; of. Od. 19. 566. Those who consulted the oracle 
slept in the shrine, and Avere cured by the god or learned 


BOOK I. 28 

head to Apollo, for his look is holy and oracular. 
The painting depicts also Oropus as a youth ^ among 
bright-eyed women, nymphs of the sea, and it 
depicts also the place used by Amphiaraiis for 
meditation, a cleft holy and divine. Truth clad all 
in white is there and the gate of dreams ^ — for 
those who consult the oracle must sleep — and the 
god of dreams himself is depicted in relaxed atti- 
tude, wearing a white garment over a black one, 
doubtless because his work is at night after day is 
done. And in his hands he carries a horn, showing 
that he brings up his dreams through the gate of 


Do not rush past us, ye hunters, nor urge on 
your steeds till we can track down what your purpose 
is and what the game is you are hunting. For you 
claim to be pursuing a "^^ fierce wild boar," ^ and 
I see the devastation wrought by the creature — it 
has burrowed under the olive trees, cut down the 
vines, and has left neither fig tree nor apple tree 
or apple branch, but has torn them all out of the 
earth, partly by digging them up, partly by hurling 
itself upon them, and partly by rubbing against 
them. I see the creature, its mane bristling, its 
eyes flashing fire, and it is gnashing its tusks at you, 
brave youths ; ^ for such wild animals are quick to 

the means of cure through dreams, a practice called 

3 Cf. II. 9. 539 : x^ovv-nv avv. 

* Cf. II. 13. 473 f : "He bristleth up his back and his two 
eyes blaze with fire, and he whetteth his tusks, eager to 
ward ofif dogs and men." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 



TrXecaTov KaraKoveiv rod o/jluSov — iyco /juh'Toi ^ 
olfiai T7JV copav eKeivov rov /xeipaKcov Sia67]pcovTa<; 
v/j.d<; reOrjpaaOaL vir avrov Kal irpOKivSuveveiv 
20 edekeiv. rl yap ovrco TrXyaiov ; ri he irapa- 
ylraiiovT€<; ; rl Se Trap avro iiriarpa^de ; rl Be 
waTL^eaOe tol<; l'7r7roi<; ; 

(2) Olov eiraOov. ^^^j^Oyjv viro rr)^ ypa(pP)<; 
/jLt] y€ypd(f)daL Sokcov avrov^y elvat he Kal 

25 KLvelaOai koI epav — BiaT(o6d^co yovv oo? llkovov 
Ta<; Kal Sokco tl civTaKoveadai — av 5' ovS* oaa 
eTriaTpeyjrai irapaTraiovTa €(f>0€y^(o tl Trapa- 
TrXrjaiw^. ijjLol i'6i'iK7jfievo<;, ovk e^wv dveipyeaOai 
T?}? dircLTri^; Kal rov ev avrfj virvov. (TKOTTM/xev 

30 ovv ra yeypaixpueva' ypa(f)f] yap irapeari'jKap.ev. 

(3) HepLKeiPTai ixev hi] tm fjueLpaKuo veaviai 
KaXol Kal KaXd eiTiTiihevovTe<^ Kal ola " evira- 
rpihai. Kal 6 fiev iraXaidTpas n iTnhrjXol 

334 K. Tw TrpoacoTTO), 6 he ^a/36T09, o he dareior/xov, tov 
he dvaKeKV(pevac cf)ija6c<; €k ^l^Xlov. (pepovai 
he avToij^ 'ittttol irapairXi'jaiOL ovheU dXXo<; 
dXX(p, XevKo^ Ti9 Kal ^av6o<; Kal /zeA,a9 Kal 
5 cf)OLvi^, dpyvpo-)^dXivoi Kal ariKJol Kal -^pvaol 
rd (f)dXapa — ravrd (paac rd y^pdijiara tov<; ev 
^flKeai'U) ^apl3dpov<; ey^^elv rw %aX«ft) hiarrvprp, 
rd he avviaTaaOaL Kal XiOovaOac Kal aoj^eiv d 
iypd(l>t] — ovhe ti]v eaOrjTa av/i/Salvovaiv i) ti-jv 

^ /xevToi Kayser : fj.fu. - ofa l\olule : oToy. 

^ i.e. as they try to get near the youth. 
2 Addressed to the boy to whom he is interpreting the 


[To face p. 109. 

BOOK I. 28 

hccar the liunter's din from a very great distance. 
But my own opinion is that^ as you were hunting the 
beauty of yonder youth, you have been captured by 
him and are eager to run into danger for him. For 
why so near ? Why do you touch him ? Why have 
you turned toward him? W^hy do you jostle each 
other with your horses P^ 

How I have been deceived ! 1 was deluded by 
the painting into thinking that the figures were not 
painted but were real beings, moving and loving — at 
any rate 1 shout at them as though they could hear 
and I imagine that 1 hear some response — and you ^ 
did not utter a single word to turn me back from my 
mistake, being as much overcome as I was and unable 
to free yourself from the deception and the stupe- 
faction induced by it. So let us look at the details 
of the painting ; for it really is a painting before 
which we stand. 

About the lad are gathered beautiful youths, 
who engage in beautiful pursuits, such as are be- 
coming to men of noble parentage. One shows in 
his face a touch of the palaestra, another shows 
grace, another urbanity, and the fourth, you will 
say, has just raised his head from a book. The 
horses they ride are no two alike, white and chestnut 
and black and bay, horses with silver bits, dappled 
horses with golden trappings — these pigments,^ it is 
said, the barbarians living by Oceanus compound of 
red-hot bronze, and they combine, and grow hard, 
and preserve what is painted with them — nor have 
the youths the same clothing or equipment. One 

2 The pigments used by the ancients were ordinarily earth 
colours (not vegetable colours, or chemical preparations), 
and were often brought from a great distance. 



10 (JTo\i]v. fiev yap €v^covo<; iTrTrd^eraL koI kov- 
009, dKOVTiari]'; olfiai dyaOo'^ mv, 6 Se irec^paKTaL 
TO (JTepvov direiXodv iraki^v riva tw Oyjpiw, 6 Se 
Kol Ta<; Kin]/j.a<;, 6 3e ^ Kal rd aKeXr] Tricj^paKrai. 
(4) To Be fieipuKLOv ox^lrat jxev e<f 'lttttov 

15 XevKOV, iiekaiva Be, &)? 6pa<;, i) Ke(pa\y] too 'lttttw 
Koi XevKov dTTOTeropvevTai kvkXov eVl rov 
/jLercoTTOV Kar avro t?}? a€\7]vij<i ro ttXtJ/og?, kul 
(bciXapa ex^i XP^^^ ^^^ ^aXii^w kokkov Mt;- 
BiKov' tovtI yap to xP^/^^ TrpoaaaTpdiTTei rw 

20 XP^^V K^cL^direp ol 7rvpoi}Bei<; XlOol. aroXrj rw 
jxeipaKiw x^^f^^^ exovad ri dvepLOV Kal koXttov 
— TO fiev XP^P-^ ^'^ (t>0Lvi,K7]<i dXovpyia<;, r}V 
eiraivovcn ^^olvik€<;, dyairdaOco Be tmv dXovpycov 
fxdXiaTa' Bokovv yap aKvOpwird^eiv eXKei rivd 

25 irapd rov ifKiov topav Kal tw Tr](; 61X779- dvOet 
paiveraL — alBol Be rov yvfivovaOai irpo^ tou? 
nrapovra^; earaXrai x^^P'-^^'^V 4^oivikw, avp,- 
fxeTpelrai Be 6 ^^iTcoz^ e? y/jLiav rod fxrjpov Kal taa 
Tov dyKMVO^. Kal ixeiBia kol x^po^rov ^Xeiret, 

30 Kal KOfid oaov fxi] einaKOTelaOaL tov<; 6(f)0aX- 
/jlov<;, ore draKryjaet 7) ko/jLtj vtto tov dve/j,ov. 
Tuxa Ti? Kal TTjV irapeidv eiraiveaerai Kal rd 
pier pa t?]<; piv6<; Kal KaO' ev ovrcoal rd ev ra> 
7rpoad)7r(p, iyo) Be dyapiai rov (f)pov7]fjLaTO<;' Kai 

35 yap co? drjpajy]^ eppwrat Kal vtto tov LTTTrou 

335 K. iirripTac Kal avvL7-jan>, on epdrai. (5) ^Kevo- 

(popovcTL Be avTOL<; 6pe2<^ Kal opewKOfxo^; iroBo- 

cTTpa/Sa? Kal dpKv<^ Kal irpo^oXia Kal uKovjia 

^ b h\ Koi Tos Kvn/xas, 6 Sf supplied by Schenkl and 
2 fVATjj Reiske, cf. 3S7. 21k : Uvs. 


BOOK I. 28 

lightly armed horseman wears his tunic girt up, a 
good javelin thrower 1 suppose, another has his 
breast protected with armour, threatening fight with 
the wild beast, another has his shins protected, 
another his legs. That youth ^ rides on a white horse 
which, as you see, has a black head, and a white 
medallion is fashioned on his forehead in imitation 
of the full moon ; and it has golden trappings, 
and a bridle of Median scarlet ; for this colour 
flashes on the gold with the effect of fiery-red 
jewels. The youth's garment is a chlamys bellying 
out in the wind ; in colour it is the sea-purple ^ 
which the Phoenicians love, and it should be prized 
above other purple dyes ; for though it seems to be 
dark it gains a peculiar beauty from the sun and is 
infused with the brilliancy of the sun's warmth. 
And from shame of exposing himself unclad to those 
about him he wears a sleeved chiton of purple 
which reaches half-way down his thighs and like- 
wise lialf-way to his elbows. He smiles, and his 
eye flashes, and he wears his hair long, but not long 
enough to shade his eyes when the wind shall 
throw it into disorder. Doubtless many a one will 
praise his cheeks and the proportions of his nose 
and each several feature of his face, but 1 admire 
his spiritedness ; for as a hunter he is vigorous 
and is proud of his horse, and he is conscious of 
the fact that he is beloved. Mules and a muleteer 
bring their luggage, snares and nets and boar- 
spears and javelins and lances with toothed blades;^ 

^ i.e. the central figure, the leader. 

2 This " sea-purple" was obtained from a shell-fish, murex. 
2 On the equipment of the hunter of. Xen. De Venat. ix, 
11 f. ; X. 2f., 16. 



Ka\ Xo7;^a9, e<^' mv ol KV(ji)SovTe<;, kol Kvvaycoyol 
5 avarparevovai kol aKoncwpol koI tci eOvi] rcbv 
fcvvcov, ovy^ al ti]v plva dyadal fjLovai rj al 
rax^lcLt avTcov, aWa Kal al yevracar eSei yap 
Kal d\Ki]<; iirl to Otipiov. ypdcpei Si] Ao/c/otSa? 
AaKaLva<; ^IvSi/cd'^ KpjjriKd^;, rdf; fiep dyepco^^^ov^; 

10 Kal vXaKTOvaa<;, . . . . ^ Ta9 Se €Pi>oovaa<;, al Se 
jieOeiTOvaL kol aeajjpaac Kara rod lxvov<;. (6) Kal 
Ti]v Wyporepav 7rpoiuvT€<i aaovrac i^ecu? yap 
T£9 avTrj<^ eKsl Kal dyaX/na Xeiov viro rod ')(p6vov 
Kal (Tvcov KecpaXal Kal dpKTCop, ve/uLerai, Be avrfj 

15 Kal 6r)pLa dvera, vefipol Kal \vkol Kal Xaycool, 
irdvTa yjfjiepa Kal fxi] heSioja rov^ dvOpcoirov^. 
e)(ovrat fierd rrjv €v)(vv tt)? 6i]pa^. 

(7) Kat TO Oiipiov ovK dvkyeTai XavOdveiv, 

dXX' eKTTTjSa Tt}? XoXP^V^' ^^'^^ ipTTLTTTet TOL<i 

20 LTTTTevaL Kal TapdTTei fiev avTov<s Ik 7rpoa^oXi]<;, 
vLKCLTaL Be VTTo TMV /SaXXovTcov Kaipia jxev ovk 
ivTVXjOdV Bid re to (ppaTTCiv tt/oo? ra? 7rXr]yd<; 
Bid T€ TO jJbrj VTTO OappovvTCdv ffdXXeadcn, fiaXa- 
')(6el<^ Be TrXrjyfj eTmroXaicp KaTci tov firipoi) 

25 (pevyei Bid rr}? uX?;?, eKBe^eToi Be avTov eXo? 
j^a6v Kal XLpLV7] 7rpo<; tCo eXei. (8) AiooKovaiv 
ovv (3ofj 'xpco/jLevoi ol fxev dXXoi fi€')(pi tov eXov^;, 
TO Be fjieipdKiop avve/ii/SdXXet tw Orjpicp e? ti]v 
XifjLvrjv Kal TeTTape'i ovtol Kvve^, Kal to jiev 

30 Orjpiov 'leTai Tpcoaai tov I'ttttov, diroveuaap Be 
tov 'lttttov to /iieipdKLOv Kal e? to, Be^ia jxeTa- 
KXlvav d(f)ir)ai ttj ^e^/^l Trday Kal ^dXXet tov 

^ Lacuna marked b}' Schenkl. 

BOOK I. 28 

masters of hounds accompany the expedition and 
trackers and all breeds of dogs, not alone the 
keen-scented and swift of foot^ but also the high- 
spirited dogs, for courage also was required to 
confront the wild beast. And so the painting 
shows Locrian, Laconian, Indian, and Cretan dogs,i 
some sportive and baying, . . . and some attentive ; 
and they all follow the trail with grinning muzzles. ^ 
And the hunters as they advance hymn Artemis 
Agrotera ; ^ for yonder is a temple to her, and a 
statue worn smooth with age, and heads of boars 
and bears ; and wild animals sacred to her graze 
there, fawns and wolves and hares, all tame and 
without fear of man. After a prayer the hunters 
continue the hunt. 

The boar cannot bring himself to keep out of 
sight, but leaps from the thicket and rushes at the 
horsemen ; at first it confuses them by its sudden 
onset, then it is overcome by their missiles, though 
it is not mortally wounded, partly because it is on its 
guard against their thrusts and partly because it is 
not hit by some of the over-confident youths ; but, 
weakened by a superficial wound in the thigh, it 
runs through the woods till it finds refuge in a deep 
marsh and a pool adjoining the marsh. So with 
shouting the rest follow it to the edge of the marsh, 
but the youth keeps on after the creature into the 
pool and these four dogs with him ; the creature 
tries to wound his horse, but bending well over on 
his horse and leaning to the right he delivers with 

^ On hunting dogs cf. ihid. ix. 2 ; x. 1. 
^ Cf. Xen, De Venat. iv. 3 : iix/j-fi^LSxraL /xev irphs ra Xxvr]. 
2 Artemis the Huntress. Cf. Xen. De Venat. vi. 13 ; Eur. 
Hipp. 58 f. gives the huntsmen's hymn to Artemis. 



avv /car avro fidXiaTa to avvdiTTOV ttjp ttXoltjjv 

Tfi Seprj. rovvrevOev ol fxev Kvve<; KaTayovat 

36 Tov avv e? rijv yyjv, ol Be ipaaral ^ocoaiv citto 

T^}? o^0r)(; olov <^i\,otl[xovijl€vol irpo'; d\\t]\ov<;, 

336 K. OCTTl^ V7T€pK6Kpd^€TaL TOV TTeXtt?, Kul TTeiTTCOKe 

Tt9 diro TOV I'ttttov fxy KaTaa')(^d>v, aXV i/cOopv- 
l3i^(Ta<i TOV LTTiTov 0? St] KOi aTe<^avov avTw 
irXeKei irapa tov Xeipioivo^ tov iv tw eXei. ctl 
6 iv Trj Xlfivr) to fietpdKtov, 6Ti eirl tov o-^Tj/jLaTCi, 
CO TO irakTov d(f))]K€v, ol Se eKTreTrXijyaai koI 
Oewpovaiv avTO olov ypacpev. 


(1) 'AXX' ovK 'EpvOpd ye avTij OdXaaaa ovB* 
^IvBol TavTa, KWioTTe^ he koX dvtjp "¥^XX7]v iv 

10 AWioirtq. Kal dOXo^ tov dvhpo^, ov eKcbv €T\rj 
KUTCi epcoTa, ol/jLal ore, c5 Tral, /li] dv)]K00v elvai 
TOV Tlepae(jo<^, 6v cj)aaiv 'ATXavTiKov diroKTelvai 
KYjTO^ iv AWiOTTLa Tre^evov iirl Ta9 dyeXa<; Kal 
Tov<{ iv yf) dvOpco7rov<;. (2) TaOr' ovv iiraivCiV 6 

15 ^(oypd(f)o^ Kal oiKTelpcov ttjv ^AvSpofieBav, otl 
KTjTeL i^eSoOrj, TeTeXeaTat ySr) 6 adXo<;, Kal to 
fiev KrjTO^ eppiTTTat irpo ti)^ r)6vo<; ifiirXiifJipLvpovv 
irriyal^ a'lfxaTo^y vcf)^ mv ipvOpd 7) OdXaaaa, ttjv 
Be ^AvSpo/jLeSav diraXXdTTei tov Beafxov 6 "E/oo)?. 

20 yeypaiTTaL Be 7rT7]vo<; /lev to elcoOo^;, v€avia<; Be 

^ The story is that Andromeda was bound on the seashore 
as prey for the sea monster, that thus the city of her father 
might be saved. There Perseus finds her as he goes on his 


[To race p. 115. 

BOOK I. 29 

the full force of his arm a blow that hits the boar 
just where the shoulder-blade joins the neck. There- 
upon the dogs drag the boar to the ground^ and the 
lovers on the bank shout as if in rivalry to see who 
will outshout his neighbour ; and one is thrown from 
his horse which he excited beyond control instead 
of holding it in check ; and he weaves for the youth 
a crown of flowers from the meadow in the marsh. 
The lad is still in the pool, still in the attitude in 
which he hurled his javelin, while the youths stand 
in astonishment and gaze at him as though he were 
a picture. 


No, this is not the Red Sea nor are these inhabitants 
of India, but Ethiopians and a Greek man in Ethiopia. 
And of the exploit which I think the man undertook 
voluntarily for love, my boy, you must have heard 
— the exploit of Perseus^ who, they say, slew in 
Ethiopia a monster from the sea of Atlas,^ which 
was making its way against the herds and the people 
of this land. Now the painter glorifies this tale 
and shows his pity for Andromeda in that she was 
given over to the monster. The contest is already 
finished and the monster lies stretched out on the 
strand, weltering in streams of blood — the reason the 
sea is red — while Eros frees Andromeda from her 
bonds. Eros is painted with wings as usual, but 

quest for the head of Medusa ; he slays the monster, frees 
the girl, and carries her oflf to be his wife. 

2 Cf. Eur. Andromeda, Frag. 145 Nauck : ktjtos . . . e| 
'ArXavTiKrii a\6s. Cf. the vase-painting reproduced in Fig 15. 



Trap b e'lcdde, koI aadfiaivwv 'ye'ypairraL koI ovk 
efo) Toi) /j,€/j,o)(^OTjKevaL' kol yap ev^h^ ^i'Ve^akero 
T(p "E/jci)T Iiepa6v<^ irpo rod epyov jrapelvai 
avTov KoX Kara rod dijpcov av/jLTrireadaL, 6 Se 

25 a(f)LK6T0 Kal yKOvae rod "EWr/vo^;, (3) 'H Kopi] 
06 i)hela fiev, on Xcvkj] iv AWioTrta, 7]Sv Se 
avTO TO €lBo<;' jrapiXOot av Kal AvSrjv a/3pav Kal 
'ArOlSa uTToae/JLVov Kal ^irapTidriv ippcofievrjv. 
K€Ka\X(t)7ncrTai Be airo rod Katpov' Kal yap 

30 aTTLareLP eoiKe Kal y^aipeL /jl6t €K7r\7]^6Ci)(; Kal 
TOP Uepaea /SXeVei /jLeiSia/id ti ySr] e? avrbv 
TrefiTTOvaa. 6 Se ov iroppw rf;? Koprj^; iv i)8eLa 
Kal XcffavooSei, iroa Ketrai ard^MV e? t/;z^ yrjv 
.337 K. iSpcora Kal to Bely/xa T?J9 Topyov<; e%&)i^ utto- 
OeTov, /jL7) €VTV^6vTe<; avrw Xaol XlOol yevcovTat. 
TToXXol 01 PovKoXoL yoXa 6peyovTe<^ Kal oivov 
eTTKTTTdaaL, 7)Se2<i KlOi07re<; iv tm tov ^p(o/J^aTO<; 
5 aroTTft) Kal /SXoavpov /jLetSiMVTe^ Kal ovk dBrjXoL 
Xciipeiv Kal 01 irXelcTTOL o/jlolol. (4) 'O Uepa-ev^; 
Se daird^eTat fiev Kal TavTa, aTijpl^cov Be eavTov 
iirl TOV dpicTTepov dyK(t)vo<; dvkyei tov OdtpaKa 
efJbTTVovv VTTo daO/jLaTO<;, i/jL^XeTrcov Trj Koprj, Kal 

10 Tr)v ^(Xa/jLvBa tw dveixw iKBiBcoai. (poLVtKPjv ovaav 
Kal ffe^XrjfievTjv a'ljxaTO^ pavicn Kal a ^ irpoa- 
eirvevaev avTw to Oifplov iv tw dyoovi. ippcoaOcov 

^ & Benndoif : &s. 

BOOK I. 29 

here, as is not usual, he is a young man/ panting and 
still showing the effects of his toil ; for before the 
deed Perseus put up a prayer to Eros that he should 
come and with him swoop down upon the creature, 
and Eros came, for he heard the Greek's prayer. 
The maiden is charming in that she is fair of skin 
though in Ethiopia, and charming is the very beauty 
of her form ; she would surpass a Lydian girl in 
daintiness, an Attic girl in stateliness, a Spartan in 
sturdiness. Her beauty is enhanced by the circum- 
stances of the moment ; for she seems to be incredu- 
lous, her joy is mingled with fear, and as she gazes 
at Perseus she begins to send a smile towards him. 
He, not far from the maiden, lies in the sweet 
fragrant grass, dripping sweat on the ground and 
keeping the terrible Gorgon's head hidden lest 
people see it and be turned to stone. Many cow- 
herds come offering him milk and wine to 
drink,2 charming Ethiopians with their strange 
colouring and their grim smiles ; and they show that 
they are pleased, and most of them look alike. 
Perseus welcomes their gifts and, supporting himself 
on his left elbow, he lifts his chest, filled with breath 
through panting, and keeps his gaze upon the 
maiden, and lets the wind blow out his chlamys, 
which is purple and spattered with drops of blood 
and with the flecks which the creature breathed 
upon it in the struggle. Let the children of Pelops 

^ Eros was often depicted as a youth in the fifth and 
fourth centuries B.C., while in the Hellenistic and Roman 
periods the Erotes (or Cupids) were winged children. 

2 Cf. Eur. Andromeda, Frag. 146 X : tths Se iroip.eva}v t^p^i 
\e(iis, 6 jji\v yaKaKTos /cicrtraov cpepwv (TKixpos, 'k6vwv ava^vKTrip', 
6 5' afjLTTiKwv ydvos. 



YleXoTTiSai irapa top tov Ylepaeax; ojfiov KaXfo 
yap ovTi avTQj koI ix^aifJiw irpoa^'jvOrjKe tl tov 
1") KafxcLTOv Kal v7ra)h)]KaaLv al (^X,e/9e9, eTrcXd/j,- 
(Bavov TOVTO avTd<;, orav 7r\eov€KTj]ar] to acrO/ia. 
TToWd Kal TTapd t% Kopy]^ apwrai. 

(1) XroXi] Be diraXrj, a)(^rj/jLa i/c AuSta?, Kal 
/jbeipciKiop iv VTnjvT) TTpayrrj HocTeiScov re /jL€iSlcov 

20 e<» TO /JLCLpaKtov Kal aydWcov avrb i7r7roi<i ByjXol 
YleXoira tov AvSov inrl OdXaTTav i-jKovTa, w? 
eu^acTO Tft) HoaeiScovL KaTa tov Olvo/xdov, otl 
fX7] -ypyjTai yap.jBpS) 6 Olvofiao^, aXXa KTeivwv 
TOV'; T?}? 'l7rTroBafi€La<; ipcbpTa<i (ppovel TOt? tov- 
Twv dKpo6iviOL<; dpKTcov i)^ XeovTcov K€(f>aXah 

25 olov 01 '^ Oijpav yprjKOTe^;. Kal ev')(^opLevw tm 
UeXoTTL i]K6t xpvdovv cip/ia €K 6aXdTT7]<;, yireipM- 
Tai he 01 'iTTiTOi Kal clot SiaSpafieiv tov Alyalov 
avx[X7)pw T(p d^ovL Kal eXa(f)pa Ty oirXij. u /xev 

30 ovv ddXo'^ €v8po/jL7]aeL tm UeXoin, tov Se tov 
^(i)ypd(l)ov aOXov rj/ieif; i^eTd^cofiev. 

(2) Ov yap a/jLiKpov oJ/juaL dywvo^ LTTTrov^; fiev 
338 K. ^vvOelvat TeTTapa^ Kal pur) ^vyx^ai tcov aKeXcov to 

KaTa eva auTcbv, ip.(3aXelv he avToh pLeTci tov 

^ &pKT(Di' i) Schenkl : aTaKTCDu. 
2 01 added by Kayser. 

^ Lit. " Good-bye to"' ; Pelops (see next Description) was 
famous for his ivory white shoiiUler, but the shoulders of 
Perseus were more beautiful and withal more muscular. 


BOOK I. 30 

perish ^ when it comes to a comparison with the 
shoulder of Perseus ! for beautiful as he is and 
ruddy of face, his bloom has been enhanced by his 
toil and his veins are swollen, as is wont to happen 
when the breath comes quickly. Much gratitude 
also does he win from the maiden. 


A delicate garment of Lydian fashion, a lad 
with beard just beginning to grow, Poseidon smiling 
at him and honouring ^ the lad with a gift of horses 
— all this shows that it is Pelops the Lydian who has 
come to the sea in order to invoke Poseidon's aid 
against Oenomaiis ; since Oenomaiis accepts no son- 
in-law, but slaying the suitors of Hippodameia he 
takes pride in their severed members as hunters 
who have captured game take pride in the heads of 
bears or lions. ^ And in answer to Pelops' prayer a 
golden chariot has come out of the sea, but the 
horses are of mainland breed, and able to speed over 
the Aegean with dry axle and light hoof. The task 
will go off well for Pelops, but let us examine the 
task of the painter. 

It requires no small effort, in my opinion, to 
compose four horses together and not to confuse 
their several legs one with another, to impart to 

2 There are reminiscences of Pindar's First Olympian Ode 
in the language of this description, ejJi. ayaXXwv, 19, and 01. 
1. 139, ipwvras, 23, and 01. 1. 127. Other echoes are noted 

^ Sophocles is said to have referred to this practice in his 
play entitled Oenomaiis, cf. Frag. 432 N. For the chariot 
race of Pelops and Oenomaiis see supra, p. 69 f., and 
Philostratus the Younger, p. 331 f. 



')(^a\ivov (f)p6vr]/ia (rrijaai re top fxev iv avroy ray /jLtj 
6e\eii> eardvai, rov 8' €i> t(o Kpoaiveiv ^ovXeaOai, 

5 TOP B' iv Tft) . . . .^ TtOeaOai, 6 Be ydrvrai rfj copa 
rod IleXoTro? Kal evpelat avTO) al plve<i, oaa XP^~ 
fi6TL^ov7i. (3)"ETt KCLKelvo aocf)La<i' 6 HoaetBwv 
Tov fjL€ipaKLov ipd Kal dva(f)€p€i, avro e? rov Xe/Srjra 
Kal Ti-jv K\(oO(o, ore UiXoyjr darpdylrai iBoKcc tm 

10 M/io), Kal rod fxev fyajJielv ovk dirdyeL avrov, 
eTreiBr) a>p/j,rjK€v, dyaTTcov Be dW' i^dy^aadat t% 
')(^eLp6<; €fi7re(f)VKe rfj Be^ia rov TleXoTro? vttoti- 
Oefievo<; avrw rd e? rov Bpopuov, 6 Be virepippov 
ifBrj Kal WX^eiov irvel, Kal i) 6(f)pv<; /xerd rcov 

15 'iTTTTcov. fiXeirei Be rjBv Kal pLerewpov viro tov 
ridpa eiTLo-o^elv, 779 ola XP^^<^^ Xt/QaSe? /; KopLr] 
TOV pbeipaKLov dirodTd^ovaa //.eTOOTTft) opoXoyel 
Kal lovXrp avvavOel Kal pLeTairiiTTovaa rrjBe 
KdKelae ev tco Kaipicp pevei. (4) TXovtov Kal 

20 arepva Kal oaa irepl rov yvpLVOu tov IleXoTro? 
eXex^V ^^> /caXvTTTei rj ypa(f)y]' eV^r/? %ei/c>t, iaOrj^;^ 

1 Schenkl would supply in the lacuna, €.(j. tV' KecpaKrjv 

2 xf*P*> eo-0T9s added by Schenkl. 

^ Benndorf observes that Philostratus is describing the 
four-horse team as it is so often depicted on the vases of 
the fifth century B.C., one of tlie four turning back his head 
toward the cliarioteer, and one I'aising his head. The same 
sclienie appear.s on a coin of .Syracuse, here reproduced; Fig. IG. 

2 Cf. Pindar, 01. 1. 39f. The story that Tantalus served 
his son Pelops to the gods at a banquet is denied by Pindar, 
who explains it as malicious gossip ; but Pindar accepts the 


BOOK I. 30 

them high spirits controlled by the bridle, and to 
hold them still, one at the very moment when he 
does not want to stand still, another when he wants 
to paw the ground, a third when he [wants to lift 
up his head], while the fourth 
takes delight in the beauty of 
Pelops and his nostrils are dis- 
tended as though he were neigh- 
ing.^ This too is a clever touch : 
Poseidon loves the lad and 
brings him to the cauldron and 
to Clotho, after which Pelops' 
shoulder seemed to shine ; ^ FicTTo^ 

and he did not try to divert him 
from the marriage, since the lad is eager for it, but 
being content even to touch his hand, he clasps the 
right hand of Pelops while he counsels him about 
the race; and already Pelops proudly ^^ breathes 
Alpheius," ^ and his look follows the steeds. Charm- 
ing is his glance and elated because he is proud of 
the diadem, from which the hair of the lad trickling 
down like golden sprays of water follows the lines 
of his forehead, and joins the bright down on his 
cheeks, and though it falls this way and that, yet 
it lies gracefully. The hip and breast, and the other 
parts of the naked body of Pelops which might be 
mentioned, the painting conceals ; a garment covers 

"pure cauldron" from which Clotho, goddess of birth, took 
Pelops with the ivory shoulder. Pindar also tells of 
Poseidon's love for Pelops, and of the gift of the golden 
chariot with winged steeds b}- which Pelops won Hippo- 

• "breathes Alpheius," as in Aristophanes, Birds, 1121, 
of a runner at full stretch like an Olympic runner. The 
Ol^tnpic race-course was on the banks of the Alpheius. 



avrfj Kal kv/j/xt}. AvSol yap Kal ^ oi avco ^dp(3apoi 
Ka0€ip^avT6<; e? roLuaSe ea6rjTa<^ ro kciWo'^ Xa/z- 
TTpvvovTaL TOLOtaSe v(j)d(T/jLa(Ttvivov\a/jL7rpvv6a6at 
25 TJ] (f)vaet,. Kal ra fiev ciWa dcpavf] Kal elaw, to he 
T}]<; cTToA,?}?, €vda 6 w/io? 6 dpiaT€p6<i, Te)(yr} 
i)lJLek'qTai, a)? iirj KpvinoLTO avTOV y avyr)' vv^ 
re yap iire^et, Kal XafiTrpuverac to5 u>/jlw to 
jxeipaKLov, ocFov rj vv^ toS ecnrepo). 


30 (1) KaXov Kal avKaaai Kal firjhe TavTa irapeX- 
delv (Kpccvov^. avKa pbiXava ottS) \eL^6[ieva 
aeaaypevTat /xev iirl cfivWcov dfnreXov, yeypairTai 
Se /xeTa to)v tov (jiXoiov pi^y/jLUTCOv. Kal to, fxev 
331) K. viTOKext^ve irapaiTTVOVTa tov iiekiTO'^, tcl 8' vtto 
T?J9 wpa^ olov e(T;^£(7Tat. irXi^aiov he avTwv 
6^o<; eppcTTTai fid AC ovk dpyo<; rj k€vo^ tov 
KapTTOV, (TKid^ei Be Kal avKa ra pLev co/xa Kal 
5 6Xvv6ov^ eTi, Ta Be pvad Kal e^copa, ra Be 
viroaearjire ^ jrapacpaivovTa tov Xfyuou to dv6o<^, 

TO B^ €7T^ UKpCp TOV O^OV (7TpOv6o<^ BlOpd)pVy^6V, 

a By) Kal rjBiaTa avKwv BoKel. (2) Ka/^yot? Be 
dirav eaTpcoTac T0vBa(f)0<^, o)v Ta fxev TrapaTeTpiiT- 
10 Tat, TOV eXvTpov, Ta Be eyKeiTai fxepiVKOTa, Ta Be 
Trape/jL^alveL ttjv Biacpvtjv, dXXd Kal 6y)(va<; eV* 
6y)(^i>aL<; opa Kal fxrjXa eirl /jL7]Xol<; acopoixi re avTMi 
Kal BeKdBa<;, evcoB^] irdvTa Kal viro^pvaa. to Be 
ev avToh epevdo<s ovBe €7n/3el3Xf]a0at, (f)i]aei^, 

^ Only the inferior MSS. give wal, which seems necessary. 
- L/TTco-eo-TjTre Lindau : viroa-fo-rjpf. 


BOOK I. 31 

his arms and even his lower legs. For the Lydians 
and the upper barbarians, encasing their beauty in 
such garments, pride themselves on these weavings, 
when they might pride themselves on their natural 
form.^ While the rest of his figure is out of sight 
and covered, the garment by his left shoulder is 
artfully neglected in order that its gleam may not 
be hidden ; for the night draws on, and the lad 
glows with the radiance of his shoulder as does 
the night with that of the evening star. 

31. XENIA 

It is a good thing to gather figs and also not 
to pass over in silence the figs in this picture. Purple 
figs dripping with juice are heaped on vine-leaves ; 
and they are depicted with breaks in the skin, some 
just cracking open to disgorge their honey, some 
split apart, they are so ripe. Near them lies a 
branch, not bare, by Zeus, or empty of fruit, but 
under the shade of its leaves are figs, some still 
green and ^^ untimely," ^ some with wrinkled skin 
and over-ripe, and some about to turn, disclosing 
the shining juice, while on the tip of the branch 
a sparrow buries its bill in what seems the very 
sweetest of the fijjs. All the ground is strewn 
with chestnuts, some of which are rubbed free of 
the burr, others lie quite shut up, and others show 
the burr breaking at the lines of division. See, 
too, the pears on pears, apples on apples, both 
heaps of them and piles of ten, all fragrant and 
golden. You will say that their redness has not 

^ Cf. Hdt. i. 10 : the Lydians consider it a disgraceful 
thing for even a man to be seen naked. 

2 The kind that are picked green and seldom ripen. 



15 dW' evhov viT))v6rjKevaL. ('3) Kepdaov he ravra 
Scopa OTTcopa Tt? avT7] /SorpvSov eV ToXdprp, 6 
rdXapo<; Be ov/c dWorpicov ireirXeKTac Xvycov, 
aXX' avTov rod (pvrov. tt/do? Be rov ovvBeajiov 
Twv K\r]/jLdT(DV el fiXeiTOL^ Koi rd<; €KKpejjia/jL€va<i 

20 avTCOV aTa(f)v\d<i Kal d)<; Kara piav at pdye<;, 
dcrj] Tov Aioi'vaov olBa fcal d) irorpia ^orpvoScope 
irepl T7]<i d/iireXov e'/oet?. ^alrj^ 5' dv Kal tol/? 
^oTpv^i TTJ ypa(f)f] iBcohipiov^; elvai Kal v7roivov<^. 
(4) }^dKelvo i^Bkttov iirl (f)vX\(ov KpdSrjf; yu,eXt 

25 'xXwpov evBeBvKO<i i^Brj rw K-qpS Kal dvairXt-JiJi- 
fivpelv copalov, el Ti<i diroOXi^oi, Kal rpocjyaXU 
e(/)' erepov (pvXXov veoTrayrj^; Kal craXevovaa Kal 
^lrvKT7]pe<; jdXaKTO^; ov XevKOv piovov, dXXd Kal 
ariXiTVov' Kal yap ariX/Seiv eoLKev vtto r'fj<i 

30 €7n-TToXa^ovai](; avrfo vr^yLteXi}?. 


BOOK I. 31 

been put on from outside^ but has bloomed from 
within. Here are gifts of the cherry tree, here is 
fruit in clusters heaped in a basket, and the basket 
is woven, not from alien twigs, but from branches 
of the plant itself. And if you look at the vine- 
sprays woven together and at the clusters hanging 
from them and how the grapes stand out one by 
one, you will certainly hymn Dionysus and speak of 
the vine as " Queenly giver of grapes." ^ You would 
say that even the grapes in the painting are good 
to eat and full of winey juice. And the most 
charming point of all this is : on a leafy branch is 
yellow honey already within the comb and ripe to 
stream forth if the comb is pressed ; and on another 
leaf is cheese new curdled and quivering ; and 
there are bowls of milk not merely white but 
gleaming, for the cream floating upon it makes it 
seem to gleam. 

^ Aristophanes, Pax 520, where Elprjvn is addressed. 





340 K. (1) ^A(f)poSLT7]v iXecfiavTLvrjv iv ^ cnrakol'^ 
/jLVppivojaLv aSovaip diraXal Kopai. 5t8a(7A:a\o9 
avra^ ayei (TO(^r] kol ovSe e^copo^i' €(f)i^dv6i yap 
Tf? Mpa Kol pvtlSl irpaiTT], yrjpw^ pev to vtto- 
5 aepLvov eXKOvaa, tovto) 3' av Kepavvvaa to 
aw^opevov t>)9 dKp,y<i. koI to pL€V a')(^r)pa Tr}<i 
'' A(^pohiTii^ AlSov^i, <yvp,vrj kol evcr^rjp^ayv, i) he 
vXt] avvd/jKT] pbepiVKOTO^i iXe(f)avTO<;. dXX' ov 
(3ovXeTaL yeypdcpOac hoKslv rj de6<i, eKKetTUi he 

10 o'la Xa^ecrSat. 

(2) BouXef Xoyov tl eTTiXei^cDpiev tw ^cop,w ; 
XipavoiTOv yap 'iKap(o<^ e%6t kuI Kaaia<i fcal 
ap,vpv7]<;, hofcel Se p,oi Koi ^air^ov^ tl dvarrvelv . 
eiraiveTea tolvvv rj ao(j)ia Trj<i ypaif)r]<;, TrpwTOV 

15 p,ev OTL ^ Td<; dya7ra)p,eva^ Xi6ov<{ TrepL/SaXovaa 
ovK Ik tmv ')(pa)pdT(ov avTa^ epipijaaTO, dXX' 

€K TOV </)&)T0?, oloV 6(f)0aXp(p KeVTpOV TrjV 

Biavyeiav avTaL<; evOelaa, eiTa otl kol tov 

vpvov irapexei dKoveiv. (3j "Khovcn yap al 

20 TratSe?, dSovcn, Kal rj StBdcrKaXof; vTro^XeireL 

TTjv dirdoovaav KpoTova-a Ta^; ')(elpa^ Kal €9 to 

^ eV added by Jacobs. 
- '6ri added by Kayser. 




An Aphrodite, made of ivory, delicate maidens 
are hymning in dehcate myrtle groves. The 
chorister who leads them is skilled in her art, 
and not yet past her youth ; for a certain beauty 
rests even on her first wrinkle, which, though it 
brings with it the gravity of age, yet tempers this 
with what remains of her prime. The type of the 
goddess is that of Aphrodite goddess of Modesty, 
unclothed and decorous, and the material is ivory, 
closely joined. However, the goddess is unwilling 
to seem painted, but she stands out as though one 
could take hold of her. 

Do you wish us to pour a libation of discourse 
on the altar ? For of frankincense and cinnamon 
and myrrh it has enough already, and it seems to 
me to give out also a fragrance as of Sappho, 
Accordingly the artistry of the painting must be 
praised, first, because the artist, in making the 
border ^ of precious stones, has used not colours 
but light to depict them, putting a radiance in 
them like the pupil in an eye, and, secondly, 
because he even makes us hear the hymn. For 
the maidens are singing, are singing, and the 
chorister frowns at one who is oif the key, clapping 

^ The edge of the painting seems to be adorned by painted 
precious stones : Benndorf. 



fieXo^ ifcav(h<; efJL^i^d^ovaa. . . } to jiev ^/ap TTy? 
<jToX>^? airepLTTOv fcal /jlt] Be o^^Xov avral^;, el 
aOvpoLev, y) to ev XPV '^^'^ ^cov)]<; i) to et? 

25 /Spa^t'Ova tov ^frcoi^o? rj &)? avvTToh-jaia %at/3oy- 
(JLv €(f)€aT(oaat ciTraXfj iroa koX uvayjrv^yp eXKovaai 
irapa t;}? Spoaov Xei/jLcov re 6 Trepl ra? eaOt]Ta'^ Kal 
TO, iv avTaL<; "^^pcofiaTa, &)? dXXo ciXXw eTTtirpeiTeL, 
8aifji0VLa)<; i/c/ie/xLfit]Tar to, yap av/ji/SaLvovTa ol 

30 /jLTj ypd(f)0VT€<; ovfc dXtjOevovaip iv rat? ypa<f)al<^. 
TO, Be etSyj tcov irapOivcov el tw HdpLSi t) dXXw 
T(p KpcTTJ iTrcTpeTroL/iiep, dTroprjaai dv SoKel 
341 K. yjrijcpia-aaOaL, ToaovTOV d/LiiXXcovTai, /3oSo7r;;;^ef? 
Kal eXcfCMTTiSe'^ Kal KaXXtrrdprjoi Kal /xeXicpcovor 
^a'7T(f)ov<; TOVTO hij to 7]Sv '7rp6a(f)0ey/ia. 

(4) IlapayfrdXXeL 3e avTaU "E/oco? dvaKXiva^ 

5 tov to^ov top TTTj^vv, Kal 7) vevpd iravapjiovLOV 
aSei Kai (jyrjai irdvTa ex^tJ^ oaa 1) Xvpa, Ta^el^; 
T€ 01 6(j)daXp,ol TOV Oeov pvOpLov Tiva olpiai 
hiavoovvTe^. tl SrJTa aSovai ; yeypaiTTai yap 
TL Kal (ijSr]<;' Trjv ^A<f)poBLT7]v €Kcf)vvaL tt}? 
10 OaXdTTTj^ Xeyovaiv diroppofj tov Ovpavov. Kal 
OTTOv fi€v TOiv vi^cFcov IT podiax^v, ovTro) XeyovcriVf 
epovcTi he oJfiai Ila^oz^, ttjv yeveaiv he iKavco^ 
ciBovaiv' dva/SXeTTovaaL fieu yap e/i<f)aLVov(Tcv, 
OTi aTT* ovpavov, ra? Be x^lpa<; viTTia<; vttokl- 

^ Editors note a lacuna here. 

^ Praise of the maidens themselves seems to be missing at 
this point. 

^ Uf. Sappho, i'Va^'. 30 : /xeWixocpwuais, "gentle-voiced." 
Trans. Edmonds, Lip-a Gracca I. The other epithets in this 
passage are also familiar in the poets. 



her hands and trying earnestly to bring her into 
tune 1 . . . For as to their garments, they are 
simple and such as not to impede their movements 
if they should play — for instance, the close-fitting 
girdle, the chiton that leaves the arm free, and the 
way they enjoy treading with naked feet on the 
tender grass and drawing refreshment from tlie 
dew ; and the flowered decoration of their garments, 
and the colours used on them — the way they 
harmonize the one with the other — are represented 
with wonderful truth ; for painters who fail to 
make the details consistent with one another do 
not depict the truth in their paintings. As to the 
figures of the maidens, if we were to leave the 
decision regarding them to Paris or any other 
judge, I believe he would be at a loss how to vote, 
so close is the rivalry among them in rosy arms 
and flashing eyes and fair cheeks and in " honeyed 
voices,"^ to use the charming expression of Sappho. 
Eros, tilting up the centre of his bow, lightlv 
strikes the string for them and the bow-strin^^ 
resounds with a full harmony and asserts that it 
possesses all the notes of a lyre ; and swift are the 
eyes of the god as they recall, I fancy, some 
particular measure. What, then, is the song they 
are singing.' For indeed something of the subject 
has been expressed in the painting ; they are 
telling how Aphrodite was born from the sea 
through an emanation of Uranus. Upon which 
one of the islands she came ashore they do not 
yet tell, though doubtless they will name Paphos ; 
but they are singing clearly enough of her birth, 
for by looking upward they indicate that she is 
from Heaven (Uranus), and by slightly moving 



15 vovaaL BijXovaiv, on eK OaXaTTi]^, to fxeihia^a 
he avTO)v 'ya\i]V7]<; iarlv atvt'yiia. 


(1) Ne/9/009^ Kal \a7c09, ravra Oijpd/jLara tov 
vvv *A')(^iXXeco<i, 6 Si ye ev^Vkiw iroXei'^ alpyjcret 
Kal 'iTTirov^ Kal avhpoiv (Tr'f)(^a<;, Kal 01 TTOTafiol 

20 avTW iia\ovi>Tai /jL7] ecovri avTOv<i pelv, KUKeu'cov 
fiev rojp epycov fxiaOov airoLaerai l^pla7]L8a Kal 
ra(; €k Aeafiov kirra Kal y^pvaov Kal rpLirohaf; 
Kal TO Toi'9 'A^afOL/? eV avroj elvat, ra Se irapa 
T(p ^eipcovL ravra pn^Xwy SoKec Kal Krjpicov a^La, 

25 Kal d'ya7rd<;, o) 'A^^^iXXeD, p.iKpa hcopa TToXei? 
dira^Lcoacov rore Kal ro KrjSo<; rod 'Aya/jL€/j,voi'o<^. 
6 p,ev ovv errl rrj<i rd(f)pov Kal KXiva<; roix; 
T/3wa9 eV /lovov rod ^orjaat Kal 6 Krelvcov 
e7riarpo(f)dS7]v Kal epvOpaivwv ro rod ^Kafidv- 

30 Bpov vBcop Xttttol re dOdvarot Kal €X^eL<;''^Kropo<; 
Kal /5pi;;\;co/x6i^09 iirl rot<; rod HarpoKXov 
arepvoL<i 'Ofxi]p(p yeypairrai, ypd(f)eL Be avrov 
Kal ahovra Kal ev)(^6/ji€vov Kal opiwpoc^LOV ro) 


342 K. (2) Tovrovl Be ovttw ^vvievra dperP]^;, dXXa 
iralBa en ydXaKrc v7ro6pey^a<^ Kal /lueXcp Kal 
fieXcn Seh(OKep 6 ^ielpoyv ypd(f)€ip diraXov Kal 

^ v(&p6s Hercher : vf^poi. 

^ II. 11. -204, 270 mentions tiie seven Lesbian women, 
the gold and the tripods among Agamemnon's gifts to 



their upturned hands they show that she has come 
from the sea^ and their smile is an intimation of 
the sea's calm. 


A fawn and a hare — these are the spoils of 
hunting of Achilles as he is now^ the Achilles who 
at Ilium will capture cities and horses and the ranks 
of men, and rivers will do battle with him when he 
refuses to let them flow, and as reward of those ex- 
ploits he will bear away Briseis and the seven maid- 
ens from Lesbos and gold and tripods ^ and authority 
over the Achaeans ; but the exploits here depicted, 
done at Cheiron's home, seem to deserve apples 
and honey as rewards, and you are content with 
small gifts, Achilles, you who one day will disdain 
whole cities and marriage with Agamemnon's 
daughter. Nay, the Achilles who fights at the 
trench, who puts the Trojans to rout merely by 
his shouting, and who slays men right and left,^ 
and reddens the water of the Scamander,^ and 
also his immortal horses, and his dragging of 
Hector's body around the walls, and his lamentation 
on the breast of Patroclus — all this has been 
de})icted by Homer, and he depicts him also as 
singing and praying and receiving Priam under 
his roof. 

This Achilles, however, a child not yet conscious 
of valour, whom Cheiron still nourishes upon milk 
and marrow and honey, he has offered to the painter 

- The word of Homer, II. 10. 483. 

=^ Cf. llmd, 21. 21 ; 16. 154; 24. 50 ff. ; 18. 318 for the 
phraseology as well as the story. 


a^kpwyov i^aX V^f] fcovcj^ov evOela fiev 'yap ?; 
5 Kuyj/xi] Tw TTaiSi, eV yovu Se al %et/oe9 — dyaOal 
yap Si) avrac TTO/nirol tou Spo/iov — KOfxr] re 
7)o€ta Kal ovSe (iKLvrjro^; — eoiK€ yap TrpoaaOvpcdv 
6 ^€(f)vpo<; /leraTaTTeLv avTJjv, o)? /jLeTaTTLTrrovai]^ 
TTjSe KciKelae aWore, dX\o<; 6 7ral<; eh] — eVf- 

10 aKvvLov T6 Kal Ovfioeihe^; (ppvayfid iari fxev rjBrj 
Tip TTaiSl, TTpavvet he avrb aKUKfo ^Xep^pan Kal 
napeid fxcika l\eo) Kal tt poa ^aWovarj n dirdXov 
yeXwTo^. 7] ')(\afiv<; Si, i)v d/jL7re)(^eTai-, irapa r)]<; 
/jL7jTpo<; olfxar KaXrj yap Kal aXiiropcjyvpo'; Kal 

15 TTVpavyrjf; i^aWdrrovaa rod Kvavrj elvat. (3) 
Yi^okaKevei Se avrov 6 ^eipcov olov Xeovra 
7rTMKa<; dpird^eiv Kal veffpoU avp^irereadar 
ve^pov yovv dpTC yp7]K(o<; rjKei, irapd rov Xelpayva 
Kal diraiTel to dOXov, 6 Se ^(^aipeL aTTanovfievo^; 

20 Kal TOU? irpoaOiov^ OKXdcra^ et9 taov KadiaTaraL 
T(p iraiSiy firjXa dvo rod koXttov opeywv avjw 
KaXd Kal evcoSrj — Kal yap tovto avTcov eoLKev 
eyyeypdcpOat — Kal Krjplov opiyec rfj %et/)t (rrayova 
Xelpov St evvojiiav rcov pLeXiTTcov. orav yap 

25 7ruaL<; dyaOal'^ evTV)(^ovaaL KvtdKwai, TTepiTrXrjOrj 
rd K7]pia yiverai Kal diro^Xv^ovai to jJLeXi ol 
oIkol avToyv. (4) o Se ^eipwv yeyparrTai /xev 
oaa KevTavpo<i' dXXd lttitov dvOpwTTM avjjLJ3aXelv 


as a delicate, sport-loving child and already light of 
foot.^ For the boy's leg is straight and his arms come 
down to his knees (for such arms are excellent 
assistants in the race) ; his hair is charming and 
loose ; for Zephyrus in sport seems to shift it about, 
so that as it falls, now here, now there, the boy's 
appearance may be changed. Already the boy has 
a frowning brow and an air of spirited haughtiness, 
but these are made gentle by a guileless look and 
by gracious cheeks that send 
forth a tender smile. The 
cloak he wears is probably 
his mother's gift ; for it is 
beautiful and its colour is 
sea-purple with red glints 
shading into a dark blue. 
Cheiron flatters him by say- 
ing tliat he catches hares 
like a lion and vies with 
fawns in running ; at any 
rate, he has just caught a 
fawn and comes to Cheiron to claim his reward, 
and Cheiron, delighting to be asked, stands with 
fore-legs bent so as to be on a level with tlie boy 
and offers him apples fair and fragrant from the 
fold of his garment — for their very fragrance seems 
to be depicted — and with his hand he offers him 
a honeycomb dripping with honey, thanks to the 
diligent foraging of the bees. For when bees find 
good meadows and become big with honey, the 
combs get filled to overflowing and their cells pour 
it forth. Now Cheiron is painted in every respect 
like a centaur ; vet to combine a horse and human 

Fig. i: 

Cf. Fig. 17, Cheiron teaching Achilles. 



Oav/jLa ovhev, (jvva\el-\\rai /jL7]v kuI €V(oaai kol 

30 vt] ^ Ata Sovvai a/i(f)0) XijycLV Kal ap)(€aOai Kal 
cia<p€uy€ii' rov(; 6(f)da\/j,ov<;, el to rep/Jia rov 
dvOpcoTTOV €\6y')(^oiev, dyaOov olfiaL l^coypiK^ov. 
Kal TO Tjiiepov he (palveaOuL to tov XcLpcovo^; 
Ofifia ipyd^CTaL fiev Kal 7) SiKatoavvT] Kal to vtt' 
343 K. avTt](; ireirvvaOaL, TrpuTTei Be Kal 1) 777/«:Tt?, u^' 
77? eK/iiefiovacoTaL' rvvl Se Kal VTroKopLafiov tl 
avTO) eirecrTLV e/3ct)? ttou 6 llieLpcov, otl toi)? 
iralSa^ tovto fxeiXiaaeTaL Kal Tp€(f)ei /jLciWov t) 
5 TO ycika. 

(5) TavTl fxev irepl Ovpa<; tov dvTpov, 6 h' ev tw 
irehUp irah 6 iTTirrjSbv eVl toO KevTavpov dOvpcov 
6 auT09 eTt' Si8daK€L 6 Xelpcov tov 'A^iWea 
iTTTrd^eaOac Kal Ke')(prja6ai avTO) oaa ^tttto), Kal 

10 av/jL/j,€Tp€LTai, fjLev TOV hpofxav eU to uvektov tw 
iraihi, Kay)(d^ovTi Se avTw viro tov TjBeaOac 
TTpoafiethia fieTaaTpe(p6/jLevo<; Kal fxovov ov)(l 
Xeyei '* ISov aoi Kpoalvco dirXi-jKTO^, IBov Kal 
eTTLKeXevofxai cror 6 itttto^; 6^v<; dpa Kal d(paipeL 

15 yeXcoTa. Xayapco<; ydp jjlol linTaaOei^;, 6ele iral, 
Kal tolmS' iinra) irpeirwv oyi](jr] iroTe Kal enl 
'E.dvOov Kal VtaXiou Kal 7roXXd<; fxev iroXeif; 
alp7]a€L<;, ttoXXol'? Be dvBpa^ diroKTevel^, Oecov^ 
oaa, Kal avP€K<p€vyovTa<s.'^ TavTa 6 Xetpcov 

20 fiavTeveTai to) TracBl KaXd Kal ev(j)rj/j,a Kal ov^ 
ola 6 p,di>0o^. 

^ vr) Aia Soi'i'ai Jacobs : Sia5ovuai. 

2 6(0)1' X, dehv T.P. The text is corrupt. 

^ Cf. 11. 10. 408, where the horse Xanthos prophesies the 
impending death of Achilles. 



body is no wondrous deed, but to gloss over the 
juncture and make the two into one whole and, by 
Zeus, cause one to end and the other to begin in 
such wise as to elude the eye of the observer who 
should try to detect where the human body ends, 
this seems to me to demand an excellent painter. 
That the expression seen in the eye of Cheiron is 
gentle is the result of his justice and the wisdom 
that he has acquired through justice, but the lyre 
also does its part, through whose music he has be- 
come cultured ; but now there is also something of 
cozening in his look, no doubt because Cheiron 
knows that this soothes children and nurtures them 
better than milk. 

This is the scene at the entrance of the cave ; and 
the boy out on the plain, the one who is sporting on 
the back of the centaur as if it were a horse, is still 
the same boy ; for Cheiron is teaching Achilles to 
ride horseback and to use him exactly as a horse, 
and he measures his gait to what the boy can 
endure, and turning around he smiles at the boy 
when he laughs aloud with enjoyment, and all but 
says to him, " Lo, my hoofs paw the ground for you 
without use of spur ; lo, I even urge you on ; the 
horse is indeed a spirited animal and gives no 
ground for laughter. For although you have 
been taught by me thus gently the art of horse- 
manship, divine boy, and are suited to such a horse 
as I, some day you shall ride on Xanthos and 
Balios ; and you shall take many cities and slay 
many men, you merely running and they trying to 
escape you." Such is Cheiron's prophecy for the 
boy, a prophecy fair and auspicious and quite unlike 
that of Xanthos.^ 




(1) Si) fxev MOV Ti]v Tcor Kevravpoiv dyeXrjv 
Bpvcov eK7Te(f)VK€vat koI Trerpcov ?) vt} At'a lttttcov 
fxovov, aU TOP Tou 'Iftoi^o? emOopwaOai (paaip, 
25 v(f)' ov 01 /cevravpoi ev(i)6evTe<;^ y]\6ov et? fcpdatv. 
TOi? Se dpa Kol p,i]T6pe<; o/xocfivXoL rjaav Kal 
yvpaifCE'^ ySr] /cat ttcjXol ev elhei ^pe(j)a)i' Kal 
oIko<=; /;5i(TT09* ov yap oJ/xal ae a^Oeadai tco 
n7;\tfo Kal rfj ev avTco Siairrj Kal to) t>}? /xeXta? 

30 (j)VT(i) dv€/ilOTp€(f)€L OPTt Kal '7Tap€)(^0/J,6P(p TO Wv 

OfjLOv Kal TO firj KXaaOai ip rfj alxP'JJ- ^al ra 
apTpa KuWiara Kal al rrrjyal Kal al Trap 
avTOi^ K€PTavpiS€<;, el fxep eTriXaOoL/jieOa tmp 
344 K. Ittttcop, oIop NatSe?, el Se p-erd tcop 'lttttcop 
avTo,'^ Xoyi^oifieOa, olop ^Apa^6p6<^' y yap tov 
yvpaiKetov €iBov<; ci/Spori]^ pcoppvrat avpopw/jtepov 
avT(p rov Xttitov. (2) Kepravpot Be ravrl ra 
5 ^pe<^ri ra fiep aTrapydpoi^ eyKeirai, rd Be tcop 
airapydvcdP vTreKBveTOA, Ta Be KXdeip eoiKe, Ta 
Be ev TTpdTTei Kal €vpoovPTO<; tov p,(i^ov p.eiBta, 
ra Be dTuXXec viro TaL<; p,r]Tpdai, Ta Be irepi- 
^dXXcL avTa<=; oKXa^ovaa^;, 6 Be €9 T7]p firjTepa 

10 Xidop d<pL7]aip v/3pL^(i)P i]Br]. Kal to fiep tcop 
prjTTicDP elBo<i ovTTco aa(f>e<; e/jirrXrjfji/jLvpovPTO^; 
avTch TOV ydXaKTO<;, Ta Be i]Br) aKipTcopTa 
eK(f)aLP€t Tt Kal Tpa^vT7]T0<;, V7rdp)(ec Be avTol<^ 
')(^aiTT] /LieXXovaa Kal oirXal diraXal eTi. 

15 'n? KaXal al KePTavpiBe<; Kal ep toI^ ^TnroL^;' 

^ fi'udfUTfs Moielli after a correction in L: oVw^eVrtr. 
Various other emendations have been proposed. 


Fig. 18. — I lead of a Ftnidle Centaur. 
[To face 2^. IS'.'. 



You used to think that the race of centaurs sprang 
from trees and rocks or^ by Zeus, just from mares — 
the mares which, men say, the son of Ixion ^ covered, 
the man by whom the centaurs though single 
creatures came to have their double nature. But 
after all they had, as we see, mothers of the same 
stock and wives next and colts as their offspring and 
a most delightful home ; for I think you would not 
grow weary of Pelion and the life there and its wind- 
nurtured growth of ash which furnishes spear-shafts 
that are straight and at the same time do not break 
at the spearhead. And its caves are most beautiful 
and the springs and the female centaurs beside them, 
like Naiads if we overlook the horse part of them, or 
like Amazons if we consider them along with their 
horse bodies ; for the delicacy of their female form 
gains in strength when the horse is seen in union 
with it. Of the baby centaurs here some lie wrapped 
in swaddling clothes, some have discarded their 
swaddling clothes, some seem to be crying, some are 
happy and smile as they suck flowing breasts, some 
gambol beneath their mothers while others embrace 
them when they kneel down, and one is throwing a 
stone at his mother, for already he grows wanton. 
The bodies of the infants have not yet taken on their 
definite shape, seeing that abundant milk is still 
their nourishment, but some that already are leaping 
about show a little shagginess, and have sprouting 
mane and hoofs, though these are still tender. 

How beautiful the female centaurs are, even where 

^ Centaurus, who united with the Magnesian mares and 
begat the centaurs according to the version of the story here 
referred to. 



al /lev yap Xevfcat^; 'ittttok; €/jL7r6(f)VKacnv, al he 
^av6al<^ avvdiTTOViai, ra':; he iroLKiWei fxevy 
airocniX^eL he auTMv olov rt rcjv ev KO/jLihjj 

'iTTTTCOV. €fC7r€(f)VKe Kol /jL€\aLPy]<; ITTTTOV XevKi] 

20 KevravpU Kal ra ivavTiaoTara tmv 'X^pwfxdrojv 
61? Ti-jV Tou KaWov^i avv6}]K7]v o/JLoXoyet, 

h' innoATTOS 

(1) To fxev OrjpLOP dpd^ ^rjcrew';, e/jLTreTrrcoKe 

he ToU 'iTTTroXvTov 'litttol^ ev el'hei ravpov 

XevKov Kara tou? heXcf)iva<;, rjKei he Ik daXdrrrjf; 

25 Kara tov fxeipaKlov ovhe/iia htxp. fnjrpvLa yap 

Oaihpa ^vvdelaa Xoyov eV avrw ov/c oina, &>? 

hrj epwTO inro tov 'IttttoXutou — avrrj hf dpa tov 

fieipaKiov i]pa — aTTaTaTai 6 ^h](76v<; tw Xoy(p 

Kal KaTapcLTai tov iraiho^ to, opcofieva. 

30 (2) 0/ fiev hrj 'lttttol 6pa<; tw? aTZ/xacrai^Te? tov 

fyyov eXevOepav alpovai ttjv ')(^aiTr]v, ov he^ Kpo- 

aLvovT€<; coairep ol XafMirpol Kal e/x(f)pove(;, dXX^ 

e^ifpfxevoL (f)6l3(p Kal tttoIci, palvovTe^ he d<^pw to 

34 o K. irehiov 6 fiev e? to Oypiov erreaTpaTTTaL cj)evyQ)v, 

6 8' dveaKipT7]Kev e? avTo, 6 he viro^XeireL, tw 

he eh TT]v OdXaTTav i) (popd KaOdirep eavTOV Kal 

T/}? 7>}? eKXaOofievw, pvKTVfpcn he opOoh o^v 

5 ^(^pefieTL^ovaiVy el /jli] TrapaKOvei^; t/}? ypa(f}i]<s. 

Tpoy^ol h' dp/xaTO^ 6 /nev e^tjpfioaTai Ta? Kvi]fjLa<; 

1 apd Reiske and Jacobs 
^ oil 5e iSchenkl: ov^4. 


[To face p. 141. 


they are horses; for some grow out of white mares, 
others are attached to chestnut mares, and the coats 
of others are dappled, but they ghsten like those of 
horses that are well cared for. There is also a white 
female centaur that grows out of a hlack mare, and 
the very opposition of the colours helps to produce 
the united beauty of the whole. 


The wild beast is the curse of Theseus ; i swift as 
dolphins it has rushed at the horses of Hippolytus in 
the form of a white - bull, and it has come from the 
sea against the youth quite unjustly. For his step- 
mother Phaedra concocted a story against him that 
was not true, to the effect that Hippolytus loved her, 
— but it was really herself that was in love with the 
youth — and Theseus, deceived by the tale, calls 
down upon his son the curse which we see here 

The horses, as you see, scorning the yoke toss 
their manes unchecked, not stamping their feet like 
well bred and intelligent creatures, but overcome 
with panic and terror, and spattering the plain with 
foam, one while fleeing has turned its head toward 
the beast, another has leaped up at it, another looks 
at it askance, while the onrush of the fourth carries 
him into the sea as though he had forgotten both 
himself and dry land ; and with erect nostrils they 
neigh shrilly, unless you fail to hear the painting. 
Of the wheels of the chariot one has been torn from 

^ Cf. Eur. Hi'pp. 1166f. ; The description includes many 
reminiscences from the plaj' of Euripides. 

^ The bull painted white occurs on a vase-painting, Fig. 19, 
Arch. Zeit. 188.S, Taf. vi. 



VTTO Tov avyK\LOrjvai ro cip/ia 6? avrov, 6 S' 
eVXeXoiTTO)? rov a^ova (peperac KaO^ eavrov 
arpo^ovay]<; avrov en t?}? hivij'^. SieTrroyjvraL 

10 Kal ol T(t3V oiraScov ittttol koI rov^ fiev airo- 
crelovTaiy tou? S' ay)(ovTa^ irol^ i^hy^ (pepovac ; 

(3) Su Be, jueipuKLOv, a(0(f)poavvy]<; epcov ahiKa 
fiev VTTO t/}? fi7]TpvLd(; e7raOe<;, dSiKcoTepa Be vtto 
TOV 7TaTp6<;, wcrre o)BvpaTO Kal i) ypacprj Opyjvov 
15 nva TTOUjTiKov eVt aol ^vvOetaa. a/coTTial fiev 
yap avrai, Bi ojv eO)]pa<; avv ^ApTe/jLiBi, 
BpvTTTovrai Ta? irapeici^ ev elBeu yvvacKoyv, 
\ei-/jL(i)ve<; B' ev Mpa /leipaKicov, ov<; aKijpdrov; 
oivoixat^e^, /jLapalvovaiv eVl aol ra avdrj, Nvfjucpai 

20 T€ al aal rpocpol rovreovl royv Tnjycjv avaa-^ovaai 
airapcLTTOvaL ra? Kofjua^; diroffXv^ovaai, tmv 
/xa^MV vBwp. (4) "Hfivve Be aoL ovB' i) avBpeia 
ovBev ovBe 6 ^pa)(^L(ov, dWd cfol ra fiev eaTrd- 
paKTat TMV iJLe\o3V, ra Be (TwreTpiiTTai, irecpvpraL 
25 8' /; k6 p,y], Kal to fxev arepvov efXTTvovv en KaOd- 
irep fir] fiediefievov tT;? ^i^X>}?, to Be ofifia Tvepia- 
dpel rd TSTpcofieva. (pev tT]<; Mpa<;, &)? drpcoTOf; 
Ti? €\e\}]6€t ovaa. ovBe yap vvv dirdXeiireL to 
peipuKiov, dW' QTTLirpeTreL tl Kal TOL<i Tpav- 

30 fiacTLV. 



its spokes as the chariot has tipped over upon it, the 
other has left its axle and goes rolHng off by itself, 
its momentum still turning it. The horses of the 
attendants also are frightened and in some cases 
throw off their riders, while as for those who grasp 
them firmly about the neck, to what goal are they 
now carrying them ? 

And thou, O youth that lovest chastity, thou hast 
suffered injustice at the hands of thy step-mother, 
and worse injustice at the hands of thy father, so 
that the painting itself mourns thee, having composed 
a sort of poetic lament in thine honour. Indeed yon 
mountain-})eaks over which thou didst hunt with 
Artemis take the form of mourning women that 
tear their cheeks, and the meadows in the form of 
beautiful youths, meadows which thou didst call 
" undefiled," ^ cause their flowers to wither for thee, 
and nymphs thy nurses emerging fiom yonder springs 
tear their hair and pour streams of water from their 
bosoms. 2 Neither did thy courage protect thee nor 
yet thy strong arm, but of thy members some have 
been torn ofr' and others crushed, and thy hair has 
been defiled with dirt ; thy breast is still breathing 
as though it would not let go of the soul, and thine 
eye gazes at all thy wounds. Ah, thy beauty I how 
proof it is against wounds no one would have 
dreamed. For not even now does it quit the body; 
nay, a charm lingers even on thy wounds. 

1 Cf. Eur. EipiJ. 73. 

2 i.e. in lieu of tears. 

^ TTo? Benndorf : ttoj 




(1) Kal TO alfia 7rpo<; tm ')(^a\K(p kuI Tat<; 
(poiVLKiat IT pocF ^dWei tl av6o^ rep aTpajoTrehw, 
Kal '^(apiev tT;? ypa(j)T}<; ol aWo<; aA-Xw? Treirjo)- 
KOTe^; 'iTTiroL re ciTa/CTOvvre^ /ler eKirXij^eo)^ Kal 
346 K. 7rap6(j)dopo<i vBcop TrorapLov, icf)' (p ravra, ol Be 
al^pdXcoTOL Kal to eV avTOt'i Tpoiraiov — 'PoSo- 
'yovvi'i Kal Wepaat VLKOdaiv ^Appeviov^ ev airovhal'^ 
dTaKTJ]aavTa<;, otg St] XeyeTac i) 'PoBoyovvr] 
5 KpaT7]aaL tt}? pLd^r]<^ ovhe oaov tcl Se^id r/)? 
XciiTrj^i dvd\aj3elv ^v'y)(^u)pi](Ta(Ta eavTrj /BpaSvvai. 
rj ouK iirfjpTai Kal (^povel eVl tyj vlkj] Kal 
^uvLTjcTiv, o)? eaoLTO doihipo^:; iirl tw epyw Kal 
ev KiOdpa Kal ev avXcp Kal evBa "E,XXyve<; ; 
10 (2) irpoayeypaTTTat Se avTrj Kal ^r^aaia 'itttto^; 
peXaiva eirl XevKol^; Toh aKeXeai, Kal to, aTepva 
XevKCL Kal TO irvevpa utto XevKov tou pLVKTijpo'^ 
Kal TO pieTcoTTOv ^ ev dpTiw tw kvkXco. XlOcov 
puev ovv Kal oppiwv Kal 7ravT0<^ drraXov Koapuov 
15 7rapaKe-)(^(i)pi]Kev y 'PoSoyovvt] T(p 'itttto), &>? 
dydXXoLTO Kal d/3p(x)<^ tov ')^aXivov BiaTTTVor 
KOKKol3a(pel Se eaOfJTt KaTaXdpireL irdvTa 7rXr]v 
TOV eavTP]<; eLSov<;'" ev ySeta pev Trj ^divr] Kal ti]v 
eadr)Ta peTpovarj e? yovv, yheia he Tjj dva^vpihi 
20 Kal Tvape^opevr) ypa(f)d<; diro KepKLSo<;, to Be diro 
o'ypLOv e? dyKOdva tov ')(^iTcora SiaXeiTTovaai TropTrai 
^vvdiTTOvaLV viTavi(T)(ova')]<^ eraXXd^ t?}? u>]<;, 

^ \evKhu is to be supplied or understood after fxlrunrov. Cf. 
suprd 834, 15 K. 

2 The text immediately following elfSour is apparently 




The blood and also the bronze weapons and the 
purple garments lend a certain glamour to the battle- 
scene, and a pleasing feature of the painting is the 
men who have fallen in different postures, and horses 
running wildly in terror, and the pollution of the 
water of the river by which these events occur, and 
the captives, and the trojihy commemorating the 
victory over them. Rhodogoune and the Persians 
are conquering the Armenians who broke the treaty, 
on the occasion when Rhodogoune is said to have 
won the battle, not even having allowed herself to 
tarry long enough to fasten up the right side of her 
hair. Is she not elated and proud of the victory and 
conscious that she will be celebrated for her exploit 
with lyre and flute and wherever there are Greeks? 
Her horse also is in the painting, a black Nisaean 
mare with white legs ; its breast also is white, its 
breath comes from white nostrils and its forehead 
is marked with white in a perfect circle. Nay, 
Rhodogoune has bestowed upon tlie mare precious 
stones and necklaces and every dainty ornament, that 
it may delight in them and champ its bit delicately ; 
and Rhodogoune is resplendent with scarlet raiment, 
all except her face ; she wears a charming girdle 
which permits her robe to fall only to her knee, 
and charming trousers in which designs are woven ; 
her chiton is fastened with brooches set at intervals 
from shoulder to elbow, the arm showing between 

^ Probably the Persian queen of whom Polysenus 27 relates 
that while washing her hair word was brought that a subject 
tribe had revolted. Hastily binding up her hair and swear- 
ing that she would not wash it until she had put down the 
rebellion, she leapt upon her horse and went to battle. 




ep6a o Secr/xo?, 6 Be o)fio^ eyfceLTUL' to a^P)/xa 
ovTTCi) 'Ayuafoj^o?. (H) Kttl tt)? acTTTt^o? djaadai 

25 ;^p^ TO fMerpiov Kal airoxpcov tw arepvw. fcal 
TrjV l(T-)(yv T% ypa<l)i]<; ivravBa i^erdcrar virep- 
/SaWovaa yap ?; dpLarepa top iropiraKa e^eTaL 
tP]<; alxP'V^ d(f)iaTaaa tov aTepvov tijv ciaTriSa, 
6pOfj<; Be 6KK€t/Jiep7]<; tT;? IVfo? opaTai fxev koI tcl 

30 e^o) T/}? a(J7ri'5o9* ^ oi) ■)(^pvad TavTa Kal olov 
^wa ; TCL Be eaco Kal evOa i) %ei/} dXovpyd, 
irpocravOel Be avTol<; 6 7r7]'^v<;. 

(4) XlaOdveaOai fxoi BoKet<;, o) Tral, tov ev 
avTrj KdXkov<i Kal /SovXeaOai tl Kal irepl tovtov 

35 UKoveiv aKOve Bi]. airevBei pev eirl ttj tmv 
347 K. ' ApfievLwv Tpoirfj, Kal 7) evvoia evxo/Jievy]<;' 
€V)(^6Tat Be a'lpelv tou? dvBpa^, co? ^ vvu yprfKev 
ov ydp fioL BoK€L epdv tov epaaOai. Kal to /jl€V 
dveiXij/xfievov tcop Tpi')(^Mv alBol KeKoapi^Tat to 
5 dyepwyov KoXa^ovar], to Be civeTOV ^aKy^evet 
avTrjV Kal pcovvvai. Kal ^avOov /xev Kal "^pvaov 
irepa to dTaKTovv tT/? k6/jL1]<;, to Be eirl OdTepa 
Kelfievov ex^t- t* f^dl €<; ayy7]v ^ irapaWdTTOV 
VTTO TOV TeTayOai. tcov Be 6(^pvcov xapiev pLev 

10 TO aTTO ToO avTOv apx^dOat Kal opioOev eKirecftv- 
KBvai T/)? pivo<^, yapieaTepov Be to irepiPj^Oar 
Bel ydp avTd<; yu,/; 7rpo/3e/3\rja0at tmv 6(^0a\p,MV 
p,6vov, dXkd Kal 7r€pt^€/3\fja6ac avT0i<;. (5) 'H 

1 COS Olearius : ovs. 

^ The dress of the Amazons was a sleeveless chiton girded, 
that did not reach quite to the knees. 
2 Cf. Aiuicreontea, 16. 13 f. 

tJ) fieaocppvov St ^utj /j.01 


BOOK 11. 5 

the fastenings^ though the shoulder is covered ; the 
dress is not that of an Amazon. ^ One should also 
admire the shield, of moderate size but large enough 
to cover the breast. And at this point one should 
examine carefully the effectiveness of the painting ; 
for the left hand extends beyond the handle of the 
shield and grasps the spear, holding the shield away 
from the breast : and though the rim is held out 
straight, the outside of the shield is also visible — is 
it not resplendent and as it were animate with life ? 
— while the inside, where the arm is, is of a purple 
hue and the forearm shines against this background. 
It seems, my boy, that you have a feeling for the 
beauty in this figure and desire to hear something 
on this point also, so listen. Rhodogoune is pouring 
a libation for her victory over the Armenians, and 
the artist's conception is of a woman praying. She 
prays to conquer men, even as she has now conquered 
them ; for I do not think she loves to be loved. 
The part of her hair that is fastened up is arranged 
with a modesty that tempers her high spirit, while 
that which hangs loose gives her vigour and the look 
of a bacchant. Yellow, even yellower than gold, is 
her disarranged hair; while the hair on the other 
side differs also somewhat in hue because of its 
orderly arrangement. The way her eyebrows^ begin 
at the same point and rise together from the nose is 
charming ; but more charming still is the curve they 
make ; for the brows ought not only to be set above 
the eyes but should also be set in an arch around 

ix^Tca S\ oTTws iKeii/T], 

Th AeA-TySoTws (rvvo<ppv 

^\e(pdpcvv trvs KeAaivr], 
Her eyebrows neither join nor sever, 
But make (as 'tis) that selvage never 
Clearly one nor surely two. 




irapeid Se viToh6)(^6TaL jxev top utto tojv o/xfidrcov 

15 l)jL€pov, ev(ppaLi'6i he tw IXapu) — to yap (f)i\.o/jL€iSe<i 

ev irapeid p^dXiara — Kai o'l 6(pda\/j.ol Ke/cpavrai 

fiev diro tov \apoiTov e? to fiekav, 7rap€')(ovTaL 

Be TO fiep iXapov diro tov Kaipov, to 3e aypalov 

diTo tt)? (f)vaeco<;, rb Se yavpov diro rod dp\€iv. 

20 (TTO/jLa Be diraXov /cal dvafiearov oiroipa^ epwri- 

Kr)<;, (j)iXi]aaL fxev ySiarov, dirayyelXat he ov 

pdSiov. d Se d7r6)(p7] aoL fiaOecv opa, iraihiov 

X^^^V dvOijpd Kal taa, (TTopia av/xfjieTpov Kal 

Tra pa<p0 eyy 6 fievov rrjv ev^h^ "^^ rpoiraitp' Kav 

25 irapaKOvaai ^ovXi^Owp^ev, Td)(a eXXi]viel. 


(1) 'E? avrd 7;/cei? 'OXvpLiria Kal tcju ev 
'OXvfiiTLa TO KaXXiarov rovrl yap B)] dvBpoiv 
TO irayKpdTLOv. aTe^avovTai Be avTo^ Wppi^^cov 
€7ra7ro6av(bv Trj vlkt] Kal aTecpavoc avTov ovroal 
30 'EXXavoBiKi]<i — drpeKT]^ Be TrpoaeiprjaOtii Bid re 
TO eTTLixeXelaOai dXr]6eia<; Bid ts to co? eKelvoi 
348 K. yeypd<j)6ai — aTdBiov Te t) yrj BiBwaiv ev dirXfj 
avXcovi Kal elo-exovarj togovtov, Kal to tov 

^ avrh Kayser : avrcf 

^ Cf. Pind. Isthm. 2. 6 : 'Acppobiras . . . adia-rav oirupav. 

2 The pancratium, so-called because it brought into play 
all the powers of those wlio engaged in it, was a combination 
of boxing and wrestling. It was permissible to maim or 
choke one's opponent, but only at Sparta was biting allowed. 
The contest began with the opponents standing, while it 
continued if one was thrown down and only ended when one 



them. As for the cheek, it receives tlie yearning 
that emanates from the eyes, yet it delights in 
merriment — for it is mostly in the cheek that mirth 
is shown — and the colour of the eyes varies from 
light blue to black ; the joy they show is due to the 
occasion, their beauty is a gift of nature, while their 
haughtiness arises from her authority as ruler. The 
mouth is delicately formed and filled with "love's 
harvest," 1 most sweet to kiss, most difficult to 
describe. But you may observe, my boy, all you 
need to be told : the lips are full of colour and even 
the mouth is well proportioned and it utters its prayer 
before the trophy of victory ; if we care to listen 
attentively, perhaps it will speak in Greek. 


You have come to the Olympic games themselves 
and to the noblest of the contests held at Olympia ; 
for this is the pancratium- of men, Arrichion is being- 
crowned^ for winning this event, having died just 
after his victory, and the Judge of the Games yonder is 
crowning him — let him be called "'the strict judge,"* 
both because he sedulously strives for the truth and 
because he is indeed depicted like the Olympic 
judges. The land furnishes a stadium in a simple 
glen of sufficient extent,^ from which issues the 

was killed or acknowledged himself defeated by raising his 

3 Cf. Pans. 8. 40. 2 records this fact ; see note 1, p. lo2. 

^ Cf. Pind. 01. 3. 21 : drpe«:r?s 'EAAai/oSi/cas, referring to the 
judge at Olympia. 

5 The stadium at Olympia was not equipped with rising 
tiers of seats like the one at Athens. 



W(f)€LOv i>a/ia i^ipx^rai. Kov(f)Ov —Tavrd rot Kal 
li6vo<; TTorafXMV inl r?}? OdXdrTt]'^ 6)(elrai — 
T) Konvoi re avrw TreptreOjjXacrip ev yXavKco el'Set 
KaXoi Kal Kara rrjv tmv o-eXlvcov ouXoTijra. 

(2) TafTt fiev ovv fiera ro ardSiov eTTiaKe^jro- 
fieOa Kal TroXXa erepa, to he epyov tov 
Wppi)(^iO)vo<;, TTplv 7) iravaacrdaL avro, aKoirMfiev. 

10 eoLK6 'yap /xr] rod civTiirdXov /lovov, dXXa Kal rod 
'EjXX7]vlkou KeKpartjKevat' /SoMai yovv dvairiihi]- 
aavre^ tmv OdKwv Kal 01 /nev rco %6i/36 dvaaeiov- 
(TLv, 01 Be rrfv eadrjTa, 01 Se atpovrai diro rrj<; 
yrj<i, 01 8e toI<^ TrXi-jaiov iXapov irpoairaXaiovaL' 

15 ra yap 6vt(o<; eKTrXrfKTLKa ov avyX^P^'^ toI<; 
d€aTaL<; ev rw KadeKTw elvai. rj tl<; oi/ro)? 
dvaia07]To<;, 009 fir] dvaKpayelv errl tw dOXTjrfj ; 
/leydXov yap Srj avrCo v7rdp')(0VT0<; rod Sl<; ijBrj 
VLKyjaaL rd ^OXv/xTria fxel^ov tovto vvvl, ore Kal 

20 T?)? '^V)(ri^ avrd Kryjadpei'O^ eh tov tmv oX/Slwv 
Tre/jiTreTai X^P^^ avTrj Kovei. /jL7] Se avvTv^ia 
voelaOco tovto' aocpcoTaTa yap TrpovvoyjOrj ttJ? 

(3) Kal TO TrdXatdfia ; at 7rayKpaTid^ovTe<;, 
25 CO Trai, KeKCvSwev/jievr) TrpoaxpayvTaL t/} irdXr)' 

Set yap avTol<; vTrcoTriaa/jLcov tg, at /jlt] elaiv 
da(f)aXeL<; tw iraXaiovTi, Kal aufiTrXoKcov, ev al? 
nrepiyivecrOaL XPV olov TriirTovTa, Bel Be avToh 
Kal re;^!'/;? e? to dXXoTe dXXw^ dyx^tv, ol Be 
30 avTol Kal ac^vpo) irpoaTraXaiovai Kal ttjv %et/oa 
aTpel3Xov(TL TTpocrovTO^ tov iraieiv Kal evdXXeaOciL' 
TavTL yap tov rrayKpaTid^eiv epya irXrjv tov 

^ Alpheius, an Arcadian hunter, fell in love with Arethusa, 
■svho fled across the sea to Syracuse, where she was trans- 
formed into a fountain on the island Ortygia. Alpheius 


stream of tlie Alpheius, a light stream — that, you 
know, is why it alone of rivers flows on top of the 
sea^ ; and about it grow wild olive trees of green-grey 
colour, beautiful and curly like parsley leaves. 

Now after we have observed the stadium, we will 
turn our attention to various other points, and in 
particular let us take note of the deed of Arrichion 
before it is ended. For he seems to have conquered, 
not his antagonist alone, but also all the Greeks ; at 
any rate the spectators jump up from their seats and 
shout, some wave their hands, some their garments, 
some leap from the ground, and some grapple with 
their neighbours for joy ; for these really amazing deeds 
make it impossible for the spectators to contain them- 
selves. Is anyone so without feeling as not to applaud 
this athlete ? For after he had already achieved a 
great deed by winning two victories in the Olympic 
games, a yet greater deed is here depicted, in that, 
having won this victory at the cost of his life, he is 
being conducted to the realms of the blessed witii 
the very dust of victory still upon him. Let not 
this be regarded as mere chance, since he planned 
most shrewdly for the victory. 

And as to the wrestling? Those who engage in 
the pancratium, my boy, employ a wrestling that is 
hazardous ; for they must needs meet blows on the 
face that are not safe for the wrestler, and must 
clinch in struggles that one can only win by pre- 
tending to fall, and they need skill that they may 
choke an adversary in different ways at different 
times, and the same contestants are both wrestling 
with the ankle and twisting the opponent's arm, to 
say nothing of dealing a blow and leaping upon the 
adversary; for these things are all permissible in the 

was changed into a river and followed her across the sea. 
Cf. Pausanias 5. 7. 2. 


SuKveiv I) 6pvTT€LV. AaKeSacfioviOL fxev ovv koI 
ravra vo/j.i^ovaii> diroyv/jpa^ovre^; olfiat eafxou? 

35 e? ra<; fid^a^, 'HXetOf Se dycjvef; ravrl fxev 
dcpaipovai, rb 8e dy^^eiv eTraivovaiv. (4) "OOev 
349 K. Tov Wppi'y^Lcoi'a fieaov y]Sy] yprjKco^; 6 dvTL7Ta\o<; 
diTOKTelvai eyvco fcal tov /i€v ttPj^^vp rfi Seipfj i]Sr] 
iviffaXev air o(f) parr cov avrw to aaOfia, to, aKeXrj 
Se TOi? Kovfiojaiv ivapfioaa^ koI irepLhieipa^ 6? 
5 eKarepav djKvXrjv ciKpw tco irohe tco jiev Tri'lyp^ajL 
e<^6ii avTOV vrrvifkov rb evrevOev Oavdrov rot? 
alad7]T7]pioi<i evTp6)(^ovTO^, TTj he eTTLrdaet rcov 
GKeXoiv dveifievr) ')(pj]ad/jLevo<; ovk e(f)0)] rbv 
\oyicr/ibv tov ^ AppL^iwvo<i' €K\aKTiaa<i yap tov 

10 Tapabv tov ttoSo? ^Appi-^loyv, v(f)^ ov eKLvhvvevev 
avTO) TCi Se^id Kpe/JLavvv/jiiv7]<; i^hrj r?}? dyKuXr}^, 
eKelvov fxev avve)(^eL tco ^ovjSmvl co? ovket dvTiira- 
Xov, TOL'^ Se ye dpL(TTepol<^ evL^i]aa<^ koI to 
irepiTTbv aKpov tov ttoSo? evairoKXeiaa'^ Ty 

lo dyKvXrj ovk ed fxeveiv to) acpvpo) Tbv dcTTpdyaXov 
virb T?)? €t? TO efo) jStaiov diroaTpo^rj';' i) yap 

^ Pans. 8. 40. 2 describes an archaic statue of Arrachion 
(whom Philostratus calls Arrichion) in the market place of 
Phigaleia, which was erected for his victory in the pan- 
cratium in the 55th Olympiad (b.c 564). His adversary, 
Pausanias says, got the first grip, and "twining his legs 
around him held him fast, while he squeezed his throat M'ith 
liis hands. Arrachion put one of his adversary's toes out of 
joint and expired under the grip that his adversary had on 
his tliroat, but the latter in the act of throttling him was 
obliged at the same moment by the pain in his toe to give in. 
Tlie Eleans crowned and proclaimed victorious the dead body 
of Arrachion" (Trans. Frazer). 

Philostratus refers to the story again, de arte gym. 21 ; 


pancratium — anything except biting and gouging. 
The Lacedaemonians, indeed, allow even these, be- 
cause, 1 suppose, they are training themselves for 
battle, but the contests of Elis exclude them, though 
they do permit ciioking. Accordingly the antagonist 
of Arrichion, having already clinched him around the 
middle, thought to kill him ; ^ already he had wound 
his forearm about the other's throat to shut off the 
breathing, while, pressing his legs on the groins and 
winding his feet one inside each knee of his adversary, 
he forestalled Arrichion's resistance by choking him 
till the sleep of death thus induced began to creep 
over his senses. But in relaxing the tension of his 
legs he failed to forestall the scheme of Arrichion; 
for the latter kicked back with the sole of his 
right foot (as the result of which his right side was 
imperilled since now his knee was hanging un- 
supported), then with his groin he holds his ad- 
versary tight till he can no longer resist, and, 
throwing his weight down toward the left while 
he locks the latter's foot tightly inside his own 
knee, by this violent outward thrust he wrenches 
the ankle from its socket. ^ Arrichion's soul, though 

and a brief account of it is given by Eusebius, Chron. 1. p. 
202, Schune. 

^ The pair wrestle standing, the opponent on the back of 
Arrichion with one arm clinched about his throat and the 
other apparently under his armpit, and with the legs on his 
groins and the feet twisted under the inside of his knees. 
But when his opponent relaxes his hold in the belief that 
Arrichion is conquered, the latter jerks back his right foot 
(giving up his firm stance) and throws himself over to the 
left. The very weight of his body, as his strength fails, 
helps the manoeuvre. His opponent's foot is caught the 
more securely under his knee and the force of his leftward 
thrust twists the ankle from its socket. 



ylrv^Tj aiTiovaa rod aco/iaro^; dSpav€<; fiev avro epyd- 
^erai, SiScoaL Se avrfo La)(^v€tv et? o ciirepeiheTaL. 

20 (5) VeypaiTTaL he 6 fieu uTroTrvi^a^ veKpcp 
eiKacrdi. koI to dirayopevov eTnaij/xaLVwv rfj 
X^^P^* he ^ A ppi'^Lcov oaa oi viK6)VTe<i yeypair-rai' 
Kol yap TO aljxa ev toj avdet koI 6 ihpw^; 
aKpaL^in-j^ en, Kal /jLeiStd KaOdirep oi fwi^re?, 

25 eTreihdv VLKtjf; alaOdvwvjai. 


(1) Tov 'A;\;tXXea ipdv rov ' AvriXoxov 7r6(/)<w- 
paKa<; ol/jiac Trap* 'O/xtjpfp, vecorarov tou 'EWtjul- 


Tov xp^(^ov evvowv to iirl tw dyoivL. Kal diray- 
30 yeWei tco W^xi-XXel KelaOat tov UdTpoKXop, 
ao(f)Laap.evov tov Me/eXeco irapafivdlav 6/jLOu ttj 
dyyeXia, ixeTaPXey\ravTO<^ 'A;^tXXea)9 et? naiBiKd, 
Kal OpTjvel epco/jLevou errl to) irevOei Kal avvex^c 
TO) x^Lpe, /jil] diroKTeivrj eavTov, 6 5' olpai Kal 
350 K. aTTTOfxevu) xaipei Kal haKpvovTi. 

(2) AvTai^ jiev ovv 'Opijpov ypacpal, to Be tov 
^a)ypd(f)0v hpdp,a' o 'Mep.vcdv e'f AWiOTTia^ 
d(f)iK6p,ei'0<; KTeivei tov WvTiXo\ov irpo^e^Xr)- 

5 pLevov TOU TraTpo<s Kal tov<^ 'A^^^a^oi/? olov Seipa 
iK7rXi]TTei — 7rp6 yap tov ^[eproi>o<; pivOo^ o'l 

^ avTai Jacobs : ai/ra. 

^ Cf. II. 15. 569 : " Antilochus, none other of the Achaeanp 
is younger than thou, nor swifter of foot." Trans. jNIurray, 

2 Cf. //. 23. 796 : Achilles says, "Nay, I will add to thy 
prize a half talent of gold." Trans. Murra}', L.C.L. 


it makes him feeble as it leaves his body, yet gives 
him strength to achieve that for wliich he strives. 

The one who is choking Arrichion is painted to 
look like a corpse, and as indicating with his hand 
that he gives up the struggle ; but Arrichion is 
painted as all victors are ; for his blood is of rich 
colour, the perspiration is still fresh on his body and 
he smiles as do the living when they are conscious 
of victory. 


That Achilles loved Antilochus you must have 
discovered in Homer, seeing Antilochus to be the 
youngest man in the Greek host^ and considering 
the half talent of gold - that was given him after the 
contest. And it is he who brings word to Achilles^ 
that Patroclus has fallen, for Menelaiis cleverly 
devised this as a consolation to accompany the an- 
nouncement, since Achilles' eyes were thus diverted 
to his loved one ; and Antilochus laments in grief for 
his friend and restrains his hands lest he take his 
own life, while Achilles no doubt rejoices at the 
touch of the youth's hand and at the tears he sheds.* 

Now such is the scene in Homer, but the events 
depicted by the painter are as follows : Memnon 
coming from Ethiopia slays Antilochus who had 
thrown himself in front of his father,^ and he seems 
to strike terror among the Achaeans — for before 
Memnon's time black men were but a subject for 

^ Cf. II. 18. 1 f. for the description of this scene. 

* Cf. //. 18. 33 f. : "Antilochus wailed and shed tears, 
holding the hands of Achilles . . . for he feared lest he 
should cut his throat asunder witli the knife." Trans. 
Murray, L.C.L. 

^ Antilochus was the son of Xestor. 



/jL€\ai'e<; — fcpaT0vvT6<i Se oi \\')(^aLo\ rov <7(M)/jLaT0<; 
ohvpovTat Tov ' AvTi\o')(ov 01 Wrepelhai /cal 6 etc 
tT/? '\0(iK7]<; KOI 6^ TOV Ti/Sew? kgX oi o/jlmvv/jloi,. 

10 eTTiSrjXof; Be 6 fi€v ^WaKjjaiOs niro rov aTpvcf)V0v 
Koi €yp7]yop6TO<;, 6 Be MereXew? utto tov rjfiepov, 
6 Be 'Aya/xepvwp utto tov evdeov, tov Be tov 
TuSeco? r] eXevdepia ypdcpei, yv(Dpi^0L<^ B' av koi 
tov TeXa/icoviov utto tov fiXoavpov Koi tov 

15 AoKpov airo tov eTol/jLOV. (3) Kal r) aTpaTta 
TrevOtl TO jieipaKLov it ep tea ToyTe<; avrw Op/jvay 
cifxa, 7n]^avT6^ Be Ta<; alxfxci^i ei? TOvBa(f)o<; 
evaXXcLTTOvai tco iroBe koX aTijpl^ovTai iirl 
Tcbv al-^ixchv airepeiaavTe's oi irXelaTOL Bva(f)op- 

20 ovaa^ ra? /ce(f>aXa<; tw cix^t. (4) Tov 'Ax^XXea 
fir] diro tt}? KOfxr]^ — otx^'^cii yap tovto avTw /xera 
TOV XlciTpoKXov — uXXa TO elBo'^ avTov evBetKvvTO) 
Kal TO /xeye^o? Kal avTo to fiy] KOfidv. Oprjvel Be 
7rpoaKei/ievo<; rot? (TTepvoL<^ tov WvtlXo^ov, koi 

26 TTvpav ol/iai eTrayyeXXeTai Kal to, €9 avT7]v Kal 
TO. oirXa Ta-o)? Kal ttjv Kec^aXrjv tov ^le/ivovo<;' 
aTTOTelaat yap Kal tov \le/jLV0va oaa tov "KKTopa, 
ft)? fitiBe TavTa 6 ^ AvtlXo)(o<; eXaTTOv tov 
TlaTpoicXov exoi' o B' ev to) tmv AWioircov 

30 (JTpaTcp BeLVO^ eaTi]Kev e%ft»i/ alxM^' ^^^ XeovTrjv 
ivr]fiuevo<i Kal aeai]pa)<; e<? TOv'AxiXXea. (o) S/ce-v/r- 
(jopeOa ovv Kal tov ' AvtIXo^ov 7)^daK€L fiev 
L/TT/J/'?;? TTpoaco, Ko/xa Be ev yXicoarj Kopir). Kovcpo^; 
T) KVij/jLTj Kal TO aoipa avfi/jL€Tpov e? paaTMvrjv 

35 TOV Bpopov Kal to al/jca olov eir eXecpavTL XP^f^ci 
^ fK before tov deleted by Kayser. 

1 i.e. the two Ajaxes, the son of Telamon and the son of 



story — and the Achaeans, gaining possession of the 
body, lament Antilochus, both the sons of Atreus 
and the Ithacan and the son of Tydeus and the two 
heroes of the same name.^ The Ithacan is made 
known by his austere and vigilant look, xMenelaus 
by his gentleness, Agamemnon by his god-like mien, 
while the son of Tydeus is marked by his nobility, 
and you would recognize the Telamonian Ajax by 
his grimness and the Locrian by his alertness. And 
the army mourns the youth, standing about him in 
lamentation ; and, their spears fixed in the ground 
and their legs crossed, they stand, most of them in 
their grief bowing their sorrowing heads on their 
spears. You are not to recognize Achilles by his 
long hair, for that is gone since the death of Patro- 
clus, but let his beauty make him known to you, and 
his stature, aye, and the very fact that he does not 
wear long hair.^ He laments, throwing himself on 
the breast of Antilochus, and he seems to be promising 
him a funeral pyre and the offerings to be placed upon 
it and perchance the arms and head of Memnon ; for 
he proposes that Memnon shall pay all the penalties 
Hector paid, that in this respect also Antilochus may 
have no less honour than Patroclus had. Memnon 
stands, terrible to look upon, in the army of the 
Ethiopians, holding a spear and wearing a lion's skin 
and sneering at Achilles. Let us next look at 
Antilochus. He is in the prime of youth, just 
beyond the period of downy beard, and his bright 
hair is his pride. His leg is slender and his body 
proportioned for running with ease,^ and his blood 

2 Cf. 11. 23. 141 f. for Homer's account of Achilles' 
dedication of his long hair at the funeral pyre of Patroclus. 

3 Cf. IL 23.756; Od. 3. 112. 



351 K. r)v6i]Kev €fi7r€aov(T7]<; avTco Kara rod arepvov t/}? 
at%yLt/)?. Kelrai Be ov Ka77](f)€<; to /leipuKiov ovSe 
veKpo) eLKuaai, (^aihpov 8' eri^ Kai /j-eiSicov T7]v 
yap OLfiai ')(apav rrjv eirl tw tov Trarepa acoaai 
5 (f)€po)v ev T&) elhei 6 'Avt IXo^^o^; dircoXeTO vtto tt}? 
alxf^V^y fcal TO TTpoacoTTOv y ^vxh KaTekiirev ov)(^ 
&)? ijXyrjaev, dW' w? eireKpciTyjae to ev(f)palvov. 


(1) To /j,€v TOV ^Kvc7reQy<; kul &>? rjpa r) Tvpo) 
TOV vBaTO^i, 'OfMYjpu) XeXe/CTat — XiyeL Se aTraTr^v 

10 iic Yloaethoivo^ koX to avOo'^ tov KvpuaTO^iy vcp^ 
w 1] evvj] — ovToal Be 6 X0709 6T€po<;, ovfc €k 
(d€TTaXLa<;, aXV ^Icoviko^;. ipa r) KpiOrjU iv 
^Icovla TOV j\IeX7;T09, o 8' i<f)j]l3a) eoiKe fcal 
opaTUL TO) OeaTfi 6X0^, eKel efc^dXXwv odev 

15 dp)(^€Tai. TTiveL Be ov Bi-^wcra Kai Xa/jL/3dv6Tat, 
TOV vBaTO<; Kai KeXapu^ovTi irpoaBLaXeyeTai 
KaOdirep XaXovvTL, BdKpva Be Xei^ei epcoTiKa 
TO) vBari, Kai 6 iroTafJio^ — dvTepa ydp — )(^aLpei 
avTMv Trj Kpdaei. (2) ')(^apiev /j.€v ovv t?)? 

20 ypa(f))]<; avTo<; 6 MeX^;? ev KpoKw Kai Xcdtoj 

* 5' ert Beitndorf : n and tc libri. 

^ Cf. 77. 4. 141 f : "As when a woman staineth ivory 
with scarlet . . . even in such wise, Menelaiis, were thy 
thighs stained with blood." Trans, Murray, L.C. L. 



shines red, like colour on ivory/ where the spear- 
point penetrated his breast. The youth lies there, 
not sad of aspect nor yet like a corpse, but still 
joyous and smiling ; for it was with a look of joy on 
his face (because, I fancy, he had saved his father's 
life) that Antilochus died from the spear-thrust, and 
the soul left his countenance, not when he was in 
pain, but when gladness prevailed. 


The story of Enipeus and of Tyro's love for the 
river has been told by Homer,^ and he tells of 
Poseidon's deception of her and of the splendid 
colour of the wave beneath which was their couch 
— but the story here told is a different one, not 
from Thessaly l3ut Ionian. Critheis loves the river 
Meles^ in Ionia, and it takes the form of a young 
man and is wholly visible to the spectator, for it 
empties into the sea in the region where it arises. 
She drinks the water though she is not thirsty, and 
takes it in her hands, and keeps up a conversation 
with it as though the murmur of the water were 
human speech, and sheds tears of love into the water ; 
and the river, since it loves her in return, delights to 
mingle her tears with its stream. Now a delightful 
feature of the painting is the figure of Meles lying 

^ Cf. Od. 11. 235. "She (T^to) became enamoured of the 
river .... and she was wont to resort to the fair waters of 
Enipeus. But the Enfolder and Shaker of the earth took his 
form, and lay with her at the mouth of the eddying river. 
And the dark wave stood about them like a mountain, vaulted 
over, and hid the god and the mortal woman." Trans. 
Murray, L.CL. 

^ A small river near Smyrna. 


K€Lfji€vo<i /cal vaKLv6(o ')(aLp(i)v Si' rjXiKLav rod 
av6ov<; Kai 7rap€)(o/jL6vo<; el^o? ci/Sphp /cal jxeipa- 
KL())he<\ Kal ovhe aao(f)ov — eLiroL^i civ rov^ 6(f)0a\- 
fiovf; Tou yiiXrjTo*; avaaKOirelv ri royv 

25 TTOLrjTiKwv — ')(^apiev 8e avrou Kal on jjuy) \d- 
yS/oou? ra 9 777/709 iKhihcoai, KaOdirep rov<^ d/jLaOeU 
rcjv TTora/jLcoi' ypdcfieadaL vofxo^y dWci ti-jv yfjv 
aKpoL^ Tol<s^ SaKTvXoi^ Bia/j^co/jiepo^; V7r€)(€t rrjv 
X^^p(^ '^<P y^cLTi dyfrocprjrl ^Xv^ovri, /cal oparai 

30 i)ijlIv, ct)9 rfi <ye Kpidt/lSt vScop ovro^ /cal irapa/cd- 

Oi]TaL oveipaTL, W9 (f)aaiv. (3) 'AA,X' ovk ovap 

352 K. ravra, m Kpi.07]L<;, ovSe €l<; vScjp rov epcora rou- 

Tov ypd(f)6i<i' €pa ydp aov 6 irorafxo^, ev olSa, Kal 

ao(f)i^€TaL Tiva v/ullv OdXa/iov KVfia alpwv, v(f)' 

(p 7] evvrj earai. el Se aTriareU, Xe^co aoL Kal 

5 rifv rov 6aXd/iov Te)(yriv' Xeirrrj avpa KVfia 

VTToBpa/jLOvaa ipyd^eraL avro Kvprov Kal irepL- 

VX^'^ ^^^ ^11^0 7] pov err 1) yap dvravyeia rov 

i)Xlov xP^/^^ Trpoa/SdXXeL /lerecopcp ro) vSari. 

(4) Tt' ovv, (h iral, Xa/jL/Sdvy fiov ; ri S' ovk ea9 

10 Kal ra Xonrd Sie^ievai t/}? ypa<j>rj<^ ; el ^ovXet, 

Kal TTjv Kpt.Or]LBa Siaypdyjr(o/iev, eVe^S?; ;^ai/oet2/ 

<^?79, orap ivaXvT] avTOL<; 6 X6709. XeyeaOco 

^ The principal MSS. vary between &Kpois to7s and &Kpav 
Tois. The former seems to be confirmed by Eur. Bacch. 709 
6.Kpoi(Ti SaKTvAoicTi biaij.ui<jat x^'^''^, obviously imitated by our 
author. The Teubner Text reads &Kpav, i.e. "the surface 
only of the earth." 

^ i.^., to those who look at the painting. 

2 The Teubner editors suggest this explanation: "The 
delicate youth Meles, reclining on a high spot among 
the flowers, by the striking (tisposition of the figure 
provides a double ciiarm ; with his hand he lets the water 
flow very gently into the stream, on the bank of which at a 

BOOK li. g 

on a bed of crocus and lotus blossoms and delighting 
in the hyacinth because of its fresh young bloom, 
and presenting an appearance delicate and youthful 
and not at all lacking in cleverness — indeed you 
would say that the eyes of Meles were contemplating 
some poetic theme. It is a delightful feature also 
that he does not pour forth turbulent streams at his 
source, as boorish rivers are usually painted ; nay, he 
but cuts a passage through the earth with the tips 
of his fingers and holds his hand beneath the water 
as it trickles noiselessly by; and to us ^ it is clear 
that, for Critheis, Meles is water and that it is a 
dream,2 as we say, beside which she is sitting. Nay 
but, Critheis, this is no dream, nor are you writing this 
love of yours in water 3; for the river loves you, I know 
it well, and he is devising a chamber for you both by 
lifting up a wave beneath which shall be your 
couch. If you do not believe me, I will tell you 
the very construction of the chamber ; a light breeze 
running under a wave causes it to curve over and 
makes it resonant and also of brilliant hue ; for the 
reflection of the sun lends colour to the uplifted water. 

Why do you seize hold of me, my boy ? Why do 
you not let me go on and describe the rest of the 
painting ? If you wish, let us next describe Critheis, 
since you say you are pleased when my tale roams 
freely over such things. Well, let us speak of her ; 
lower level Critheis stays, giving herself up to her love ; and, 
being unseen by her, rocks or bushes for example intervening 
between them, he makes it clear to the spectators that toCritheis 
he seems to be water and that she is dallying with a dream." 

The proverb seems to suggest that the reclining river was 
dreaming of her, the beloved, while she sits at his side as a 
Greek wife was wont to sit beside her sleeping husband. 

^ Another proverbial expression ; cf. Sophocles, frag. 742 n., 
opKovs iyw yuvaiKos els vdcop ypdcpco., " A woman's oaths I write 
in water." 




Toivvv aj3pov /JL6V avrrj to el^o? kol fidXa 
^\(jovlic6v, aiSa)<; Se tco etSet i-KLirpeiTeL koX clito- 

15 ')(^pii rovTo rfj Trapeia to avdo<^, rj %atT7; Se 
aveL\rjTTTaL fxev vtto to ou?, iTTLKoafietTaL Be 
Kol Kp7]Se/ii'(p aXovpyel. Bcopov N?;p?;tSo? ?; 
Nai8o<; ol/jLai elvai to fcpijSe/jLvov eZ/co? yap 
(Tvy-^opeveLV Ta<i 6ea<; eVl to) MeXrjTi irape- 

20 j^opievw ra? 7r7-jya<; ov Troppw t(x)v €/c/3oXcov- 
(5) BX-eTTCi Be ovtco tl rjSv koI a^eXi<^, co? fJLTjhe 
VTTO Tcov BaKpvcov i^aXXcLTTeiv to I'Xecov. kol 
i) Sepr) cTi i)Biwv viro tov firj KeKoafirjaOai' 
opfioL yap Kal avyal XlOcov Kal irepiBepaLa Tal<i 

25 jiev ev fieTpUo tw KciXXei yvvai^lv ovk ar]hw<; 
TTpoaavOovai Kal vij At" copa<; tl e? avTa<; 
(f)€povaiv, ala)(pal<^ Be Kal ayav 6ipaiaL<^ avTi- 
TrpuTTOVcrr ra? pev yap eXey')(ovcn, tcov Be 
airdyovai. too x^^P^ dvaaKoirojpev diraXol oi 

30 BaKTvXoi Kal evp,7]K6i<; Kal XevKol KaTa ttjv 
coXeprjv. opd^ Be Kal T)]V wXevrjv o)? Bed XevKrj<; 
T/}? ea6rjT0<^ XevKOTepa vTrocjiaLveTai Kal oi 
fjid^ol opOol viravyd^ovai. 

(6) Tt ovv at XlovaaL Bevpo ; tl Be enl Tal<; 
353 K. 7rr;7at9 tov Me\?;T09 ; W6i]vaL0L ttjv '\coviav 

6t€ dlTCpKi^OV, yiovaaL l)y0VVT0 tov VaVTLKOV 

ev etBeL /jlcXlttcov e^atpov yap tt} 'loyvla Bid 
TOV MeX7]Ta co? K?;(j6tcroO Kal 'OXpLetov ttotl- 
5 p,d>Tepov. evT€v^r] p^ev ovv avTal<; Kal X^pevov- 
aaL<; iroTe evTavOa, vvvl Be yeveaiv tu> 'Op^rjpcp 
al ^lovaai KXcodovai Molpai^; Bokovv, Kal Bcoaei, 

^ Hair covering the ears was a mark of modesty in a girl 

^ Rivers of Boeotia. 

BOOK 11. 8 

her figure is delicate and truly Ionian, and modesty 
is manifest upon it, and the colour we see in her 
cheeks suffices for them ; and her hair is caught up 
under the ear ^ and adorned with a veil of sea-purple. 
I think the veil is the gift of some Nereid or Naiad, 
for it is reasonable to assume that these goddesses 
dance together in honour of the river Meles, since 
it offers them fountains not far from its mouth. 
Her glance has something so charming and simple 
about it, that even tears do not cause it to lose its 
graciousness. Her neck is all the more lovely for 
not being adorned, since chains and flashing stones 
and necklaces lend a not unpleasing brilliancy to 
women of moderate beauty and by Zeus they con- 
tribute something of beauty to them, but they are 
not becoming to ugly women or to very beautiful 
women ; for they show up the ugliness of the former 
and detract from the beauty of the latter. Let us 
examine the hands ; the fingers are delicate, of 
graceful length, and as white as the fore-arm. And 
you see the forearm, how it appears yet whiter 
through the white garment; and the firm breasts 
gleam under the garment. 

Why do the Muses come hither? Why are they 
present at the source of the Meles ? When the 
Athenians set out to colonize Ionia, the Muses in 
the form of bees guided the fleet ; for they rejoiced 
in Ionia, because the waters of Meles are sweeter 
than the waters of Cephisus and Olmeius.^ Some 
day, indeed, you will find them dancing there ; but 
now, by decree of the fates, the Muses are spinning 
the birth of Homer ; and Meles through his son ^ 

3 i.e. Homer; those who make Smyrna the birthplace of 
Homer regard Meles as his father. 

M 2 


Sia rov TraiBb'i o MeX.?;? Hijveia) /lep dpyvpoSlvr} 
elvai, TiTap7]aLct) Se Kovcpco Kal evcpopw, ^EvcTrel 
10 8e Oeio) kol ^A^lw TrajKaXo), Soxrec Kal "SdvOcp 
TO CK Afo? Kol ^riKeavo) to e'f avTov Trai/ra?. 


(1) TldvOeia 7] koXtj 'B,€VO(f)copTC /xev diro tov 
■tjdov^ yiypaiTTat, otl re ^ Apdairav dirti^iov kol 
Kvpov ov^ i]TTdTo Kal 'A^paSdTj) i^ovXeTO kol- 

15 vrjv <yrjv eirieaaaOai' oiroia he i) Kopbrj Kal i) 6(f)pv'i 
oar] Kal olov e/SXeire Kal o)? et;^6 tov aTo/xaTO^, 
ovTro) 6 "Bevocpcov elprjKe KaiTOC 86cv6<; cop irepi- 
XaXrjaau TavTa, dXX* dvrjp ^vy'ypd(f>eLv fxev ov^ 
iKavo^, ypd(f)€Lv he lKavcoTaTO<;, avTJ} fiev Ylav- 

20 Oeia ovK evTV^cov, p,evo(f)a)PTi, he ofitXyjaa^ 
ypd(p6t, Tr]v YldvOecav, oiToiav ttj '^v)(^fj eVe/c- 


(2) Ta TCLXV* ^ Tral, Kal Td<i eixTTLirpajJieva^; 
olKia^ Kal al Avhal al KaXai, YlepaaL^ TavTa 

25 dcf)co/jL€v dyeiv re Kal alpelv 6 tl avTwv dXco- 

^ The chief river of Thessaly ; for the epithet cf. 11. 2. 753. 

2 A river of Thessaly ; cf. 11. 2. 751, where, however, the 
epithet is l/xepTSs, "lovely." 

3 Also in Thessaly; cf. Od. 11. 238. 

* The chief river of Macedonia ; cf. II. 2. 850, where the 
epithet is KaWia-ros. 

^ The chief river of Lycia ; cf. //. 14. 434. 

^ Cf. II. 21. 195 f. 'flK60voro e| ovTTfp irdvTfS iroTOLfxdi . . . 

' Cf. Xen. Cyr. U. 1. 31 f ; 5. 1. 6 ; G. 4. 0. According 
to Xenophon {Cyr. 5. 1. 1 f.) Pantlieia, wife of Abradates, 



will grant to the Peneius ^ to be " silver-eddied/' to 
the Titaresius^ to be "nimble" and "swift/' and to 
the Enipeus^ to be "divine/' and to the Axius * to 
be "all-beautiful," and he will also grant to the 
Xanthus ^ to be born from Zeus, and to Oceanus ^ 
that all rivers spring from him. 


The character of Pantheia the beautiful has been 
described by Xenophon/ how she disdained Araspas 
and would not yield to Cyrus and Avished the same 
earth to cover her and Abradates in the grave ; 
but what her hair was like, what the breadth of her 
brow, what her glance and the expression of her 
mouth Xenophon did not describe, though he was 
particularly clever at telling of such things ; but a 
man not good at writing though very clever at 
painting, who, though he had never seen Pantheia 
herself, was nevertheless well acquainted with 
Xenophon, here paints Pantheia as from her soul 
he divined her to be. 

The walls, my boy, and the burned houses and the 
fair Lydian women — these let us leave to Persians 
to ravage and to capture what of them can be 

was assigned to Cyrus as his share of the booty, and was 
entrusted by him to his boyhood friend Araspas, who fell 
violently in love with her She repulsed his advances (6. 
1. 31) and finally appealed to Cyrus ; in gratitude to him for 
his protection she persuaded her husband Abradates to de- 
sert the enemy and make common cause with Cyrus. Then 
Pantheia arrayed her husband for battle in purple raiment 
and armour of gold, which she had had made for him, and 
exhorted him to bravery. When he was killed in battle, his 
wife brought back his body for burial, and plunged a dagger 
in her own breast to die on the bosom of her dead husband. 



Tov. Ka\ 6 KpoLcro(;, i(f) ov t) irvpd, ov)(\ avrw 
'E,€vo(f)MVTt — ovKovv olhev avTOP y ^^JX^P^^ '^V 
Ivvprp — TOV 8e ^ A^pahciTTiv /cat rrjv aTToOavovaav 
iiT^ auTw ndvdeLav, eVe^^^ ravra 7) ypa(f)7] 

30 ^ovXerai, hiaafC€'yjr(o/jLe6a, olov to Spcifxa' ■ijpwv 
ovTOL dW7]\(0P Kol TOV KoajJiov 1) yvvr) tov 
eavTrj<i oirXa avTw iiroieLTO ijid'^eTO he dpa 
vTrep }^vpov irpo^ Kpolaov iirl TeTpappiifiov 
dpfiaT0<i KoX I'ttttcov oktoo . . . v€0(; 6ti iv 

35 dTraXfj ttj viryjvr], oiroTe kol ot TroirjTai ra 
BevSpa TCL via iXeeivd rjyovvTai, Trj<; 77)9 ix- 
354 K. ireaovTU. (3) to, /jlev Srj TpaiffxaTa, c5 irai, ola 
iK fxa'xci'ipo^opwv — TO yap KaTaKoirTeiv irpo^ 
TpoiTov TTJ TOiavTT] P'd'^T) — TOV 5e a\fiaTO<; 
dKpai(f)VOv<; oVto? to fxev to, oirXa p^patVe^ to 
5 S' aiiTov, eaTi S' /cal hieppavTai KaTa tov 
X6(j)0V, 6 Se dpa ')(pV(Tov Kpdvov<; dveaTr)K€V vaiCLV- 
6iv6<i avTcp TO) y^pvau) iTraaTpdTTTCov. (4) KaXd 
jxev ovv evTacpia koI tuvtI Ta oirXa too ye 
fit] KaTai(T')(yvavTL avTa fiijhe diro^aXovTi iv 

10 TTJ fJid')(r], iroXXd Se ^Aaavptd t€ Kal AvSta 
KOpo? dvhpl dyaOa Bcopa dirdyet Ta t€ dXXa 
Kal yjrd/jLfxov ')(pvaP]v eVl dpfiafid^ij^; etc Oyjaavpcov 
K^polaov Ta)v dpycov, Tidvdeia Se ovira) to. 
TTpoa^opa ex^i'^ ijyeLTaL tov Tdcpov, el fir) iv- 

15 Td(f)iov Tu> 'A/SpaSdTTj avTJ] ykvoiTO. tov puev 
Brj uKLvdKTjv 8i€X7]XaKev rjhr) tov aTcpvov, dXX* 

1 Cf. Hdt. 1. 84, M'here the supposed impregnability of the 
Nvalls of Sardis is described. 

2 Herodotus (1. 86) describes the pyre erected for Croesus; 
but Xenophon (C//r. 7. 2. 9 f. ) says notliing about the pyre, 
an<l in his story Croesus is not made prisoner. 



captured.^ And so with Croesus^ for whom the pyre 
was destined,^ though Xenophon himself does not 
mention this — hence our painter does not know of 
him and does not make him a prisoner of Cyrus. 
But as for Abradates and Pantheia, who died upon 
his dead body, since this is what the painting aims 
to depict, let us consider them, the great tragedy 
they enacted. These two loved each other and the 
woman had made her own ornaments into armour 
for him ; ^ he was fighting for Cyrus against Croesus 
on a chariot with four poles and eight horses/ . . . 
[and he was slain while] still a youth of downy beard, 
of an age when the poets consider even young trees 
which have been torn out of the ground to be objects 
of pity.^ The wounds, my boy, are such as swords- 
men make — for it accords with this style of fighting 
so to cut down the foe — some of his pure blood 
stains his armour, some the man himself, and some 
is sprinkled on the crest which rises hyacinthine red 
from the golden helmet^ and sheds splendour on the 
gold itself. A beautiful burial offering are these 
arms, for one who had not brought shame upon 
them nor cast them away in battle ; and Cyrus 
brings many Assyrian and Lydian gifts to a brave 
man, among other things a chariot load of golden 
sand from the over-abundant treasures of Croesus ; 
but Pantheia believes that the tomb still lacks the 
offerings due it unless she gives herself as a funeral 
sacrifice to Abradates. She has already driven the 
dagger through her breast, but with such fortitude 

^ Quoted from Xen. Cyr. G. 4. 3. 
* Quoted from ihid. 6. 4. 2. 
^ e.g. II. 17. 53 f. 
« Quoted from Xen. Cyr. 6. 4. 2. 



ovTco TL eppa)/jLei'(o<i, u)<; /u-7;Se ol/j.(oy)iv eV avrco 
p7]^ai. (5) K€LTac yovv, to arofia ^v/jL/ierpLuv 
rrjv kavTOV (fyvXarrov koI vj] At" (opav, ?;? to 

20 civ6o<; OVTCO n eirl ')(^ei\eaLv, o)^ koX aiwiTooati^ 
€K(f)aLveaOaL. ciTDjpTTjrai, ^ Se ovttco top d/ct- 
vcLKi-jVy dXX ivepeihei en ^vve^ovaa t/}? Ka)7ry]<; 
avTov — J] Se KGoirr] poirdXtp ^^pucrft* e'lKaarat 
a/jLapajBivrp tov<; 6^ov<; — dW' 7jSlov<; ol BdKTvXoi, 

25 — ixeTa^e/3X')]Ke re ouhev rod e'cBov^ vnb rov 
dXyelv, ?/ je /xySe dXyelv eoiKev, aXV diTLevai 
y^aipovaa, on avT)jv TrefMiret. diretaL Be ov)(^ 
axTTrep i) rov YlpcoreaLXeco Karaare^Oelaa ol^ 
i^dK-)(^evaev, ovh' wairep i) rov KaTrai^eo)? olov 

30 6vaLa<; araXelaa ^ dXX^ daKevaarov ro koXXo^ 
KoX olov eirl rod W/3paBdrov rjv (f)vXdrrec avro 
KoX dirdyei, 'X^airrjv fiev ovro) /xeXaivdv re Koi 
d/ji(f)LXa(f)P) irepixeaaa roL<; w/xot? Kal rco av)(^evi, 
Bep-qv Be XevKi-jv vireKCpaLVovaa, r]v eBpvyp-aro 

35 fiev, ov fxiiv &)? alcr'xyvai' rd yap ai^fxela rwv 

ovv^wv rjBico ypa(f)rj<;. (6) To Be ev rfj irapeia 

355 K. €pevdo<; ovBe diroOvrjaKOvaav Biacfyevyei, ')(^opt]yol 

Be aurov y re copa xal i) alB(t)<;. IBou Kal 

^ air-npr-qTai Keiske and Jacobs: avT]prif)Tai. 
2 (TTaXflffa Rohde, cf. infra 385. 11 : a^9i~L(Ta. The 
restoration is very uncertain. 

^ Protesilaiis Mas the first of the Greeks to die before 
Troy {11. 2. 70(J f.). The story of his wife's deatli for love 
of him as descril)ed in the tragedy- of Euripides (cf. Ma^'cr, 
Hermes XX. 114 f.) is illustrated on a sarcophagus in Naples 
(Baumeister, Denkmiiler, fig. 1574). Laodameia, Avho was 
celebrating Bacchic rites, sinks down in astonishment when 
her husband, his prayer for a brief return to his wife being 

1 68 


that she has not uttered even a groan at the thrust. 
At any rate she lies theie, her mouth retaining its 
natural shapeliness and by Zeus a beauty the bloom 
of which so rests upon her lips that it shines forth 
clear, silent though she is. She has not yet drawn 
out the dagger but still presses on it, holding it by 
the hilt — a hilt that resembles a golden stalk with 
emeralds for its branches — but the fingers are more 
charming still ; she has lost none of her beauty 
through pain, and indeed she does not seem to 
suffer pain at all but rather to depart in joy because 
she sends herself away. And she departs, not like 
the wife of Protesilaiis,i wreathed with the garlands 
of the Bacchic rites she had been celebrating, nor 
yet like the wife of Capaneus,^ decked out as for 
sacrifice ; but she keeps her beauty unadorned and 
just as it was while Abradates was alive, and takes 
it thus away with her, letting her thick black hair 
fall unrestrained over her shoulders and neck, yet 
just showing her white throat, which she had torn 
in her grief, though not in a way to disfigure it ; 
indeed the marks made by her finger-nails are more 
charming than a painting.^ The flush on her cheeks 
has not left her even in death ; her beauty and 
modesty have supplied it. Look at the moderately up- 
granted, appears to her. When liis day with her is ended, 
slie plunges a dagger in her breast to join him in Hades. 

2 Eur. SuppL 1054 f. Evadne, decked in festal attire, 
appears on the rocks above the funeral pyre of her husband 
Capaneus, and throws herself into the flames. 

2 "As in a picture" is a Greek phrase for something 
beautiful ; cf. Aesch. Again. 242, irpeiTovcrd. 0' is eV ypa<pa7s of 
Iphigeneia. Benndorf compares the scars of wounds on the 
well-known bronze statue of a boxer in the Museo Xazionale, 
Rome, Ant. Denkm. I. 4. p. 2. 



fMVKrPjpe^i dvearaX/jLevot to /jLerpiov koI jSdaiv rfj 
pivl 7rpdTT0i'T€<;, t;? coairep irropOoL fi7]vo€LS€t<^ al 
5 ocppve^i VTTO \evKcp rro percoTrco peXaivai. roi)? 
he 6(f)6a\pov^, w iral, yu?) cnro rov p,€ye6ov<; 
p,r]S' el p,eKave<^, ciWa rov re vovv Oewpwpev, 
6<70<; ev avTOt<; earc koI vrj ^ia oiroaa tmv 
tT;? '^l'X% dyaOojv ecTTraaav e\eeiv(b<; p,ev Sia- 

10 Keip^evoL, Tov Se (paiBpcj^; ex^^v ovk diT7fK\a>yp,evot, 
KoX OapaaXeoL p.ev, Xoytcrpov 8e e'laci) pdWov 
i) ToX/x?;?, Kal rod pev Oavdrov ^vvievre<;, ovTro) 
Se tt7rtoz/T69. 67ra86<; Be epcora l'p,epo<; ovtco tl 
eniKe'X^VTaL rot? 6(f)6akp.ol^, o)? eTrihrjXoTara By 

15 dir' avTMV diToardl^eiv. (6) yeypairrai Kal 6 
"E/jft)9 ev laropla tov epyov, yeypaiTTai koI rj 
AvBia TO alp,a viToBe')(^opevi] Kal ^(pvaw ye, co? 
6pa<;, Tw koXtto). 


(1) 0/ Keip,evoi kut aXXo^ aXXo tov dvBpwvo^ 

Kal TO dvapl^ tw o\v(p alp.a Kal ol eKirveovTe^ eirl 

20 Tpaire^MV KpaTr^p t€ ovToal XeXaKTLapLevo<^ viro 

dvBp6<;, o? Trpo? avTw (Jiraipei, Koprj re 'X^p^fa p,(p- 

Bo<; TrjV (TToXi]v et? ireXeKw epLTreaovp,evov eavTrj 

1 Cf. the nose of the Farnese Hena with nostrils slightly 
curling up, or the head on a vase by Euphronius (Fig. 20), 
Tfuhl, Malerei unci Zdchnung der Oriechen, Taf. 415 C. 

- Cf. l']ur. ffipjy. 525 f. "E/jws, "Epws, t /car' ofiixdruv ard^eis 

^ The text is rendered as it stands, but it is probably 


[To/ace p. 171. 

BOOK II. 10 

curved nostrils ^ that form a base for the nose from 
which the crescent eyebrows spring like branches^ 
black beneath the white forehead. As for the eyes^ 
my boy, let us not consider them for their size, 
nor ask if they are black, but let us consider the 
great intelligence there is in them, and by Zeus all 
the virtues of the soul which they have absorbed ; 
for though their state excites pity, yet they have 
not lost their look of gladness, and though they 
are courageous, yet they show the courage of 
reason rather than of rashness, and though they 
are aware of death, they have not yet departed from 
life. Desire, the companion of love, so suffuses the 
eyes that it seems clearly to drip from them.^ Love 
also is represented in the picture, as a part of the 
narrative of the deed ;^ so also is the Lydian woman,* 
catching the blood, as you see, in a fold of her golden 


The men who lie here and there in the men's 
great hall, the blood commingled with the wine, 
the men who sprawling on the tables breathe out 
their life, and yonder mixing-bowl that has been 
kicked aside by the man who lies gasping beside 
it,^ a maiden in the garb of a prophetess who gazes 
at the axe which is about to descend upon her — 

* A Lydian woman representing the land of Lydia, which 
was the scene of the incident depicted. 

^ Cf. the words of the shade of Agamemnon to Odysseus, 
Od. 11. 419 f. "Thou wouldst have felt most pity hadst 
thou seen that sight, how about the mixing-bowl and the 
laden tables we lay in the hall, and the floor all swam with 
blood." Trans. Murray, L.C, L. 



/SXenovaa — rov Wy a/jLe/ivova i]KOVTa e/c Tpola^ 
7] KXvrai/j,V7]aTpa hex^Tai tovtco rpoirw?- xal 

25 Tou? fiep dX\ou<; aWoL Kreivovaiv ovtm fxeOv- 
ovra^;, 0)9 fcal rbv Aiyia6ov Oaparjaai to epyov, 
7; KXvTat/jLV^o-Tpa Se ireirXov re^vrj tivo<; 
ciTreipov top ^ Ay a fie /xv ova 7repia)(ovo-a ireXeKW 
e? avTov TjKev afKp/jK?] tovtov, 0? Kal ra hevSpa 

30 aipel Tci fxeydXa, r/jv re rod Upcdfiov Koprjv 
KaXXlarrjv vopLiaOetaap icp ^ XyapbepLVOVL XP^^' 
350 K. [xov<; re airLaTovpLerov; oiBovaav dirofCTeivei 
deppw" Tw ireXefcei. kol ei fiev &)? hpafia 
e^erd^o/jiev, w Trai, ravra, TerpaywSrjrat /xeydXa 
ev ajXLKpw, el 3' a)<; ypa(pj]v, TrXeiM ev avroU oyjret. 
5 (2) Xfcoiretydp' Xa/x7rT?}/?e9 outol x^oprjyol (f)(0T6<; 
— eV vv/ctI yap ravrd irov — KpaTrjpe^; S' eKelvoi 
Xoprjyol 7T0T0V (pavorepoi rod 7rvpo<; 01 ^/jfaoi, 
7rX?;/oef? he oyfrcop rpdire^ai, jSacrtXeif; wv eac- 
rovvTO Tjpcjoe^, ev Koaficp 8e ^ ovBev tovtcov diro- 

' The text follows L, except that oD'tw /u^ before koX tovs 
fxev aWovs, which is marked as wrong in L, is omitted 
(following Kayser). The Teubner text (Benndorf-Schenkl) 
reads Tponcf ovtw /x^OuouTa, ws koI, omitting all reference to 
the companions of Agamemnon. 

2 Ofp/xif in conj. Benndorf, cf. 36G. IG, en d^pixif Dilthoy, 
of. Theocr. xvii. 21, Plut. Fabi us 26. 

^ 5e Jacobs : re. 

^ There is no tradition that Agamemnon was drunk, as 
the Teubner text is amended to say ; rather, it is the 
drunkenness and powerlessness of his followers which 


BOOK II. lo 

thus Clytemnestra welcomes Agamemnon on his 
return from Troy. And wliile others are slaying 
Agamemnon's followers.^ who are so drunken as to 
embolden even Aegisthus for the deed, Clytemnestra, 
enveloping Agamemnon in a device of a mantle 
from which there is no escape,^ brings down upon 
him this two-edged axe by which even great trees 
are laid low,^ and the daughter of Priam, esteemed 
by Agamemnon as of surpassing beauty, who chanted 
prophecies that were not believed, she slays with 
the still warm axe.* If we examine this scene as a 
drama, my boy, a great tragedy has been enacted in 
a brief space of time, but if as a painting, you will 
see more in it than a drama. For look, here are 
torches to provide light — evidently these events 
take place at night — and yonder are mixing-bowls 
to provide drink, bowls of gold brighter than the 
torches' flame, and there are tables laden with food, 
the food on which hero kino;s were feasting ; but 
all these things are in disorder, for the banqueters 

embolden Aegisthus to carry out his plan. Apparently the 
plan referred to is the ambush of warriors {<Jd. 11. 529 f.) 
who can successfully overcome the veterans from Troy only 
because the latter are drunken. 

2 Aeschylus {Again. 1382) speaks of a net, Euripides 
{Orest. 25) of a mantle, " from which there is no escape." 

3 Soph. EL 92 f. 

"All night I muse upon my father dead, 

Not in a foreign land at Ares' call, 

But, here at home, by my own mother slain, 

Her and Aegisthus, these adulterers twain ; 

Felled by their axe's bloody stroke, 

E'en as a woodman fells an oak. " 

Trans. Storr, L.C.L Cf. II. 1.3. 390 f. 

* Cf. Aesch, Agam. 1278. "Butchered by the hot stroke of 
bloody sacrifice." Trans. Smyth, L.C.L. 



10 6vrj(TKovTe^ yap oi Bairu/ji6v€<i ra fiev XeXuKTicr- 
rai, TO, Be avi^TerptTrrai, ra Se drr' avrcou fcelrai. 
/cal KvXiK€<; Be Ik ■^(eipMv TriirrovaL TrXijpeL^i at 
TToXXal XvOpoVy Kal clXky] t(op aTroOpyaKovTCJV 
ovSe/ila' fxeOvovaL yap. (3) Ta Be rcov Kei/xevcop 

15 (T)(^7]/iaTa 6 fJLev iKrer/JLijraL rrjv (pdpvyya aijov tl 
Tj TTOTOv eXKOvaav, 6 8' diroKeKOTTraL ttjv K€(f)aXr)v 
€9 TOP Kparrjpa KviTTdiP, 6 Be aTnjpaKraL ttjp 
p^et/ja (jiepovaap eKircofia, 6 Be icfyeXKerai ttjv 
rpciTre^ap eKireacop t/}? KXipy)<;, 6 3' a'? (o/jlov<; kuI 

20 KecpaXijp KelraL, 7roi7}Tr)<; dp (f)aLrj Kv/jLfia)(^o<;, 
6 B' diriarel tw Oavdrw, 6 Be ovfc eppcorat 
(f)vyeLP olop iTeBri<; €/uL^€^XTj/bi€P)]<; avrw r/}? 
fieOr]^' oiXpo*^ Be ovBeU twp KeLfxepwp, eireiBri 
Tou? ep oipo) diToOp-pcTKOPTa^; ovk €vOv<; dTToXeiireL 

25 TO dp0o<; 

(4) To Be /cvpLcorarop rfj^ (TK7-)pf]<; ^Ayafie/ipcop 
e')(eL K6Lfxepo(; ovk ep 7reBiOL<; TpcoiKOL<; ovBe eVl 
^Ka/jidpBpov TLPo<i ^ r]i6aLP, dXX^ ep /jLetpaKLOi^; 
Kal yvpaioL^, ^ov^ eTrl (pdrpr) — rovrl yap to /nerd 

30 T0U9 7r6pov<; re Kal to ep Beiirpw — Kvpicorepa Be 

ep oXktw rd t>}? }\.aadpBpa<;, o)? €(f)earrjKe /lep 

avTTj fierd tov TreXe/cew? 7; KXvraLfjipyjaTpa 

* Foerster suggests Sirrjej/Tos, the Homeric epitliet, for 

1 Cf. OcL 22. 19 f. "And quickly he [Antinoiis] thrust 
the table from liim with a kick of his foot, and spilled all 
the food on the floor, and the bread and roast flesh were 
defiled." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. Benndorf points out that 

BOOK II. 10 

in their death throes have kicked some over,^ others 
have been shattered^ others lie at a distance from 
the banqueters. And cups^ most of them defiled 
with gore, fall from their hands ; nor have the 
dying men any power to defend themselves, for 
they are drunken. As for the attitudes of those 
that have fallen, one has had his throat cut as he 
is partaking of food or of drink, another as he bent 
over the mixing-bowl has had his head cut off, 
another has had his hand lopped off as it carried a 
beaker, another as he tumbled from his couch drags 
the table after him, another has fallen '' head 
foremost," as a poet would say,^ upon his shoulders 
and head ; one has no suspicion of death, and 
another lacks the strength to flee since drunkenness 
like a fetter has enchained him. Nor is any one of 
the fallen pallid of hue, since when men die in 
their cups the flush does not immediately leave 
their faces. 

The most prominent place in the scene is occupied 
by Agamemnon, who lies, not on the plains of Troy ^ 
nor on the banks of some Scamander, but among 
boys and women-folk, like ^^an ox at the crib " * — 
for this means rest after toil and partaking of food — 
but even more striking in its pathos is the figure 
of Cassandra — the way Clytemnestra, her eyes 

the description follows the scene on reliefs depicting the 
death of the suitors of Penelope, particularly on the reliefs 
from Trysa, Benndorf-Neumann, Das Heroon von Gjolhaschi. 
^ Cf. II. 5. 585 f. €Kirea€ dlcppov KV/x^axos eV Koiirjaiy, 
^ Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 3Q3i. Electrapoints the same contrast 
between death on the battlefield and by treachery at home. 
* Cf. Od. 11. 411. ws tIs re /coxewTove ^ov;'67rl (pdrvrj. In the 
proverb the ox is at rest and eating, i.e. it means rest after 
toil and enjoying food. 



fiavLKov ^XeiTOVcra kuI a€(7o^7]/jLevrj ra? ^atra? 

Kol rpa^ela ttjv coXevtjv, avii] he co? d^pco<; re 

35 fcal evOeco^; e^ovaa irepLireaelv wp/xijKe to) 

'Aya/iefii'ovt pLinovaa d(p' avT}]<i ra aTe/jL/jLara 

357 K. Kal olov Trepi/SdWovaa rf} Te)(vr] avjov, Si7]p- 

fievov he i]hr) rou TreXe/ceco? dva(TTpe(f)€L tol/? 

6(f)0a\/jLOV(; eKel, ^oa he ovtco tl otKTpov, co? 

Kol TOP Wyafie/jLvova tw Xoitto) t^9 "^v^V^ iXeelv 

5 ravra ciKovovra' jjiefivrjaeTaL yap avrcdv Kal ev 

A'lhov 7rpo<; ^Ohvaaea ev rfj ciyopa roov yj/v^cov. 

la HAN 

(1) Top Tldva al NuyLt<^at 7rov7]pM<; (^aa\v 
op'^elcrOai Kal eKirrjhdv rod TrpoarJKOvro^ e^aipovja 
Kal dvaOpcpcFKovTa KaTa tov^ dyepcD^ovs to)v 

10 Tpdywv, avral h' av ixerahthd^aiev avrov erepav 
opxrjaiv rjhico tm ijOei, ir poa e^ovT t, S' avTal<^ 
ovhev, dWa Treipoovri avrd<^ Kal dTrorera/jLevo} 
Tov KoXirov eTTLTiOevraL Kara fieaij/ji/SpLap, ore 
hr] \eyerai KaOevheiv o Yldv eK\€\oi7rco<; ryv 

15 6i]pav. (2) 'EA'a^eL'Se 5' dpa Trporepov fxev 
dveifxevo'^ re Kal Tr/jao? ttjv plva Kal to €7rL)(o\ov 
auT/}? Xeaivwv tw vttvm, Tijfxepov he inrep'^^oXa' 
TrpocnreaovaaL yap avrw al Nu/x^at, TrepiTJKrat, 
fiev ijhy] TO) %etpe 6 Ilaz^, hehce he iwl tol^ 

^ Cf. Od. 11. 421. The soul of Agamemnon says, "But the 
most piteous cry that I heard was that of the daugliter of 
Priam, Cassandra, whom guileful Clytemnestra slew by my 
side. And I sought to raise my hands and smite down tlie 
murderess, dying though I was, pierced through with tiie 



crazed, her hair flying, her arm savagely raised, 
stands over her with the axe, and the way 
Cassandra herself, tenderly and in a state of 
inspiration, has tried to throw herself upon 
Agamemnon as she hurls her fillets from her and 
as it were casts about him the protection of her 
prophetic art ; and as the axe is now poised above 
her, she turns her eyes toward it and utters so 
pathetic a cry that even Agamemnon, with the 
remnant of life that is in him, pities her, hearing 
her cry ; for he will recount it to Odysseus in Hades 
in the concourse of souls. ^ 

11. PAN 

Pan, the nymplis say, dances badly and goes 
beyond bounds in his leaping, leaping up and 
jumping aloft after the manner of sportive goats ; 
and they say that they would teach him a different 
kind of dancing, of a more delightful character; 
when he, however, pays no heed to them but, 
his garment extended, tries to make love to 
them they set upon him at noon, when Pan 
is said to abandon the hunt and go to sleep. 
Formerly he used to sleep relaxed, with peaceful 
nostriP and soothing his angry spirit with slumber, 
but to-day he is very angry ; for the Nymphs have 
fallen upon him, and already Pan's hands have been 
tied behind his back, and he fears for his legs since 
sword.'- Trans. Murray, L.C.L. Cf. Aescli. Agam. 1262 f. ; 
Eur. Troad. 450 f. 

^ Cf. Theocr. 1. 17. "No, no, man ; there's no piping for me 
at high noon. I go in too great dread of Pan for that. I 
wot high noon's his time for taking rest after the swink o' 
the chase ; and he's one of the tetchy sort ; his nostril's ever 
sour wrath's abiding place." Trans. Edmonds, Greek Bucolic 
Poets, L.C.L. 



'2.0 (TKeXeaw, CTreiSi] ^ovXovrai aipeiv^ avrd. to 
Be S?] yeveiov, ov TrXetdTo? avrw X070.9, i^vpijrai 
/jLay^aiplScov €a/3€^X7]KVi(ov e? avro, cfyaal he rrfv 
'H;)^co avarreiaeiv virepopav re avrov koI fjLrjSe 
(f)0eyyea6aL 7rpo<; avrov en. (3) TaOra al 

25 NvfKpac iravavhi, av Be Kara hr'jixov^ avra<; opa' 
TCL jxev yap TO)v NatScov el'S?; — paviBa<; airoppai- 
vovatv avrac r^? k6/jl7]<; — Be Trepl rah I3ovk6\oi<; 
av')(/jLb<i ovBev (j)avX6Tepo<; rr)? Bpoaov, al Be 
^AvOovcrac Ta9 )(aLTa<; eKire^vfcaaiv vaKLvOivoL^ 

,30 6 fio id) <; CIV 6 ea LP. 

358 K. fyS' niNAAPOS 

(1) Ol/iai Oavpd (TOL elvac Ta<; jxeXiTTa^ ovtcj 
yXi(T)(^pw^ yeypap.jxkva'^y a)V ye Kal irpovo/JLaia 
BjjXr) Kal TToBe^ Kol irrepa /cal to -^pco/ia rr}? 
aroXi]^ ovic araKTOvaLV, caa ttj (j)vaeL BiairoLKiX- 

5 Xov(n]<; avrd ttJ? ypa(f)y]<;. tl ovv ovk ev aiiJi^XoL^ 
al ao^ai ; ri Be iv daTei ; KcopLa^ovaiv ivl Ta<; 
Tov AalcpdvTov Ovpa<; — yeyove Be r]Br} YlivBapo^, 
&)? 6pa<; — irXdrretv ^ kuk vrjTTLOV avrov, 'iv 
€p.juLeXr)(; 7]Br] Kal efjL/jLOVcro<; y, Kal TTOiovai ravra. 

10 (2) To piev yap iraiBiov eU Bd^vrjv diroKeiTai Kal 
KXa)va<; p,vppivy]^ ^vpL^aXXo/jLevov rov Trarpo^i 
lepov rev^eaOai rov iiaiBo^, dcf a)v Kvp,^aXd re 
Kar)']^ei rf]<; 0LKLa<i, ore eriKrero, Kal rvpLrrrava 
r]Kovero Ik 'Pea?, eXeyovro Be Kal al Nvp,(f)ai, 

^ So all the MSS. except F and P, which give atptiv. 
^ irKaTTdv Welcker : -nXaTTn. 

1 Cf. Od. 6. 231. K6fJias vaKivQivo) ^ydei d/j-olas. Cf. supra, 
p. 9"), n. 1. 


BOOK II. 12 

the Nym[)hs wish to seize them. Moreover^ his 
beard, which he values most highly, has been 
shaven off with razors which have been roughly 
applied to it, and they say that they will persuade 
Echo to scorn him and no longer even to answer 
his call. Here are the Nymphs in a group, but do 
you look at them by classes ; for some are Xaiads — ■ 
these who are shaking drops of dew from their hair ; 
and the lean slenderness of the pastoral nymphs is 
no whit less beautiful than the dew ; and the flower 
nymphs have hair that resembles hyacinth flowers.^ 


1 suppose you are surprised that these bees^ are 
painted with such detail, for the proboscis is clearly 
to be seen, and feet and wings and the colour of 
their garb are as they should be, since the painting 
gives them the many hues with which nature 
endows them. Why, then, are the clever insects 
not in their hives ? Why are they in a city ? 
They are going on a revel to the doors of 
Daiphantes ^ — for Pindar has already been born, as 
you see — in order to mould the babe from earliest 
childhood that he may even now be inspired with 
harmony and music ; and they are busy with this 
task. For the child has been laid on laurel 
branches and sprays of myrtle, since his father 
conjectured that he was to have a sacred son, 
inasmuch as cymbals resounded in the house when 
the child was born, and drums of Rhea were heard, 
and the Nymphs also, it was said, danced for him, 

2 Cf. Aelian, Varia Hidoria 12. 45 : UivSdpCf} ras irarpcfas 
olKias eKTedfvTi fxeXirrai Tpo^oX iy4vovTO, yirep tov yaAuKTOS 
Traparieelaai ih^Xl. See Paus. 9. 23. 2 ; Dio Chrys. Or. 64. 22. 

3 The father of Pindar. 



15 ^(^opevaai ol koI avaaKipTrjaai rov II ai'a' (^aal 

he avTov, ore \\ivhapo<; e? to iroielv dcpL/cero, 

a/j.e\7JcravTa rod crKcprdv aheiv ra rov IlivBdpov, 

(3) 'H 'Pea 5e ayaXfia eKveTroviirai kol /caOl- 

Spvrai, /jL6v avTOV koI irepl 6vpa<^, ol/iac Be koI 

20 \idov TO ayoKfia (palveaOat KareaKXriKviw^ 
iuravOa t/}? ypacf)T}<; fcal rl yap dWo rj e^ea- 
p,6U7j<; ; dyei koI Td<; NuyLt^a? evBp6aov<; kol 
o'La<; €K TTijycov, 6 Be Yldv €^opx€CTaL fiev pvOpuov 
Bi] Tiva, (paiBphv Be avTu> to elBo<; kol ri}? pLv6<; 

25 ovBev x^XojBe^;. (4) Ai ^e elaco /jLeXcTTUt irepi- 
epyd^ovTai to iraiBiov €7ri/3dXkovaai to fieXt koI 
Ta KevTpa dveKKOvaai Bkei tov ey)^piaaL. i^ 
'Tp,7]TT0v Tdya ijKOvai koX diro rwz' XnrapMv 
KoX doiBifiwv KOL yap tovto olpai avTd<; 

30 eva-Td^ai nivBdpw. 


(1) A/ TOV ireXdyovi dve(TTr]icvlai ireT paL kol 
.359 K. ?; ^eovaa irepl avTd<; OdXaTTa r]p(i)<; re Beivov 
/SXeTTcov eirl tmv ireTpcov kul tl Kal (j>povi]fiaTO^ 
e'X^cjdv eirl tijv OdXaTTav — o AoKpo^ /3e^X7]Tai 
/lev T1JV eavTov vavv, e/iTTvpov Be avTp)^ diroiri]- 
5 Bi](Ta<; ofjLoae Kex(*^pr]Ke tol^ KUfxao-c, tcov fiev 
Bi€K7raicov, Ta Be eTnaTrco/xevo'^, tcl Be viravTXcbv 
Tw aTepvcp, Tvpal<; B' evTV)(^d>v — al Be Tvpal 

^ Cf. p. 177 supra. 

' Pindar, Frag. 76 Bgk. "Oh! the gleaming, and the 
violet-crowned, and the sung in story ; the bulwark of Hellas, 
famous Athens, city divine." Trans. Sandys, L.C.L. 


BOOK II. 13 

and Pan leaped aloft ; nay, they say that when 
Pindar began to write poetry, Pan neglected his 
leaping and sang the odes of Pindar. 

A carefully wrought statue of Rhea has been 
set up by the very door, and methinks the statue 
is clearly of marble, for the painting has taken on 
a certain hardness at this point and wliat else is 
it, pray, but carved stone? She brings both the 
Nymphs of early morning dew and the Nymphs of 
the springs, and Pan is dancing a certain measure, 
and his expression is radiant and his nostril ^ 
without a trace of anger. The bees inside the 
house are busily at work over the boy, dropping 
honey upon him and drawing back their stings 
for fear of stinging him. From Hymettus doubtless 
they have come, and from the " gleaming city sung 
in story"; for I think that this is what they instilled 
into Pindar. 2 


The rocks rising out of the water and the boiling 
sea about them, and on the rocks a hero glaring 
fiercely and with a certain proud defiance toward 
the sea — the ship of the Locrian^ has been struck 
by lightning; and leaping from the ship as it bursts 
into flame, he struggles with the waves, sometimes 
breaking his way through them, sometimes drawing 
them to him, and sometimes sustaining their weight 
with his breast ; but when he reaches the Gyrae — 

^ Ajax, son of Oileus ; the storj' follows quite closely the 
Homeric account, Od. 4. 499 f. According to Hyginus 
and the mathematician Hero, where the story is described 
in scenes on the stage, it is Athena who causes the shipwreck 
and death of Ajax because he had snatched the Palladium 
from Cassandra (cf. Schone, Jahr. d. Arch. Inst. V. 73 f. )• 



nerpaL elalv vTrep^aivovaaL rod Alyalov koXttov 
■ — -Xoyov^ v7rep(f)poi>a<; Xeyec Kara rcov Oecov 

10 avTcov, e(f) oh o YLoaeihcov avTo<; iirl Ta<; Vvpa<; 
areWeraL (po^epo'i, ay iral, Kal x^Cfjbcovo^ TrXeco? 
Kal Ta<; ;>^atTa9 €^y]pfJL€Po<;. Kairoi irore Kal 
avve/ndx^i' tcS AoKpro Kara to "iXiov, aw^po- 
vovvTL he Kal (peiBo/xepo) roov Oecov — eppcovvu 

15 avTov Toj aKj]7rrp(p — -fVvv S\ iireiSr] v/Spi^ovra 
opa, Tjjv Tpiatvav iir avrov (pepec Kal TreTrXyj^erai 
6 av)(r]v rrj? irerpa^; 6 ave)(^cDV top Aiavja, co? 
aiTocreiaaLTO avTov avTy v^pei. 

(2) 'O /jL€v 8r) X6yo<; tt;? ypa(j)yj<; outo?" ToBe ^ 

20 8' evapye^' XevKrj jxev vtto KVfidrcov rj OdXaTTa, 
GiTiXdhe'^ 8' al irerpai Sid to del paiveaOaL, irvp 
he €K fiearj^; arTei ri}? ve(jo<;, e? b ifjurvewv 6 dvefMO'^ 
irXel i) vav^ en KaOdirep lariQ) XP^/^^^V '^^ 
TTvpL 6 he ATa? olov Ik jxeOrf^; dva^epwv irepL- 

25 adpel to 7reXayo<; ovTe vavv opcov ovTe yrjv, Kal 
ovhe"^ Tov Yloaeihoi TrpoaiovTa hehoiKev, dXX 
eoLKe hiaTeivofjiev{p err outtco tou? ^pa)(^iova^ i) 
poofjirj d-noXeXoiTrev, 6 avx,^]P re dveaTi-jKev olo<; 
iirl "EKTOpa Kal Tyowa?. 6 /lev hrj Hoaeihcov 

30 e/j,ffaXo)u ttjv Tpiaivav dirapd^et ^ to Tpvcpo^; 

avTO) AiavTL T?}9 ireTpas, at he Vvpal al Xonral 

^ T('5e Capps : TO 5e. ^ oi/Se Kayser : oIjtc. 


BOOK II. 13 

the Gyrae^ are rocks that stand out in the Aegean 
gulf — he utters disdainful words against the very 
godsj whereupon Poseidon himself sets out for the 
Gyrae, terrible^ my boy, tempestuous, his hair 
standing erect. And yet in former days he fought 
as an ally of the Locrian against Ilium, when the 
hero was discreet and forbore to defy the gods 
— indeed, Poseidon strengthened him with his 
sceptre ; ^ but now, when the god sees him waxing 
insolent, he raises his trident against the man and 
the ridge of rock that supports Ajax will be so 
smitten that it will shake him off, insolence and 

Such is the story of the painting, but what is 
shown to the eye is this : the sea is whitened by 
the waves ; the rocks are worn by the constant 
drenching ; flames leap up from the midst of the 
ship, and as the wind fans the flames the ship still 
sails on as if using the flames as a sail. Ajax gazes 
out over the sea like a man emerging from a drunken 
sleep, seeing neither ship nor land ; nor does he 
even fear the approaching Poseidon, but he looks 
like a man still tense for the struggle ; the strength 
has not yet left his arms, and his neck still stands 
erect even as when he opposed Hector and the 
Trojans. As for Poseidon, hurling his trident he 
will dash in pieces the mass of rock along with 
Ajax himself, but the rest of the Gyrae will remain 

^ Located by the ancients near M3'conos, or, more 
commonly, off the Eastern promontor}' of Euboea. 

2 Cf IL 13. 59. "Therewith the Shaker of Earth smote 
the twain [the two Ajaxesl with his staif and filled them 
with valorous strength." Cf. p. 156, n. 1. 

^ a-rrapd^fi Reiske, Jacobs : ayarapd^ei F L : dpa|et P. 



fievovat T€, €9 oaop OdXarra, kuI aavXoL kcni]' 
^ovGL T(p Tloaeihcovi. 


360 K. (I) AlyvTrrid^ei /J.ev i) Trpoa^oXy t?}? <ypa<^rj^, 
6 X6709 Be avT>]<; ovk AlyvTmo^;, aXX' ol/iai 
SerTaXcJv' Al-yvmioi'^ jxev yap irapa rov 
NeiXov r) ryrj, ©erraXot? Be Il7jv€i,6<; ov avve')(^oopei 
5 TToXaL yrjp e^eiv, Trept^SefiXrjfievcov tol<; TreStoi? 
opcjv Kol Tov p€vp.aTO<^ i7TiKXv^ovTO<; avrd vno 
Tov /jLtjTTO) eKpaXelv. pij^et ovv 6 YioaeiBwv rfj 
TpLaivTj TO, oprj kol TTuXa? rw Trora/jLw epydaerai. 
(2) TovTO) yap vvvl toj epyw icpeaTTjKev dOXcov 

10 avro fcal dvafcaXvTrrcov ra ireBla, Kal Biriprai 
fjcev 1) %6t/3 eU TO dvappTj^ai, ra Be opr], jrplv 
7TeTTXrj')(6ai, BiiaTarac to diTO)(po3v raj Trorafiaj 
fjLejpov. dycovL^o/j^evi]^; Be tt/jo? to evapye<^ t^9 
Te)(yi]<; rd Be^id tov T[oa€iBct)Vo<s ofiov Kal 

15 VTrearaXrai, Kal Trpo/Se/SrjKe Kal direLXel rrjv 
TrXtjyrjv ovk diro t/}? 'X,eip6^, dXX' diro tov 
<T(i)/jLaTo<;. yeypaiTTai Be ov Kvdveo<; ovBe OaXdT- 

^ Cf. Od. 4. 505 f. "Poseidon heard his boastful speech 
and straightway took his trident in his mighty hands, and 
smote the rock of (iyrae and clove it in sunder. And one 
part abode in its place, but the sundered part fell into the 
sea, even that on which Aiassat . . . and bore him down into 
the boundless surging tleep.'" Trans. Murra}', L.C.L. 

2 "That Kgypt to which the Greeks sail is land acquired 


by the Egyptians, given them by the river.'' Hdt. 

^ Cf. Hdt. 7. I'iU : "In ancient days, it is said, tliere 
was not yet this channel, but those rivers . . . had the same 
volume of water as now, and thereby turned all Thessaly into 
a sea. Now the Thessalians sa}' that Poseidon made this 


BOOK II. 14 

as long as the sea shall last and will stand unharmed 
henceforth by Poseidon.^ 


This painting suggests Egypt at first view^ but 
the story it tells is not Egyptian ; rather, in my 
opinion, it deals with the Thessalians. For whereas the 
land which the Egyptians occupy is a gift of the Nile,^ 
the Thessalians in early times were not permitted by 
the Peneius to have any land at all, since mountains 
encompassed the level spaces, which the stream 
continually flooded because it had as yet no outlet.^ 
Therefore Poseidon will break through the mountains 
with his trident and open a gateway for the river. 
Indeed, this is the work which he has now under- 
taken, the mighty task of uncovering the plains ; 
his hand is raised to break the mountains apart, but, 
before the blow has fallen, they separate a sufficient 
space to let the river through. In the painter's 
effort to make the action clear, the right side of 
Poseidon has been at the same time both drawn 
back and advanced * and he threatens to strike his 
blow, not merely with his hand, but with his whole 
body. He is painted, not dark blue nor yet as a 

passage whereby the Peneius flows ; and this is reasonable ; 
for whosoever believes that Poseidon is the shaker of the 
earth and that rifts made by earthquakes are that god's 
handiwork, will judge from the sight of that passage that it 
is of Poseidon's making ; for it is an earthquake, it seems to 
me, that haa riven the mountains asunder." Trans. Godley, 

* Apparently the body, including the right side, is bent 
backward in order to lend its force to the blow, while it it 
twisted so that the right side is more advanced than the left. 



T/o?, (iX,X' T]7r€Lpa)T7](;. tw tol Kal dcnrd^eTaL ra 
irehia Kal ofiaXd IBcov Kal evpea, Kaddirep 

20 OaXdrra^i. (3) XaipeL Kal 6 irorajjio^ olov 
av)(cov^ Kal (fyuXdrrcov to e<? dyKCjpa — Trora/JLO) 
yap 6p6ova9at ov avvrjOe^ — dvaTiOeTai rov 
Ttrapyj(TL0V &)? Koucpov Kal Trori/jLcorepov Kal 
ofioXoyel rep TioaeihoyvL eKpvi]aea6ai 68a) xpdi- 

25 fjL€vo<;, dviaxei Kal 7) QerraXLa avvi^dvovro^ 
ijSi] Tov vSaTo<; eXala Ko/JLcoaa Kal daTd)(^VL Kal 
TTcoXov e^aiTTOfJievrj avvavia^ovTO'^. earat yap 
Kal iTTTro? avrfj irapd tov nocretScoz^o?, orav rrjv 
diroppoijv TOV Oeov Ka6evhovTO<^ 7) yrj vTroBe^yjTat 

30 et? 'lttttov. 


(1) T^oaTTOpov Kal ^VfXTrXTjydScov rj 'Apyco 

BieKirXevcraaa fiiaov rjSr] Tefivei to poBiov tov 

(U K. YiovTOV, Kal OeXyei ttjv OdXaTTav 'O/O^eu? ahwv, 

^ For ahx^t' Heberdey and others suggest Aufle/s ("set 
free "), Jacobs apOds (" elated "). Most MSS. give alQis. 

^ e.g. the river god Cephisus in the west pediment of the 

2 i.e. the river Titaresius is a tributary of tlie river 
Peneius; the river and the river-god Peneius are identified 
in a way somewhat confusing to the reader. 

^ Glaucus, a sea divinity, is associated with Anthedon, a 
city on the north coast of Boeotia near the Locrian border. 
He M'as the son of Anthedon, eponymous hero of the city, and 
Halcyone (the "kingfisher'). A fisherman, he noted that 
one of the fish he had caught came to life again by contact 
with a certain lierb and leapt into the sea. When he himself 
tasted tlie same herb, he also plunged into the sea and became 
a sea divinity. 

BOOK II. 15 

god of the sea^ but as a god of the mainland. 
Accordingly he greets the plains as he sees that 
they are both broad and level like stretches of the 
sea. The river also rejoices as one exulting ; and, 
keeping the usual posture of resting on his elbow 1 
(since it is not customary for a river to stand erect), 
he takes up the river Titaresius^ as being light water 
and better to drink and promises Poseidon that he 
will flow out in the course he has made. Thessaly 
emerges, the water already subsiding ; she wears 
tresses of olive and grain and grasps a colt that 
emerges along with her. For the horse also is to be 
her gift from Poseidon, when the earth shall receive 
the seed of the god while he sleeps and shall bear 
a horse. 


After passing through the Bosporus and between 
the Symplegadae the Argo is already cutting its way 
through the midst of the surging Euxine and Orpheus 
is beguiling the sea by his singing, moreover the Euxine 

The story of the Argo and the golden fleece, the fleece of 
the ram that bore Phrixus and Helle over the Hellespont, 
belongs to the heroes of the generation before the Trojan 
war. The keel of the Argo was fashioned of the oracular oak 
at Dodona, the rustling of whose leaves made known the will 
of Zeus in answer to those who consulted the god ; sacred 
doves made their home in its branches, and a sacred spring 
welled up at its foot (cf. Description 33, infra p. 267). When 
the ship Argo was completed, Jason set sail with the heroes 
of his day as companions, including Castor and Pollux (the 
Dioscuri), Orpheus, Heracles, Peleus and Telamon (son of 
Aeacus), and Zetes and Calais (sons of Boreas). It was after 
passing through the Hellespont and between the clashing 
rocks of the Symplegadae, that they encountered Glaucus 
Pontius in the Black Sea (Euxine). Cf. also pp. 49, 319. 



i) he uKovei KciL V7T0 rfj rphfj Kelrai 6 Yiovro^. 
TO, ^ev Si] dycoyc/jia r?}? veax; AioaKovpoL /cal 
HpaArXrJ? AlafcuSai t€ koI BopedSaL koI octov 
6 Tyi<i 7)fii6eov (f)opd<; ip'Oei,, Tpo-m^; he v(j)i]pfio(TTai 
rfj V7]l hevhpov dp'y^alov, co Kara AwScovrjv 6 
Zeu? e? ra /navrela e^prjro. (2) Vvcopirj he e? 
Tov itXovv Tjhe' 'Xpvaovp diroKeLrai n iv KoX;)^o^9 
Kcohiov Kpiov dp)(^aLOV, 09 Xeyerai Tr]v " EXXtjv 

10 opov T(p ^pi^o) hia TOV ovpavuv TropOpevaac 
TOVTO idacov ekelv, co Trat, iroLelrai d6\ov — 
(f)povpo<; yap ti<; avrw hpaKwv epireirXeKTaL 
heivov ^XeiTcov Kal virepopcov tov KaOevheiv — 
66ev CLp^ei ttj^; veo)<^, eTreihy] ^XeireL e? avrbv ?; 

15 TOV ttXov aLTia. (3) Kat Tt^i;? pev, c5 iral, 
Kv^epva, Xeyeiai he ovToal 7rpa)T0<; dv9 pooirwv 
diTLCTTOvpLeviiv 6appr}aai ttjp re^i^^/i^, AuY/cei)? 
he 6 'A^apeco? emTeTaKTac ttj irpwpa heLvo^ mv 
ifc iToXXov Te Ihetv Kal e? ttoXv KaTa/SXeylrat tov 

20 /3d0ov<; Kcil TrpojTO^ pev viroKetpevcov eppidTWV 
alaOeaOaL, TTyocoTO? he virocpaivovcrav yrjv daird- 

(4) ^AXXci vvv eKTre7rX7])^0aL poi ho/cel Kal to 
TOV AvyKeco<; oppa Tr]v Trpoa/SoXiju tov (j)dapaTO^, 

25 L'0' ov Kal 01 TrevTiJKOVTa a')(aadp,evoi, ttjv 
elpeaiav 'HpaKXrj<; pev ar/oeTTTo? p,eveL tov 
OedpaTO^,^ ciTe hrj TToWoi? 6poLOL<^ evTV^cov, 01 
he XoLTTol Oavpd tl olpat tovto Xeyovaip' 
opaTai yap avTol<; TXavKo^ 6 TI6vtio<;, ovKfjaai 

30 he ovToai irOTe XeyeTac T-qv dp')(^aiav \K.i'0rjh6pa 
Kal TToa? pev tlvos eirl OaXdTTi]<; yevaaaOai, 
Kvp,aTO(; he v7rohpap6vTO<i avTov e? to, tmv 

^ Oid/xaros Jacobs : dav/xaros. 

BOOK II. 15 

listens and is calm under the spell of his song. 
The freight which the ship carries consists of the 
Dioscuri and Heracles^ the sons of Aeacus and of 
BoreaSj and all the offspring of the demigods who 
flourished at this time ; and the keel which had been 
fitted beneath the ship was wrought of an ancient 
tree, the tree which Zeus used for his oracular 
utterances at Dodona. Now the purpose of the voyage 
was as follows : In Colchis is preserved a golden 
fleece, the fleece of the ancient ram that ferried Helle 
with Phrixus across the sky, as the story goes. Jason, 
my boy, undertakes the task of securing this fleece 
(a task indeed, for to guard the fleece a dragon of 
fear-inspiring look and disdainful of sleep holds it 
encircled in his coils); for this reason he is commander 
of the ship, since the responsibility for the voyage 
devolves upon him. And Tiphys, my boy, is pilot of 
the ship ; and he is said to be the first of men to 
have been bold enough for the art which was till 
then mistrusted ; and Lynceus son of Aphareus is 
stationed at the prow, a man gifted in seeing far 
ahead and in peering deep down into the depths, 
always the first to discern submerged reefs and the 
first to salute land as it dimly appears on the horizon. 
But now, methinks, even the eye of Lynceus is 
stricken with consternation at the approach of the 
apparition, which also causes the fifty sailors to stop 
their rowing ; Heracles, it is true, remains unmoved 
at the sight, as one who has met with many like 
monsters, but the rest, I believe, are calling it a 
wonder. For they see Glaucus Pontius. The story 
is that he once dwelt in ancient Anthedon and that 
he ate of a certain grass on the seashore, and that 
when a wave came upon him unawares he was borne 


Ix^vcov cLTTiivexOri rfOrj. (5) ^lavjeverai /jl€V 
ovv fieya tl, co? etVo? — irepLeari yap avrw rr)^ 

35 rexyriq — to he elho^ vypol puev avrcp yeveiwv 
^oarpvxoi, XevKol Be Ihetv KaOdirep KpovvoL, 
3r.2 K. /3ap€U Be TrXoKa/xoL ko/xt]^ kul tol<; co/jloi<; iirox^- 
T€vovT€<; oaov eairdaavTO ^aXarT?;?* oc^pv^i 
\aaiai, avvdiTTOVcraL 7rpo<; dW7]\a<; olov fiia. 
(pev Tou ^paxLovo^, a><; yeyvp^vaarac tt/^o? ttjv 
5 OdXaaaav ifiTTLirrcov del toU KVfiaai Kal Xeaivwv 
avra 69 ttjv vPj^lv. (pev rodv arepvcov, 6i<^ Xd^yn 
fiep avTOL<; eyKaTeairapraL ^pvcov KO/mcoaa Kal 
(pvKLwv, yaarrjp Se viro/ceirai irapaXXdrrovaa 
Kal dmovaa ijSr]. (6) 'Ix^vv Se elvai rw Xolttw 

10 Tov YXavKov hifXol ra ovpala e^r)pfiei>a Kal 
TTpb^ TTjv l^vv eTTiarpecfyovTa, to Be /ii]i>oeiBe<^ 
avTMV dXL7rop(f)vpov tl dvOo<^ ^X^^' '^^ptOeovai 
5' avTov Kal dXKVove'^ 6/jlov pev aBouaai to, twv 
dvOpdnrciiv, ef oiv avTai t€ Kal 6 FXavKO'; 

15 peOrjppoadijcrav, 6p,ov B' evBeiKvvpievai t&> ^Opcpel 
TTjv eavTOiv (uBijv, Bi i)v ovBe i) OdXaTTa dpovaci)<; 

(1) '0 Ovcov ev 'IaOp,a} Bfj/JLO^; — eh] 5' av 6 eK 

T?}? KopLvOoV Kal ^a(TLX€V<i OVTOal TOV B)jp,ov — 

^ Palaemon is another name for Melicertes, son of Ino 
Leucothea. Incurring the anger of Hera, Ino was stricken 
with madness and taking her younger son Melicertes jumped 
in tlie sea, whereupon she became the sea-goddess Leucothea, 


BOOK II. i6 

away to the haunts of the fishes. Now he is probably 
uttering some great oracle^ for he excels in this art. 
As to his appearance^ the curls of his beard are wet, 
but white as gushing fountains to the sight ; and 
heavy are the locks of his hair, which conduct on to his 
shoulders all the water they have taken up from the 
sea ; his eyebrows are shaggy and they are joined 
together as though they were one. Ah, the arm ' 
how strong it has become through exercise against 
the sea, continually battling against the waves and 
making them smooth for his swimming. Ah, the 
breast ! what a shaggy covering of seaweed and 
tangle is spread over it like a coat of hair; while 
the belly beneath is undergoing a change and already 
begins to disappear. That Glaucus is a fish as to 
the rest of his body is made evident by the tail, 
which is lifted and bent back toward the waist ; and 
the part of it that is shaped like a crescent is 
sea-purple in colour. Kingfishers circle about him 
both singing the deeds of men (for they like Glaucus 
have been transformed from the men they once were) 
and at the same time giving to Orpheus a specimen 
of their own song, by reason of which not even the 
sea is without music. 


The people sacrificing at the Isthmus, they would 
be the people of Corinth ; and yonder king of the 

and Melicertes the sea-god Palaemon. The worship of 
Palaemon was carried on at the Isthmus of Corinth and at 
various points on the shores of Greece. At the Isthmus the 
Isthmian games apparently were established in his honour, 
and only later were taken up into the worship of Poseidon. 



20 ^lavcpov ainov ijyco/ieOa — Te/xe^'o? 8e tovtI 
IloaeiS(bvo<; t)pefia tl Trpoarj^ovv OaXdrrrj — al 
yap TMV iTLTVwv KOfiai. TOVTO aSovai — roidhe, co 
jral, arjfiaivei' r) 'Ii/co r/)? y7]<; eKirecrovaa to fiev 
€avTr]<; AevKoOea re kol tov twv ^rjpyjiScov 

25 kvkKov, to he tov 7raL8o<; y yi) YlaXaLfiovi tw 
/Specfyei XPW^'^^^- (2) KaTalpei Be rjhi] €9 
auT7]v eirl BeX^plvo^ ew-jviov, koX 6 he\<^\<i ra 
vSiTa V7roaTp(ovvu<; (feepec xadevBopTa StoXio-Odvcov 
dyjrocprjTl t?)? yaXyvij^;, &)? p,?] eKireaoi tov virvov 

30 irpoaLovTL he avTW pi]yvvTai tl /caTO, tov ^ladjxov 
dhvTOv Siaa')(^ov(T)j<^ t?}? ^r}? eV UoaeLSa)vo<;, 6v 
fioi hoKel fcal ^iavi^w tovtw rrpoeLirelv tov tov 
7raiS6<i etairXovv koI otl Oueiv uvtm Beoi. (3) 
'.W^ K. Buet Be Tavpov tovtovI peXava d'jT0(J7rdaa<; 
oJpai avTov e/c tt)? tov UoaeiBcjvof; dyeXyjf;, 6 
p,€V ovv Trj<; 6v<Jia<; X6yo<; kol i) tcov OvcrdvTOiV 
i(T6r]<; Kol TO, evayiapaTa, o) iral, kol to 
5 a(f)dTT€Lv e? Ta tov Y\aXaipovo<i dTroKelaOco 
opyia — aep,vo<^ yap 6 Xoyo'^ Kal KouLiBf] drrroOeTOf; 
ciT d7roOei(oaavTO<^ avTov %Lcrv(pov tov ao(f)OV' 
ao(f)Ov yap ijBy] irov BjjXol avTOV t) e7riaTpo(f)r} 
TOV 6lBov<; — TO Be tov IIo(T€iB(x)j'o<; elBo<;, el pev 

10 TCL'^ Tvpa<^ 7reTpa<; rj tu HeTTaXt/cd oprj p)]^eiv 
€p,eXX6, Beivo^ dv ttov eypdcpeTo Kal olov TrXyT- 
TCOV, ^evov Be tov ^leXi/cepT^v 7roiovp,evo<i w? ev 
Ttj yfi e')(^0i, fietBia KaOoppal^opevov Kal KeXevei 
TOV ''laOp.ov dvaireTdaai Ta aTepva Kal yeveadai 

^ fvaylcfiara and (T<pimiv, like 0^740, refer to a class of 
sacrifices offered to heroes and chthonic gods, but not to 
Olympian gods. 


BOOK II. i6 

people, let us consider him to be Sisyphus ; and 
this precinct of Poseidon gently resounding to the 
murmur of the sea — for the foliage of the pines 
makes this music — all this, my boy, indicates the 
following : Ino throwing herself from the land for 
her part becomes Leucothea and one of the band of 
the Nereids, while as for the child, the earth will 
claim the infant Palaemon. Already the child is 
putting in towards shore on a dolphin obedient to 
his will, and the dolphin making its back level bears 
the sleeping child, slipping noiselessly through the 
calm water so as not to disturb his sleep. And as 
he approaches, a sanctuary opens in the Isthmus as 
the earth is split apart by Poseidon, who, I fancy, 
announces to Sisyphus here the advent of the child 
and bids him offer sacrifice to him. Sisyphus is 
sacrificing yonder black bull which he has no doubt 
taken from the herd of Poseidon. The meaning of 
the sacrifice, the garb worn by those who conducted 
it, the offerings,! my boy, and the use of the knife 
must be reserved for the mysterious rites of Palaemon 
— for the doctrine is holy and altogether secret, 
inasmuch as Sisyphus the wise first hallowed it ; for 
that he is a wise man is shown at once, me thinks, 
by the intent look on his face. And as for the face 
of Poseidon, if he were about to shatter the Gyrean 
rocks 2 or the Thessalian mountains,^ he would doubt- 
less have been painted as terrible and like one dealing 
a blow ; but since he is receiving Melicertes as his 
guest in order that he may keep him on land, he 
smiles as the child makes harbour, and bids the 
Isthmus spread out its bosom and become the home 

^ Cf. supra, Description 13, p. 181, 
^ Cf. supra, Descriptiou 14, p. 182. 


15 TO* yieXLKeprr] oIkov. (4) '0 he 'la6/j.6<;, w iral, 
yeypanrai fiev iv etSet BaL/jLOvo<; eVuTrrtafo)/^ 
kavTov rf) yr}, Tera/craL he viro ri)^ (^ucreo)? 
Xlyaiov Kal 'ASpiov fieao^ KelaOai KaOcnrep 
€7T€^6uy/jievo<; roL<; TreXdyeacv. eari he avTw 

20 fieipciKLOv /JL€V 6v Se^id, Ki^aiov tol, Kopai Be iv 
upiarepa'^ OdXarrat Be avrat fcdXal kol iKavoi'^ 
evBiOL TTj TOP 'laOfjiov diro^aivovar] yfj irapa- 


(1) VtovXeiy 0) iral, KaOdirep diro i'eco? BiaXe- 

25 ycofieda irepX tovtcovI tmv vi]awv, olov irepi- 

7rX€0VT€<; avTa<i rod ypo'^, ore Ze(f)vpo<; IXapdv 

epyd^erai OdXarrav Trpoairvecov t^? eavrov 

aupa<; ; dXX' ottw^ i/coov XeXijarj tt)? 77}?, Kal 

OdXarrd aoL ravrl Bo^ec pjjr e^yp/ievrj Kal 

30 dvax^aiTi^ovaa 111)6' VTrrla Kal yaXrjvyj, ttXcot/) 

Be Tf? Kal olov €fi7rvov<;. IBov efi^e^Xi^Kafxev 

^vy)(^fopei<; ydp ttov ; Kal virep rov 7TaiB6<i 

diTOKpLvaaOaL' " ^vy^oypod Kal irXeco fxev .^' f) 

364 K. fiev ddXarra, co? 6pa<;, ttoXX?/, VTJaot 8' ev avrfj 

fia At' ov AecrySo? ovB^ "l/i/Spo'^ 7) Arj/jLV0<;, dXX* 

dyeXalai Kal fiiKpai, KaOdirep KOipiai Tiv€<i rj 

GTaOfxol r) vrj Ala iiravXia tt)? OaXdrrrj^. 

1. 5 (2) 'H fiev Brj 7Tpu)Tr] acpcov ipvpvi] re eari 

^ L adds K€7xpfai' nov TaxctC'very likely Cenchreae "), 
which most recent editors delete as a gloss. 


BOOK II. 17 

of Melicertes. The Isthmus, my boy, is painted in 
the form of a divinity reclining at full length upon 
the ground, and it has been appointed by nature to 
lie between the Aegean and the Adriatic as though 
it were a yoke laid upon the two seas. On the right 
it has a youth, surely the town Lechaeum,^ and on 
the left are girls ; these are the two seas, fair 
and quite calm, which lie alongside the land that 
represents the Isthmus. 


1. Would you like, my boy, to have us discourse 
about those islands just as if from a ship, as though 
we were sailing in and out among them in the 
spring-time, when Zephyrus makes the sea glad 
by breathing his own breeze upon it ? But you 
must be willing to forget the land and to accept 
this as the sea, not roused and turbulent nor yet 
flat and calm, but a sea fit for sailing and as it were 
alive and breathing. Lo, we have embarked ; for 
no doubt you agree ? Answer for the boy '' I 
agree, let us go sailing." You perceive that the sea 
is large, and the islands in it are not, by Zeus, 
Lesbos, nor yet Imbros or Lemnos, but small islands 
herding together like hamlets or cattle-folds or, by 
Zeus, like farm-buildings on the sea-shore. 

The first ^ of these is steep and sheer and fortified 

^ Lecliaeum, the north port of Corinth, on the Corinthian 
Gulf; Cenchreae (represented by the " girls "), the east port 
of Corinth on the Saronic Gulf. 

^ Welcker recognized the seven (or nine) islands of Aeolus, 
described by Servius ad Virg. Aen. 1. 52; see Pereira, Im 
lleiche des Aeolus. 



Kal aTTOTO/io? Kal T€^^?;p7;? rijv (f)vaii> dKp(ovv)(iav 
e^aipovaa TravoTrrrj llocreLSoJvc, Karappov; re 
Kal vypa Kal Ta<; yLteX/rra? ^oaKovaa opeioi^; 
avOeaiv, mu hpeireaOai Kal ra<; N7;/37;t'8a? €Ik6<;, 
II. 10 orav rf] daXdrTTj eiriiTai^waL. (3) 'Yi-jv he 
vrjGOV rijv e^efr;? vnTLap re Kal jeMSr) ovaav 
OLKOvai fiep aX-iet? re Kal yecopyol a/xa, ^vfi^dX- 
Xovrat Se dyopdv dWi]\ot<; oi fxev rodv yecopyov- 
/iiivcov, ol he d)v ijypevaap, Uoaeihco he rovrovl 

15 yecopyov eir dporpov Kal ^euyov^; 'ihpvvraL 

Xoyiov/xevot avro) rd €K t?}? 7?)?, co? he fir) 

cFc^ohpa iJTTeipcoTr]'^ 6 Uoaeihcov (paivoiro, irpwpa 

€/LL^e/3X7]TaL T(p dporpw Kal rrjv yrjv pijyvvaiv 

III. olov irXewv. (4) A/ 8' exofxevai tovtcop pr}aot, 

20 hvo fiia fJLtP dfjL(f)a) irore rjaap, payetaa he viro 
rod ireXdyov^ fieaii iroTapiov evpo<; eavTP]<; 
dTTijpe^drj. Tovrl 8' earl crot Kal irapd tt)? 
ypacpy]^;, m iral, yiPcoaKeiP' rd ydp e(T)(^iafjLepa 
tT;? pr](TOV TrapaTrXijaid ttov 6pa<; Kal dXXijXoL^; 

25 ^v/ifjuerpa Kal ola epapfioaai KolXa €KKeL/JLepoi<;. 
TovTO Kal y) KvpcoTTi] TTore irepl rd Tep-irr) rd 
SerraXiKd eiraOe' aeia/xol ydp KdKeLP7]p 
dpaiTTv^airef; tj]p apjiopiap tojp 6po)u evairecni- 
fjiyjpaPTO ToU T/iyjfiaat, Kal Trerpcop je oIkol 

30 (papepol en irapaTrXy^aLOi Tai<; €^i]p/jioa/jiepat<; 

^ The type of Poseidon with right foot on the prow of a 
ship is illustrated by the Vatican statue (prow and dolphin 
restored). As Benndorf points out. the Poseidon of the 
picture follow^s tliis familiar type ; but the god is dressed 
like a fanner, tlie ship's prow has been transformed to serve 
as a plough, and his foot is pressed on the plough like 
a farmer's in ploughing. The "yoke" seems to mean a 
yoke of oxen. Cf. supra, p. 187. 


BOOK II. 17 

by a natural wall ; it lifts its peak aloft for all-seeing 
Poseidon ; it is watered with running water and 
furnishes the bees with food of mountain flowers, 
which the Nereids also doubtless pluck when they 
sport along the seashore. The adjoining island, 
which is flat and covered with a deep soil, is 
inhabited by both fishermen and farmers, who offer 
each other a market, the latter bringing of the fruits 
of their husbandry, the former of the fish they 
have caught ; and they have set up yonder 
statue of Poseidon the Farmer with a plough and a 
yoke,^ crediting him with the fruits of the earth ; 
but that Poseidon may not seem too much a 
landsman, the beak of a ship is attached to the 
plough and he breaks the ground as though sailing 
through it. The two islands next to these were 
formerly both joined in one ; ^ but having been 
broken apart in the middle by the sea its two parts 
have become separated by the width of a river. 
This you might know from the painting, my boy ; 
for you doubtless see that the two severed portions 
of the island are similar, and correspond to each 
other, and are so shaped that concave parts fit 
those that project. Europe once suffered the same 
experience in the region of the Thessalian Tempe ;^ 
for when earthquakes laid open that land, they 
indicated on the fractures the correspondence of 
the mountains one to the other, and even to-day 
there are visible cavities where rocks once were, 
which correspond to the rocks torn from them, 

* Apparently the name of the island of Didyme (modern 
Salina) suggested to the painter (or the writer) the 
conception of two islands connected by a bridge : Benndorf. 

3 Cf. supra, Description 15, p. 185. 


a<pa)P 7T6Tpai<;, vXrj 0\ oiroaTjv a)(^La6€VT(ov toov 
opMV eTriaTriaOat sIko^, ovttcd d8r]\o<;' XeiTrovrai 
yap B)) €TL al evvai tmv BivSpcov. to pev Brj t?}? 
in'jaov 7TciOo<; toiovtov 7)ycop,eda, ^evypa Be virep ^ 

35 Tov 7TOpOp,ov /3e^\r]Tat, w? p^lav vir avrov 

365 K. (pau'eaOai, koX to piev vTroTrXelraL tov ^€vypaTO<;, 

TO Be dpa^eveTai' 6pa<; yap irov tou? Bia^oLTOiv- 

Ta9 avTo, CO? oBoiiropoi Te elau koI vavTUi. 

IV. (5) Ti]v Be VTjaov, w iral. Trjv TrXrjaiop 6avp,a 

5 7]yu>p,€0a' TTvp yap Brj v7T0TV(f>eL avTrjV Trdaav 

(Ti]payyd<^ t6 /cal pv)(^ov<i viroBeBvKo^ rr}? vt)GOV, 

Bl 6)v MGTcep aiikoiv i) (pXo^ BieKiraiec pvaKd<; t€ 

epyd^eTac Becvoix;, irap' ojv eKiriiTTovai iroTapol 

TTvpo^ pieydXoi Te Kal ttj OaXaTTrj einKvpLai- 

10 i'0VT€<;. fcal (f)tXoao(f)€LV p,ev jSovXap^evcp tcl 
TotavTa vyao<; dcr(f)dXT0v Kal Oeiov rrapexopivf] 
cj)U(Tiv, eireiBdv v(f)' dX6<; dvaKpadfj, '7roXXoL<; 
eKirvpovTai TrvevpLaai ra ttjv vXijv e^epedi^ovTa 
irapd tt}? 6aXdTTr](; dvaaTTwaa. i) ypa(f)r) Be tcl 

15 TMV TTOirjTCyv eiraivovaa Kal p,vdou ttj vqaw 
eiTiypdcpei, yiyavTa piev pejBXrjaOai ttotc evTavOa, 
BvaOavaTOvvTL B' avTw ttjv vrjaov eireve'xOrjvai 
BeapLov eveKev, eiKeiv Be pbyjirco avTOV, dXX^ 

^ The island ma}' be the modern Volcano (the ancient 

2 Find. Pi/th. 1.21. "Etna, from whose inmost caves 
hurst forth the purest founts of unapproachable fire." 
Trans. Sandys, L.C.L. 

^ The story of Typho (Typhoeus), offspring of Gaia, is told 
b}^ Hesiod, fheog.H-IOf. In the batlle of the (iods ajid the 
Oiants he is overthrown but not slain by a thunderbolt of 

BOOK II. 17 

and, moreover^ traces have not yet disappeared of the 
heavy forest growth that must have followed the 
mountain sides when they split apart ; for the beds 
of the trees are still left. So we may consider 
that some such thing happened to this island ; 
but a bridge has been thrown over the channel^ 
with the result that the two islands look like one ; 
and while ships sail under the bridge, wagons go 
over it ; in fact you doubtless see the men making 
the passage, that they are both wayfarers and 

The neighbouring island, my boy, we may 
consider a marvel ; ^ for fire smoulders under the 
whole of it, having worked its way into underground 
passages and cavities of the island, through which 
as through ducts the flames break forth and produce 
terrific torrents from which pour mighty rivers of 
fire 2 that run in billows to the sea. If one wishes 
to speculate about such matters, the island provides 
natural bitumen and sulphur ; and when these are 
mixed by the sea, the island is fanned into flame by 
many winds, drawing from the sea that which sets 
the fuel aflame. But the painting, following the 
accounts given by the poets,^ goes farther and 
ascribes a myth to the island. A giant, namely, 
was once struck down there, and upon him as he 
struggled in the death agony the island was placed 
as a bond to hold him down, and he does not yet 

Zeus, and a mountain is placed upon him to hold him 
confined. \Yhile the story was first localized in Asia Minor, 
it was transferred to Sicily, where the eruptions of Etna 
were interpreted as the fire of his breath. The story of 
Enceladus, the opponent of Athena in the battle of the Gods 
and the Giants, was transferred from Attica to various 
volcanic regions in Italy and Sicily. 



ava/jia)(ea6ai inro ttj yfj ovra Kai to irvp rovro 

20 (Tvv aireiXfj eKTTvelv. tovtI Be Koi rov Tui^co 

(j)aaiv eV "EiKeXia /SovXeaOai kuI rov 'EyKeXaBov 

iv 'IraXta tuvti), oO? -ijireipOL re kuI vvjaoL 

TTLe^ovcrip ovrrct) fiev redvewTa^, aei Se uTroOpy- 

aKovra'^. eari Si croi, w Tral, /jLtjS' v7To\e\€l(p- 

25 OuL ho^ai Tr}<; yita;^?;? e? rrjv K0pucf)7]V rod opov^ 

dTToffXeyjravrL' ra yap eV^ avrrj^i (fiaivofxeva 6 

Zeu? d(f)Ly]a-L Kepavvov<i eir] rov ylyavra, 6 h 

dirayopevei jxev ?;8>;, Tnarevet he rfj yfj en, koX 

rj yij Be cnreipriKev ovk ioyvro^ avrrjv kardvai 

30 rov ITocrefSwi^o?. TrepLJSi/SXTjKe Be avroU dxXvv, 

ct)9 ojJLOLa yeyovoat fiaXXov rj yivofievoL^ <f)ai- 


IVa. (6) Tov Be irep'nrXovv koXcovov rovrov OLKel 
BpuLKwv irXovrov rivo<; olfxai (pvXa^, o? vtto rfj 
35 yfj Kelrai. rovro yap Xeyerac ro Orjpiov evvovv 
re elvai rco ^pL'crw, Kal 6 ri lBtj -y^puaovv, dyairdv 
3(56 K. Kal OdXireiv ro rot kcoBlov ro iv KoXxoi^ Kal rd 
r(x)v 'EaTrepiBcov /XTJXa, iTTeiBi] ')(pvad i(f)aLvovro, 
BLrrct) dvTTVco ^vvel^^ov BpdKovre Kal eavrolv 
iiroiovvro. Kal 6 BpdKcov Be 6 r?}? 'A^r/ra? o 

1 An indication that Pliilostratus is writing in Campania, 
which confirms the statement in the Froociniurn (295, 14, 
p. 5, supra) : Benndorf. 

a Cf. Find. ]';,Uk 1. 15 f. "That foeman of the gods, 
Typhon with his hundred heads, who was nurtured of old 
by the famed Cilician cave, though now the steep shores 
above Cyme, and Sicily too, lieth heavy on liis shaggy 


BOOK II. 17 

yield but from beneath the earth renews the fight 
and breathes forth this fire as he utters threats. 
Yonder figure, they say, would represent Typho 
in Sicily or Enceladus here in Italy,^ giants that 
both continents and islands are pressing down, not 
yet dead indeed but always dying. 2 And you, 
yourself, my boy, will imagine that you have not 
been left out of the contest, when you look at the 
peak of the mountain ; for what you see there are 
thunderbolts which Zeus is hurling at the giant, 
and the giant is already giving up the struggle 
but still trusts in the earth, but the earth has 
grown weary because Poseidon does not permit 
her to remain in place. Poseidon has spread a 
mist over the contest, so that it resembles what 
has taken place in the past rather than what is 
taking place now. 

This hill encircled by the sea is the home of a 
serpent,'^ guardian doubtless of some rich treasure 
that lies hidden under the earth. This creature 
is said to be devoted to gold and whatever golden 
thing it sees it loves and cherishes ; thus the fleece 
in Colchis and the apples of the Hesperides, since 
they seemed to be of gold, two serpents that never 
slept guarded and claimed as their own. And the 
serpent of Athena, that even to-day still makes its 

breast, and the column that soareth to heaven crusheth him, 
even snow-clad Etna. . . . And that monster flingeth aloft 
the most fearfulfounts of fire. . .'' Sandys in L.C.L. 

^ Benndorf points out that to-day many Greek islands 
abound, or are thought to abound, in snakes, so that such 
names as ApaKovLai, 'Ocpiovaaa/'Tbpa, etc., are often applied to 
them ; he also quotes Brunn's suggestion that this " home of 
a serpent'"' may be the well-known island of Phoenicusa 
(Filicudi) now called the ''grotto del bove marino."' 



5 en Kol vvv iv uKpoiroXei olkcov 8ok6l fiOL rov 
WOyjvalcov daTrdaaaOai Sfj/xov iirl T(p ')^pvaq), ov 
€K€LVOi T6TTiya<i Tttt? K6(f>a\al<; eiTOLOvvTo. iv- 
ravOa Sk ')(^pvaov'^ avTo<; 6 SpciKcov' rtjv yap 
K€<pa\)]v T)]^ ^£(5? virep/SaWet ScSlco^; o2/ 

10 vTrep rod Kcirco ttXovtov. 

V. (7) KaTr]pe(f)T]^ Se kitto) re Kal afxlXaKi, kol 
ayLtTTeXoi? i]he i) vr]ao<; ovaa dkiovvaw fxev avelaOai 
<p7]ai, Tov Aioi'vaov 8' aTrelvat vvv kol iv r^ireipw 
TTou l3aK)(€V6iv iiriTpiyjravTa toj ^etXrivo) ra 

15 ivravOa airoppiiTa' ra he airopptiTa /cvfi^aXd re 
ravra virria Kal KpaTrjpe<; dvearpafxpievot y^pvaol 
Kal avXol OepfJLol en Kal ra rv/xTrava a\/ro^ 7;tI 
K€i/jL€va, Kal ra? ve^piha<^ 6 ^€(f)vpo<; olov al'pet 
diTo T>}9 7%, o(f)€L<; re oi fxev e/jLTrXeKovrac TOi? 

20 dvpcroi<;, oi 8' vrro rod ol'vov irapelvrai ^wvivaOai 
avrov^ raL<; Ba/c;^a;? Kad€v8ovra<;. (8) Bor/^f? 
Be OL fiev opycjaiv, ol he TrepKci^ovaiv, oi 8' 
6/jL(f)aKe<;, ol 3' olvdvdai hoKOvat aeao(j)i(Tfievov 
rov Aioi'vaov ra? wpa<; rwv dpbireXwv, a)9 a^i 

25 rpvycpii. dfi(f)iXa:f)€L<^ h' ovrco n ol /36rpv^, to? 
Kal rwv rrerpojv d7Ty]prrja6ac Kal rfj OaXdrrrj 
iirLKpe/jLaadai, oircopi'^ovai re 7rpoa7Ter6p.evoc 
OaXdrrioi re Kal rjireipMrat, 6pvi6e<^' rip yap 
ajjLTreXov 6 Ai6vuao<; irapex^i kolvi-jv irdaL ttXtjv 

30 T^9 yXavKOf;, CKelv^v Be fiovrjv apa drrcoOelraL 

1 The "serpent of Athena," which was regularly 
represented with the Athena of the Athenian acropolis, is 
connected with the story of the snake-king Erechtheus. 
Probably its home was the crypt beneath the north porch of 
the Erechtheum. According to Plutarch, the story that the 
honey-cake, with which this serpent was fed each month, 
remained untasted at the time of the Persian invasion, 

BOOK II. 17 

home on the Acropolis^ in my opinion has loved 
the people of the Athenians because of the gold 
which they make into grasshopper pins for their 
hair.2 Here the serpent himself is of gold ; and 
the reason he thrusts liis head out of the hole is, 
I think, that he fears for the safety of the treasure 
hidden below. 

Canopied with ivy and bryony and grape-vines, this 
next island claims to be dedicated to Dionysus, but 
adds that Dionysus is now absent^ doubtless revelling 
somewhere on the mainland, having entrusted to 
Seilenus the sacred objects of this place ; these 
objects are yonder cymbals lying upside down, and 
golden mixing-bowls overturned^ and flutes still warm, 
and drums lying silent ; the west wind seems to lift 
the fawn-skins from the ground ; and there are 
serpents, some of which are twined about the thyrsi 
and others, in a drunken sleep, are at the disposal of 
the Bacchantes for use as girdles. Of the clusters 
of grapes some are ripe to bursting, some are turning 
dark, some are still green, and some appear to be 
budding, since Dionysus has cunningly fixed the 
seasons of the vines so that he may gather a 
continuous harvest.^ The clusters are so abundant 
that they both hang from the rocks and are suspended 
over the sea, and birds of both the sea and the land 
fly up to pluck them; for Dionysus provides the vine 
for all birds alike except the owl, and this bird alone 

was used by Themistocles to prove that the serpent and 
Atliena herself had deserted the city of Athens. 

^ The golden cicada, worn by the Athenians before Solon's 
time, was an emblem of their claim to be autochthonous, for 
the cicada was thought to be earth-born. 

3 The author is influenced b}' Homer's description of the 
gardens of Alcinoiis, Od. 7. 125 fF. 



TMV jSorpvwv, eireihrj toI'^ av6poL>iTOL<; Bia^dWeu 
TOP olvov, (pa yap t^? y\avKO<; el (f>dyoL iraihiov 
vjjTnov re Kal^ dotvov, dire^OdveTaL tco o'lvco 
TTciaav rrjv r}\iKLav Kal ovt av ttlol Kal (po^olro 

35 Tou? fieOvovra^. (9) 2u 5' ovrw ri Opaaix;, o) 

367 K. iraly co? /Lt>;8e tov ^€lX^]vov tovtov, top (j)v\a/ca 

tt)^ vi]aov, (ho^eladai /xeOvovrd re Kai ciino- 

fievov tT;? Ba/c;^/;?. rj B' ovk d^tol e? avrov 

I^Xeireiv, dWa tov Alovv(tov ipwcra dvaTVirovrai 

5 avTOV Kal avaypdcpei Kal opa fjui] irapovra' to 

yap Tfjiv 6(f)0a\/jLO}v yOo^ Tjj Ba/c;;^?; fieTecopov 

pLev, ov pir^v e^co y epcoTiKcov (^povTiBcov. 

VT. (10) TavTi he /; cf)vai<; Ta oprj ^vvOeiaa vijaov 

elpyaaTat Baaetdu re Kal v\r)<i TrXico, oiroar/ 

10 KvirapLTTOV re vyjri]\7)<; Kal irevKT)^ Kal i\dTrj<^ 
BpVMV T€ av Kal KeBpov Kal yap tcl BevBpa 
TOV eavTOiv yeypaiVTaL Tpoirov. Ta puev Byj 
evdrjpa tP)<; in'/aov auoOrjpai tg dvi)(yevovai Kal 
e\a(f)r]06\oc Xoyxa^ ^^rl '^d Otjpla rjppei'OL Kal 

15 To^a evLOL. Kal fA.a)(^aLpa<; Be, cj Trat, Kal Kopv- 
va<; (ftepovaiv ol dyy^epa\0L a(f)a)v Kal dpaa6L<;, 
BiKTvd Te TavTa BtijKTai r?)? vXtj^; Ta puev 
iyKoXiriaaadai Oi^piov, Ta Be Brjaai, Ta Be aX'^'^^' 
Tou BpopLOV. Kal Ta pLep el'XyjTTTaL Toyv Qy^picov, 

20 Ta Be pidx^TaL, Ta Be rjprjh-e tou fidXXovTa' 
evepycx; Be Tra? fipax^oyv veavia<i, Kal crvve^ai- 
povai fforjv Kvve<i dvBpdaiv, w? Kal ttjv y]X^ 

1 T6 Koi L, re iTi Koi Marc. CI. xi. 29, Jcicobs conj. tn Kai. 
The Teubner editors, while proposing re koI 6.oivov tn, 
delete from text vr]iriov . . . aoivov. which seem confirmed, 
however, l)y Philost. Vit. ApoU, III. 40 ; see note under 


BOOK II. 17 

he drives away from the clusters because it gives 
man a prejudice against wine. For if an infant child 
that has never tasted wine should eat the egcrs of an 
owl, he hates wine all his life and would refuse to 
drink it and would be afraid of drunken men.^ But 
you are bold enough, my boy, not to fear even the 
Seilenus here that guards the island, though he is 
both drunken and is trying to seize a Bacchante. 
She, however, does not deign to look at him, but 
since she loves Dionysus she fashions his image in 
her mind and pictures him and sees him, absent 
though he is; for though the look of the Bacchante's 
eyes is wavering, yet assuredly it is not free from 
dreams of love. 

Nature in fashioning yonder mountains has made 
an island thickly grown and covered with forest, 
lofty cypress and fir and pine, oaks also and cedar; 
for the trees are painted each in its characteristic 
form. The regions on the island where wild beasts 
abound are tracked by hunters of boar and deer, 
some equipped with hunting-spears and with bows. 
Knives and clubs, my boy, are carried by the bold 
hunters that attack at close quarters ; and here nets 
are spread through the forest, some to surround the 
animals, some to entrap them, and some to check 
their running. Some of the animals have been 
taken, some are struggling, some have overpowered 
the hunter; every youthful arm is in action, and 
dogs join men in an outcry, so that you might say 

^ Cf. Philostratus' Life of ApoIIonius, III. 40 (Conybeare's 
translation, L.C.L.), where a fatlier is enjoined to make his 
infant son a teetotaler by this prescription : " for if it is fed 
upon them [owls' eggs] before it tastes wine, distaste for wine 
will be bred in it, etc." 



(j)avaL ^vfjL^aK-^eveiv rrj 61] pa. ra Be /jieydXa 
TMV cf)VT(Jov BpvTOfioL aiTaOcoat BiaT€/jiV0PTe<;, koI 

25 o fiev Scalpel rov ireXeKw, 6 Be i^/Se/SXrjKev, 
6 Be 67'jyec Xa^oov direaro/xia/jLevop vtto tou 
7r\i]TT€iv, 6 8' eTTLCTKOTrelTat rrjv eXdrr^v larov 
eve/cev TeKfiaip6fievo<i ^ rov BevBpov 7r/3o? rrjv 
vavv, 6 Be TO, via Kal opOd twv BevBpwv Te/xvei 

30 e? rd eperiKd. 

Via. (11) 'H 8' aTToppa)^ irerpa Kal 6 tcov aWvi(ov 

Bi'jfMOf; Kal 6 ev fieaaL<; 6pvi<^ diro rov roiovBe 

yeypairrai \6yov. 01 dvOpwrroL Tal<; alOviat<; 

eTTLTidevTaL /xd AC ov tmv Kpecov eveKa' jxeXav 

35 ydp Kal voacoBe^i Kal ovBe Treivcovrc 7)Bu to ef 
avTMv Kpea^, yaarepa Be Trapexovjai iraialv 
Larpcbi', oXav tou? yevaafievov^i avri}^ evairou*; 
368 K. d7ro(f)aLvetv Kal Koixpov^, virvrjXal ovaac Kal 
7rvpidXo)TOL' vvKTcop ydp avral^ evaarpdiTTovat, 
iTpoadyovTat Be rov Ki]VKa opviv eirl fioipa twv 
dXiGKopukvwv /xeXeBcovov elvai Kal irpoeyprjyo- 
5 pevai (T(f)Ci)v. 6 Be k/jv^ OaXdmo^; fiev, ')(^p7]aT6<i 
Be opvL^ Kal aTTpdyfKov Kal OrjpdcfaL /mev tol 
dBpain]<;, tt/do? Be ye vttvov eppcorat, Kal KaOevBei 
afJLLKpd. ravrd rot, Kal diroinaOol tou? 6<^6aX- 
fjiOV<^ €K€LvaL<;. eTreiBdv ovv iirl Balra aTroTTTw- 
10 (TiVy 6 fiev OLKovpel irepl ti-jv irerpav, al 8' 
i'jKOvaiv e? eairepav dirdyovaaL BeKdrrfv avrd) 
roiv re6)]pa/jLevcov Kal KadevBovaiv yBr) irepl 
avToi' ov KaOevBovra ouS' dv yrrrjOePTa vttvov 

^ Pikkolos would insert t}> ^itikos before toG hivhpovy "for 
a mast, judging the height of the tree in relation to his 

^ See critical note. 

BOOK II. 17 

that Echo herself joins in the revel of the hunt. 
Woodsmen cut through the tall trees and trim them; 
and while one raises his axe, another has driven it 
home, a third whets his axe which he finds dull from 
hewing, another examines his fir tree, judging the 
tree with a view to a mast for his ship,i and still 
another cuts young and straight trees for oars. 

The precipitous rock and the flock of seagulls ^ and 
the bird^ in their midst have been painted for some 
such reason as this : The men are attacking the 
sea-gulls, but not, by Zeus, for their flesh, which is 
black and noisome and unpalatable even to a hungry 
man; but these birds supply to the sons of the 
doctors * a stomach of such properties as to assure a 
good appetite in those who eat it and to make them 
agile. The birds being drowsy are easily caught by 
torchlight, for the hunters flash a light upon them 
at night. But the gulls induce the tern with a part 
of the food they catch to act as a warden and to keep 
awake for them. Now though the tern is a sea-bird, 
yet it is simple-minded, easy-going, and inefficient 
at catching prey ; but in resisting sleep it is strong 
and in fact sleeps but little. For this reason it lets 
out the use of its eyes to the gulls. So when the 
gulls fly away after food, the tern keeps guard around 
the home rock, and the gulls return towards evening 
bringing to it a tithe of what they have caught ; 
they at once sleep round about the tern, and it stays 
awake and is never overcome by sleep except when 

2 On the island of Filicudi (the ancient Phoenicusa) visitors 
are shown a cave near the shore, frequented b}' an immense 
number of gulls. Pereira, Im Riiche des Aeolus, p. 90. 

' i.e. the tern mentioned below. 

* i.e. the medical profession ; sons was the regular name 
for disciples, e.g. "Asclepiads" for disciples of Asclepius ; 
and " sons of the prophets " for disciples of the prophets. 



TTOTe, €l fii] avTal (SovXoinai. el he S6\ov rov 

15 TrpoaiovTO^; al'aOoiro, o fiev ava/3od ropov re koI 
o^v, al h airo avvO/]fiaro<; apdelaai (f)evyovaiv 
dve)(^ovaai rov fieXeScovop, el ireroixevo^; direiiTOL 
TTOTe. aW ivravOa eaTTjKe fcal rd^ al6via<^ 
Treptopa. can 8' avrou to fiev ev fieaai^ eardvai 

20 rat? opvLaLv 6 T\p(iiTev<; 6 ev rah (f)coKai<;, to ^e 

/j,7] KaOevheiv virep rov Tlpwrea. 

VII. (12) 'EvravOa Se, o) iral, Kal Kadcopiiiarai 

y/jilv, Kal 6 TC /lev ovofia rfj vi'jcxw ovtc olBa, 

y^pvai) 8' dv tt/oo? >ye ifiov ovofjud^oiro, el firj 

25 fjidrriv ol iroiriral rrjv roidvBe eTrcovvfiiav e^ev- 
p}]Kaai. T0L<; Ka\ot<; re Kal OavixaaioL^ irdaLv. 
wKLarat fiev Sij, oiroarj /SaaiXeta, fiLKpa Se- 
^aaOar ov yap dpoaei ye ivravOd ri^ ov8e 
d/jL7re\ovpyjjaei, irepiecm 6' avrfj Trrp/ow, a)V 

30 Ta? fiev dKpai(f)veU re Kal y\rv)(pd^ eKSiScocri, 
rd<; Be eKirvpcoaaaa. earco 8' ovrw Tf? evpov<;, 
ft)? Kal TT) OaXdacnj eTTLirXi'jpLiivpelv. to to^ 
podiov rovTO 7r7]yal VTroKUfiari^ovai ^eovaai 
Kal olov €K \€/3y]T0<; dvairaXXofievai re Kal 

35 dva7rr)Sooaai, irepl a? ^e/SXijTai yBe ?; vfjao<;. 

309 K. TO fiev ovv Oavpa T7]<i rcov irr/ycov eVSocrew? 

el're t/}? 7';? irpoarjKe vofii^eiv e'lTe rfj OaXdaay 

oiKeiovv, BiKuaei oBe 6 Ilp(OTev<;' i]Kei yap Bi] 

OefiidTevacov rovro. (18) Ta Be TreTroXLafieva 

5 T^9 v)jaov aKoiTOifiev. wKiarat yap Brj ev avrf] 
TToXeft)? KaXrj^ re Kal \afM7rpd<; el'BojXov oaov 
olKia, Kal /SaaiXiKov e'laco rpe<^eTai iraiBiov, 

^ The reference is to 01. 4. 413 f. 

^ On the modern Basiluz/o, one of the Liparian Islands 
("Basilidin," Gcoyr. Rev. V.23, p. 400, 12), thereare still ruin 


BOOK II. 17 

they are willing. If it senses the approach of any 
danger it raises a piercing shrill cry, and they rise at 
the signal and fly away, supporting their warden if 
ever it grows weary in flight. But in this picture 
it is standing and watching over the gulls. In that 
it stands in the midst of its birds, the tern is like 
Proteus among his seals,^ but it is superior to Proteus 
in that it does not sleep. 

On this island, my boy, we have put ashore ; 
and though I do not know what its name is, I at 
least should call it " golden," had not the poets 
applied this epithet at random to everything beautiful 
and marvellous. It is only big enough to have a 
small palace ; ^ for no one will plough here or culti- 
vate the vine; but it has an abundance of springs, to 
some of which it furnishes pure cold water and to 
some water that it has heated. Let us conclude that 
it is an island so well supplied with water that the 
water overflows into the sea. As for this surging 
water, bubbling springs that leap up and bound on 
high as from a cauldron cause the rippling waves, and 
this island surrounds the springs. Now the marvel of 
the source of the springs, whether one should assume 
that they come from the earth or should locate them 
in the sea, Proteus here shall decide ; for he has 
come to render judgment on this point. Let us 
examine the city that has been built upon the 
island. For in truth there has been built there a 
likeness of a fair and splendid city no larger than 
a house, and therein is nurtured a royal child and 

of ancient walls and other remains from antiquity ; and along 
its eastern shore gases are said to bubble up in the sea. Pereira, 
Im Reiche cles Aeolus, p. 90 (Benndorf). The plural jSaot'Aeta 
is used of one palace, ' ' royal quarters. " 



(iOvp/ia Be avT(p TroXf?. dearpa yap eajLv, 
oTToaa avrov re he^acrOai xal tov^ avfiTraidra^ 

10 TOVTcpl TTalBa^;, iTTTroBpofio^; re i^coKohofiriTai 
Tf? ciTTOXpMV Tol<s MeXiTatot? kviuSloi^ irepL- 
Bpajielv avTov 'lttttov'; yap Br] 6 Trai? ravra 
TTOLelrai koI avve)(ei cr(f)d<; t^vyov re kol ap/ia, 
ijvioxv^ovraL ^ Be vrro rovrcovl rcov 7ri6r]KQ)v, 

15 01)9 TO rraiBlov Oepdirovra'; i]yelraL. (14) 
\aya)o<i Be ovroal %^e9 olfiai elawKiapievo'^ 
^vvex^TUC fxev Ifiavn (poivLKco KaduTrep kixvv, 
BeBeaOat S' ovk cl^lol kuI Bio\ia6)]aaL tou? 
Be(r/iov<; ideXei iriarevcov rot? irpoaOioi^ rcov 

20 TToBcop, ^^irraKo^^ re koI Ktrra ev olk'ktkw 
irXeKrw Xetpijvoov Bikiiv ev rfj vi]a(p aBovatv 
aBei Be rj fiev oiroaa olBev, 6 Be oirocra p.avddveL. 

iri KTKAH^ 

(1) 0/ 6epi'C,ovre<^ re rd Xi'^ia koI rpvywvre^ 
25 ra? dfXTre\ov<; ovre i'jpocrav, w iral, ravra ovre 
€(f)vrevaap, aXX* avrofxara 1) yPj acfiiaiv dva- 
rrepiirei ravra' elaX yap Bi] Ki/AcXw7re?, ol? ovk 
olBa ef orov rrjv yrjv ol Troirjral jBovXovrai 
avro(j)vd elvai o)V (pepet. ireTroLTjrat Be avTov<; 
?>0 Kal iroi/jLeva'; rd irpo^ara /SuaKovaa, irorov re 
ro ydXa rovrwu rjyovvrai, Kal oyjrov. ol B^ ovr 

^ rjyioxvcTourai Schenkl and Benndorf : 7V''ox''icra!j' or 
yji' 10x^1 (^ Of libri. 

^ i.e. Maltese. 

2 The first section of the description is full of reminiscences 
of Homer: e.g. Oil. 9. 108, the Cyclopes "plant nothing 


BOOK II. i8 

the city is his plaything. There is a theatre large 
enough to receive him and his playfellows, and a 
hippodrome has been constructed of sufficient size 
for little Melitaean^ dogs to run races in; for the 
boy uses these as horses and they are held together 
by yoke and chariot, and the drivers will be these 
apes that the boy regards as his servants. Yonder 
hare, brought into the house only yesterday, 1 believe, 
is fastened with a purple leash like a dog, but it 
objects to being bound and seeks to slip its bonds 
with the help of its front feet ; and a parrot and a 
magpie in a woven cage sing like Sirens on the 
island ; the magpie sings what it knows, but the 
parrot what it has been taught. 


These men harvesting the fields and gathering 
the grapes, my boy, neither ploughed the land nor 
planted the vines,- but of its own accord the earth 
sends forth these its fruits for them ; they are in 
truth Cyclopes, for whom, I know not why, the {)oets 
will that the earth shall produce its fruits spon- 
taneously. And the earth has also made a shep- 
herd-folk of them by feeding the flocks, whose 
milk they regard as both drink and meat. They 

with their hands nor plough ; but all these things spring up 
for them without sowing or ploughing, wheat, and barley, and 
vines"; 112, "Neither assemblies for council have they, 
nor appointed laws," but they "dwell on the peaks of the 
mountains in hollow caves"; 246 f., Polj^phemus drinks 
milk and eats cheese and (291) makes his supper on two of 
the companions of Odysseus, 




ayopav ywcocTKovaiv ovje ^ov\evTi]piov, ovhe^ 
oIkov, dWa ra py^yixara iaoiKKTci/jievoL rod opovi. 

35 (2) Tou? /leu aX\.ov<i ea, \lo\v(j)ij/jio<; Se 6 rod 
370 K. lloaeihcovo'^ dypKoraro^ avrcjv olkcl evravOa, 
fjLLuv /JL6V vire pr eii'Qjv ocppvv rod o^OaXjJLoi) evo^ 
6i>T0<;, TrXarela Se rfj pivl 6Tn[3aivwv rod p^etX,ou? 
fcal aLTovfX€vo<^ toik; di'dpu>7rou<i oyajrep tmp 
XeovTcov 01 cofxoi. vvvl he cnTe-)(^eTaL rov roiov- 
5 Tov aiTiov, ft)? /x?) l3opo<s firjSe dr]Sr]<; ^aivoiro' 
ipa yap rr}^ Ta\aT€La<; 7TaL^ovar)<; e? toutI to 
TriXayo'; cKpLaropcbv avrrjv airo tov 6pov<;. 
(3) Kat ?; /ULEV avpiy^ €tc viro fJidXi]^ Kal arpe/xet, 
ecTTL 6' avT(p TTOii^ievLKOv aapta, co? XevKi] re en; 

10 fcal yavpo^ Kal ySlayp 6fi(f)a/co<; Kal co? v€fipov<; 
Trj TaXaTela aKVfivevec Kal dpKTov^. ahei he 
vTTo TTpiv(p TavTa, ovS* OTTOV avTQ) TCL TTpoffaTa 
ve/jL6TaL 6t3&)? ovh' oiroaa eaTiV ovh^ ottov t) yi) 
€Ti. opCLO^ T€ Kal heLvo<; yeypaiTTaL ')(^aiTr)v puev 

15 dvaaeiwv 6p6i]v Kal dfx(f)i,Xa(f)r] 7rLTvo<; hiKTjv, 
Kapxdpov<; he viro^aivwv bh6vTa<i eK jSopov tov 
yeveiov, aTepvov re Kal yaaTepa Kal to et? ovv^a 
rjKOv Xdaio<; irdvTa. Kal /SXeireLV fiev 7]/j,€p6p cf)i]aii'y 

■^ ovSi Kayser : ovre. 

1 Cf. Theocr. 11. 31 f., 

"One long shag e3ebrow ear to ear my forehead o'er 

(loth go, 
And but one eye beneatli doth lie, and the nose stands 

•wide on the lip." 

Trans. Edmonds, Orcelc Bucolic Poets, L.C.L. 

2 Theocritus has written the song of the Cyclop's serenade 
from whicli Philostratus draws freely in §2; ef. Idi/ll 11, 
19 ff. 



BOOK II. i8 

know neither assembly nor council nor yet houses, 
but they inhabit tlie clefts of the mountain. 

Not to mention the others, Polyphemus son of 
Poseidon, the fiercest of them, lives here ; he has a 
single eyebrow extending above his single eye and 
a broad nose astride his upper lip,i and he feeds 
upon men after the manner of savage lions. But at 
the present time he abstains from such food that he 
may not appear gluttonous or disagreeable ; for he 
loves Galatea, who is sporting here on the sea, and 
he watches her from the mountain-side. And 
though his shepherd's pipe is still under his arm and 
silent, yet he has a pastoral song to sing that tells 
how white she is and skittish and sweeter than un- 
ripe grapes, 2 and how he is raising for Galatea fawns 
and bear-cubs.^ All this he sings beneath an ever- 
green oak, heeding not where his flocks are feeding 
nor their number nor even, any longer, where the 
earth is. He is painted a creature of the mountains, 
fearful to look at, tossing his hair, which stands 
erect and is as dense as the foliage of a pine tree, 
showing a set of jagged teeth in his voracious jaw, 
shaggy all over — breast and belly and limbs even to 
the nails. He thinks, because he is in love, that his 

"0 Galatea fair and white, white as the curds in whey, 
Dapper as lamb a-frisking, wanton as calf at play, 
And plump of shape as rudd^'ing grape, . . ." 
7]5L(t}v u^KpaKos seems to be a witticism suggesting Poly- 
phemus' idea of a compliment ; in Theocritus 1. 21 (piapocripa 
6iii<paKos Mf as, "plumper of shape than ruddying grape," is 
found the clue to the interpretation of Philostratus. 
3 Cf. Theocr. 11. 40, 

"And 0, there's gifts in store for thee, 
Eleven fa^vns, all white collars, and cosset bear's cubs 
four for thee." 



€7r€iB7] epa, ciypiov Be 6 pa koX viroKaOyj/jLevov en 

20 KaOdirep ra Orjpla ra avdyKT]^ r)TTa)/jL€va. 

(4) 'H Be 6V ciTTokfi rf) Oakdaar) irai^ei 
rerpcopoi' B€\(f)LVu>v ^vvdyovaa o/jLo^vyovi'Tcov 
fcal ravTov irveovTwv, irapOevoi 3' avTov<s ciyovcn 

25 TpLT(t)vo<;, al S/xcoal t/}? FaXareta?, iTrLaTo/il- 
^ovaai a^a<^, el n dyepw)(^ov re Ka\ irapa rrjv 
rjviav irpdrroier. r) 8' VTvep Ke(pa\r)<; dXcTTop- 
(f)vpov fiev XtjSlov e? rov ^ecpvpou aipet aKidv 
eavrf] elvai /cal lajiov to) cipfiari, d(f)' ou Ka\ 

30 auyi) n^ eVl to /jLercoTrov Kal ttjv Ke(f)a\T]v ijk€l 
ovTTO) i)hi(jdv^ Tov Ti]<; 7Tap€id<; dvOov^, al KOfiai 
8' avT?-}<^ ovK dvelvrai rw ^ecpvpw' Bui^poxoL 
yap By] elai Kal KpeiTTOV<; tov dvejiov. Kal fxyjv 
Kal dyKoov Be^io^ etcKeiraL \evKov BiaKXlvcov 

35 'TTr}-)(vv Kal dvairavwv rov<; BafCTvXov<; irpo^ 
371 K. diraXw rw wfiw Kal coXevac viroKv/jLaiPovaL Kal 
/j,a^o<i vTraviararai Kal ovBe ti]v einyovviBa 
eKXelirei rj copa. 6 rapao^ Be Kal rj avvairoXi]' 
yovaa avrco x«/0£? €(f)aXo<;, w Tral, yey pairrai 
Kal eTnyfravei t/}^ OaXdTTrj<; olov Kv^epvcov to 
5 dpfia. Oav/xa oi o^OaXjioi- PXe-novcn yap virep- 
opiov TL Kal avvaiTLov r(p /j.y]Kei rod ireXdyov^. 


(1) 'O fiev TTOTa/io?, w jrai, K7](piao<; BotcoTto? 
Te Kal ov Tcop d/jLOvacov, GKrjvovaL B iir avTcp 
^Xeyvai ^dp^apoi 7r6Xei<i ovttw ovre'^. ol Be 
^ 7i5t'a>j/ Haniaker : T^Sioj/ libri. 

^ Phorbas was a mythical king of the Phlegyans, who is 
said to have lived at Panopeus in Phocis, and who made 

BOOK II. 19 

glance is gentle, but it is wild and stealthy still, 
like that of wild beasts subdued under the force of 

The nymph sports on the peaceful sea. driving a 
team of four dolphins yoked together and working 
in harmony ; and maiden-daughters of Triton, 
Galatea's servants, guide them, curbing them in if 
they try to do anything mischievous or contrary to 
the rein. She holds over her head against the wind 
a light scarf of sea-purple to provide a shade for 
herself and a sail for her chariot, and from it a kind 
of radiance falls upon her forehead and her head, 
though no whit more charming than the bloom on 
her cheek ; her hair is not tossed by the breeze, for it 
is so moist that it is proof against the wind. And lo, 
her right elbow stands out and her white forearm is 
bent back, while she rests her fingers on her delicate 
shoulder, and her arms are gently rounded, and her 
breasts project, nor yet is beauty lacking in her thigh. 
Her foot, with the graceful part above the foot, is 
painted as on the sea, my bo}-, and it lightly touches 
the water as if it were the rudder guiding her 
chariot. Her eyes are wonderful, for they have a 
kind of distant look that travels as far as the sea 


This river, my boy, is the Boeotian Cephisus, 
a stream not unknown to the Muses ; and on its 
bank Phlegyans are encamped, barbarian people 
who do not yet live in cities. Of the two men 

the sacred way to Delphi unsafe for those who wished to 
visit the shrine of Apollo. 


10 TTVKTevovTe^ TOP re oI/jiaL 'AiroWcova 6pa<;, 6 
8' av ^op^a<; iariv, ov ianjaavro ol ^Xeyvat 
fiaaiXea, eVetS?) ytte^a? irapa iravTa^ ovto<^ koi 
oj/xoraro^ rod eOvov^. Trv/crevec Se \\7r6Wo)v 
7Tpo<; avTOV virep rcov irapoScov. T7]V jap evOv 

15 ^PcoKecov re koi i\e\(^6)v 68oi' Karaa^^cov ovre 
Ovei Ylv6ol ouSeU ere ovre 7raidva<; airdyeL to) 
Oe(p, y^piiafxoi re Kal Xoyta Kal ofx^al TpL7ToBo<; 
eKXeXeLTTTai iravra. (2) ArjcrreveL Be tmv dXXcov 
^Xeyuwv (i7T0Td^a<; eavrov ryv yap hpvv, o) 

20 iral, ravTijv oIkop ireTTOLyjTat, Kal irap avTov 
(ponojcriv ol ^XeyvaL BiKaao/iepoi SjJttov iv roU 
/3aaLX(:L0L(; tovtoi<;. toi)? Be ^aSiXovra^i e? to 
lepov Xafi/Scipcov yepovra^ jxev Kal walBa<^ eh 
TO KOivov Tcov ^XeyvMv Tre/jiTreL Xrj^eadai re Kal 

25 ciTTOLvav, Tot9 Be ipp(o/ieveo'Tepoi<; dvTaTroBveTai 
Kal Tou? fxev KaTairaXaiei, rou? oe virepTpe^ei, 
T0U9 Be irayKpaTup alpel koI virepiSoXal^ BLctkcov 
Ke^aXci^ re ciiroKOTTTcov dvuTTTei r?}? Bpvo<^ Kal 

VITO TOVTO) ^i] T(p XvOpCp, al 8' d7n]pT7]VTai TMl> 

30 TTTOpOcov fjLvBcoaai Kal Td<; pev avov<; opa^, ra? 
Be 7rpo(7(j)dTOV<;y al Be eh Kpavia TreptyJKOvat, 

K. aecnjpaac Be Kal oXoXv^eiu eoucaaiv ela7rveovTO<; 
avTd<^ Tov dvep^ov. 

(3) ^povovvTi Be avT(p Tah 'OXvp^mdai Tav- 
Tttf? rjKeL 6 AiroXXayv elKdcra<; eavTOV p^eipaKLw 
TTVKTTj. Kal TO pev TOV Oeov elBo<; dKeipeK6p,r}<;, 
5 6) Tral, yeypaiTTai Kal ra? ^atVa? dveiXijcpco^;, 
7va €v^(j0P(p Trj Kec^aXfi irvKTevrj, dKTlve^ Be 
diraviaTavTai irepi^ ^ tov /ueTuyTTov Kal p,eiBLap,a 

' Tf'pl Bcnudorf and Miinsterberg : inpl, Tcapa, or anh. 

BOOK II. 19 

boxing you doubtless see that one is Apollo, and the 
other is Phorbas, whom the Phlegyans have made 
king because he is tall beyond all of them and the 
most savage of the race. Apollo is boxing with him 
for the freedom of the road. For since Phorbas 
seized control of the road which leads straight to 
Phocis and Delphi, no one any longer sacrifices at 
Pytho or conducts paeans in honour of the god, and 
the tripod's oracles and prophetic sayings and re- 
sponses have wholly ceased. Phorbas separates him- 
self from the rest of the Phlegyans when he makes 
his raids ; for this oak-tree, my boy, he has taken as 
his home, and the Phlegyans visit him in these royal 
quarters in order, forsooth, to obtain justice. Catching 
those who journey toward the shrine, he sends the 
old men and children to the central camp of the 
Phlegyans for them to despoil and hold for ransom ; 
but as for the stronger, he strips for a contest with 
them and overcomes some in wrestling, outruns 
others, and defeats others in the pancratium and in 
throwing the discus ; then he cuts off their heads 
and suspends these on the oak, and beneath this 
defilement he spends his life. The heads hang 
dank from the branches, and some you see are 
withered and others fresh, while others have shrunk- 
en to bare skulls ; and they grin and seem to 
lament as the wind blows on them. 

To Phorbas, as he exults over these '"^Olympian" 
victories, has come Apollo in the likeness of a 
youthful boxer. As for the aspect of the god, he is 
represented as unshorn, my boy, and with his hair 
fastened up so that he may box with girt-up head ; 
ravs of lisrht rise from about his brow and his cheek 



Ovfio) (jvyKeKpajjievov /; irapeia TTefiirei, ^okai 
re 6(f)0a\/jLMV evaKOiroi koI crvve^aipovaai Tal<; 

10 ^epaLV ai Se evyjyjravTo tov<; Ifiavra^ i^Ziov^ 
// el^ aTe(pavot irepl avralf; rjaav. (4) YleirvK' 
Ttvrat Se avTov i]8r] — to yap ifjL^e/SXyjKO^ t?)? 
8e^fa? evepyov eVt SijXol ttjv X^^P^ '^^^^ ovTrco 
KaraXvovaav to a)(^r}pa, (o yprjKev — o ^Xeyva^ 

15 Be Kelrai tjBt], koI oiroaov fiev eirex^i t>)? 7^9 
7ron]TT]<; epel, Ke^^^pV^^ ^^ ^^'*> fcporacjiov aura) 
TO Tpavfia Kal to alfjia (oairep eK 7T7]yTj<; ckSl- 
SoTai. yeypaiTTat 8e co/i-o? Kal avcoBrj^; to elSo?, 
olo<; (jLTelaOai fidWov tol/? ^evov^ 1) KTeiveiv, 

20 TO he e'f ovpavov irvp aKfjirTO^; eirl Ttjv hpvv 
(pepeTai av/j^cpXe^cov to Bei'Spor, ou firjv i^ai- 
prjacov ye ttjv eir avTw /jLVijfiyjv to yap ^co^toi^, 
iv <M TavTa, ^pv6<;, co iral, K€(paXal eVt. 


(1) Kal "ATXai^Tt 6 'HpaKXrj'^ ovBe irpoaTci^' 

avT0<; FjvpvaB6a)<; i'jpLaeVy go? toi^ ovpavov olacov 

2o fidXXov y 6 "ATXa?" tov /xev yap cjvyKeKvc^oTa €copa 

^ fl added by Reiske and Hertlein ; el Jacobs : oi. 

^ For the " smile mingled with wrath "' Benndorf compares 
the expression of Apollo Belvedere ; ra^'s of light emanating 
from the forehead are seen on the head of Helios on later 
coins of Rhodes, e.g. Fig. 21, Brit. Mus. Cat., Caria, PI. XL. 


BOOK II. 20 

emits a smile mingled with wrath ; ^ keen is the 

glance of his eyes as it follows his uplifted hands. 

And the leather thongs are wrapped about his 

hands^ which are more beautiful than if garlands 

adorned them. Already tlie god 

has overcome him in boxing — 

for the thrust of the right hand 

shows the hand still in action and 

not yet discontinuing the posture 

wherewith he has laid him low — 

but the Phlegyan is already 

stretched on the ground^ and a 

poet will tell how much ground y , .,, 

he covers ; ^ the wound has been 

inHicted on his temple, and the blood gushes forth 

from it as from a fountain. He is depicted as 

savage, and of swinelike features — the kind that 

will feed upon strangers rather than simply kill them. 

Fire from heaven rushes down to smite the oak and 

set it afire, not, however, to obliterate all record of 

it ; for the place where these events occurred, my 

boy. is still called " Heads of Oak." ^ 

20. ATLAS 

With Atlas also did Heracles contend, and that 
too without a command from Eurystheus, claiming 
that he could sustain the heavens better than Atlas. 
For he saw that Atlas was bowed over and crushed 

2 Cf. //. 21, 406 f. "Thereupon she smote furious Ares 
on the neck, and loosed his limbs. Over seven roods he 
stretched in his fall." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 

3 Cf. Hdt. 9. 39. "The pass over'Cithaeron that leads 
to Plataea, which pass the Boeotians call the Three Heads, 
and the Athenians the Oaks' Heads." 



fcai 7r€7Ti6a/jiii^ov Kal Keifievov e^'yovv ddrepov ^ kol 
jjLiKpa KaraXeiTTo/j^era avTM rod eardvai, avTO<; 
8' tiv Kal /i6T€(i)pLaaL top ovpavov Kal arrjaai 
civade/ievo^ e/? /laKpov tov \p6vov. to fiev 8?) 
(f)i\oTL/iiov TvvTO ovBci/jiov eK^aivei, cf)7]al Se 
30 avvaXyelv t€ "ArXai^Ti ecf) oU fiox^^^ ^ctt fieTa- 
(T\elv av TOV dxOov<; avTw. 6 h' ovto) tl a(Jiiei>o<; 
373 K. eiXrjTTTaL tov 'HpavXeof?, co? UeTeveiv avTov 


(2) VeypaiTTat he 6 /xev dir€Lpi]K(jc><^, co? iBpcoTi 
avfi/SdWeaOai, 6it6(jo<; cut' avTov (TTa^et, 

5 l3pax^ov6<i T€ ^vvelvaL Tp€/i0PT0<;, 6 he epa tov 
dOXov. SrjXol Be tovto i) re op[xy] tov Trpoacorrov 
Kal TO poiraXov KaTa/3€,8X7]/u,6VOi' Kal a'l ^elpei; 
dnaiTOvaaL tov aOXov. aKid<; he Td<; fiev tov 
'HpaKXiovf; ovTTO) 0avfxd^eiv d^ior, el eppcoPTac^ 

10 — TO, yap Tcov Keifievcov a)(^}]/jLaTa Kal oi opOol 
fidXa evaKLOi, Kal to uKpi/Sovv TavTa outtco 
ao(f)6v — ai he tov "ArXaz'TO? aKial ao<^ia<^ 
Trpoaco- ouTcoal yap tov auvL^tjKOTO^ avjJiiTiTr- 
Tovai Te dXX7JXai<^ Kal ovhev tmv €KK€i/x€vwv 

15 eTTiOoXovaiv, dXXd ^co? epyd^ovTat irepl rd 

^ ddrepop Lobeck : (Tf pop. 

BOOK II. 2( 

by the weight and that he was crouching on one 

knee alone and barely had strength left to standi 

M'hile as for himself, he averred that he could raise 

the heavens up and after setting them aloft could hold 

them for a long time. Of course 

he does not reveal this ambition 

at all, but merely says that he 

is sorry for Atlas on account of 

his labour and would willingly 

share his burden with him. And 

Atlas has so gladly seized upon 

the offer of Heracles that he 

implores him to venture the 


Atlas is rej)resented as ex- 
hausted, to judge by all the 
sweat that trickles from him and 
to infer from his trembling arm, 
but Heracles earnestly desires 
the task. This is shown by 
on his face, the 
club thrown on the ground 
beg for the task. 

Fig. 22.— Atlas. 

the eager look 

^ — ..^ and the hands that 
.^ .^. ^..^ v.v^... There is no need to admire 
the shaded parts of Heracles' body because they 
are vigorously drawn — for the attitudes of re- 
cumbent figures or persons standing erect are 
easily shaded, and their accurate reproduction is 
not at all a mark of skill — but the shadows on Atlas 
show a high degree of skill ; for the shadows on a 
crouching figure like his run into one another, and 
do not darken any of the projecting parts but they 
produce light on the parts that are hollow and 

2 After eppoovTUL the MSS. have rov aQXov. 
Tov aQKov : Kavser and Jacobs delete. 

adXoi', and 



KoTkd re Koi 6Lae\ovTa' rijv yaarepa Kal 
rrpovevevKoTO'^ rov "ArXavro'^ 6pdi> re L/vrap^ei 
Kal a(Td/'ov(Ty]<; ^vvLevai. rd re iv rep ovpavw, 
ov (pepeL, yeypaTTTUL fiev iv aWepi, 67roLO<; irepl 

lO darepa^;^ ecrrijKev, ecm Be ^vvelvai ravpov re, 
09 Brj iv ovpavo) ravpov;, dpKTcov re, oTrolai ixel 
opcovrai. Kal Trvev/jidrcov rd fiev yeypairraL ^vv 
dWijXoL'^, rd Se i^ dXXijXcov, Kal toI<; fiev c^iXia 
TTpo^ dXXi]Xa, rd Be aw^eiv eoiKS to iv rco 

25 ovpavQ) V6CK0<;. 

(3) Nvv fjiev ovv dva6r)(jei<^ ravra, 'HpdKXeK;, 
fxer ov iToXv he ^vfjL^Kocrei^; avToU iv rep ovpavfo 
irivcov Kal irepi^aXXcov to t?j? "H/St;? elBo^i' d^rj 
jdp TTjv vewrdrriv Kal Trpea/SvrdTTjv rcjv Oecov, 

30 Be avrrjv ydp KOLKetvoL vioi. 


(1) Koi^f? ol'a iv irdXai^ iKeivaL<; iirl Tnjyjj 
iXaiov Kal Bvolv dOXi-jTalv 6 jxev ^vvBecov to ov<i, 

* atTTf'pay Brunn : avras. 

^ The understanding of shadows in this passage shows 
acute observation. No shadow is unvarying solid dark 
(black), though the shadows on a figure standing or lying 
down are relatively simple. In the case of a crouching 
figure the shadows are very complex because of light reflected 
from the ground and from the figure itself ; protruding parts 
catch more of this reflected light, but even the hollows get 
enough to make their form visible, 

Philostratus doubtless gives the reader the results of art 
criticism current in his day, as interpreted by his own 
observation. I'he difficulty with his statement is that he 
makes the shadows the agent that fails to darken protruding 
parts, and that produces ligiit on the hollows, whereas in 


BOOK II. 21 

retreating.! The belly of Atlas, for instance, one 
can see although he is bending forward, and one 
can perceive that he is panting. The bodies in the 
heavens which he carries are painted in the ether 
that surrounds the stars ; one can recognize a bull, 
that is the Bull in the heavens, and bears, the kind 
that are seen there. Of the winds some are 
represented as facing in the same direction and 
others as facing in the opposite direction, and while 
some are friendly with each other others seem to 
keep up their strife in the heavens. 

You will uphold these heavenly bodies for the 
present, Heracles ; but before long you will live 
with them in the sky, drinking, and embracing the 
beautiful Hebe \^ for you are to marry the youngest 
of the gods and the one most revered by them, 
since it is through her^ that they also are young. 


Fine sand, like that found in the famous 
wrestling places, hard by a fountain of oil,^ two 
athletes, one of whom is binding up his ears ^ and 

fact these results are due to the modification of the shadows 
bv reflected light. 

'2 Cf. Od. 11, 602 f. "For he himself (Heracles) among 
the immortal gods takes his joy in the feast, and has to wife 
Hebe of the fair ankles." Trans. Murra\% L C.L. Cf. also 
Horn. Hymn 15, 7 f. ^ i-e. as the goddess of 3'outh. 

* Olive oil was used by the Greeks before athletic contests, 
especially wrestling, to protect the perspiring skin from the 
sun ; it was also used before and after the bath. So much 
oil was needed that a tank for it was often provided. 

^ Wrestlers, especially boys, sometimes wore a cap, a^u^ojTt's, 
to protect the ears (cf. the red-tigured kylix, Arch. Zeit. 1878, 
PI. XI and Schreiber, Kidturhist. Atlas, PI. XXIV. 8). 
Greek boxers protected their ears in this way, but in the 
games it was not customary for wrestlers, 



o Be (iTToXvcop \eovTP}<; top m/xop koXwvol re 
314K. iinKjjSeioi^ Kal arrfKai kol KolXa ypdii/jbara — 
Kal Ai/3w] ravra Kal 'Az^Tat09, op P?} dprJKe 
aiveaOai tol/? ^epov; XrjarpLKf] ol^ai ttuXt). (2) 
'AOXovPTL Be avTO) ravra Kal ddirroprL ov<; 
5 aiTcoXXve rrepl avri'jp, co? o/3a?, rrjp naXaiarpap, 
dyei rop llpaKXea )) ypa(f)i] ^pvcrd ravrl rd fxifka 
rjpiiKora ijBj] Kal Kara rcop 'EaireplBwp aBofxepop 
— ovK eK€LPa<; eXetp Oavfxa rov 'HpaKXeov^, dXX' 
6 BpdKcop — Kal ovBe yopv <paal KdfjLyjra<; drroBverat 

10 TTpo? rop ''Kpralop ep rw rr)<^ oBonropla^ daO/jLari 
reipcop rov<i 6(f)daXfiov<^ et9 povp ripa Kal olop 
BuiaKe'^iv tT/? 7rdX)}<; €/j,ffe/3Xi]Ke re t)piap rw 
OvpLO) fii] eK(f)€p€iif aurop rod Xoyiafiov. vrrep- 
(ppopcop Be 6 'Apralo^ eTrfjprai, Bvarijpcjp Be re 

16 TralBef; i) ^ roiovrop rt 7r/3o? rop 'HpaKXea eoiKoo^ 
Xeyeip Kal pwppv<; avrop rfi v^pet. 

(3) Et 7rdX^]<; rep 'HpaKXel e/ieXep, ovk dXX(o<; 
€7r€(f)iiKei rj &)? yeypairrai, ykypairrai Be layvpo'^ 
olo^ Kal re^PT]^ epuirXew^ Bi evapixoariap rov 

20 crc(}/iaro<;, eirj B' dp Kal 7r€Xcopto<s Kal ro elBo<; ep 
vnep/SoXfj dpOpcoTTOv. eartp avrcp Kal dp6o<i 
a'lfiaro^i fcal al (f)Xel3e<; olop ep odBlpl Ov/jlov ripo^ 
vrroBeBvK6ro<; avrd<; en. (4) Top Be Wpralop, 
6) iraly BeBia^; olpai- Oi-jpicp ydp^ nvi eoiKep 

^ iTTiKTih^ioi Lindau : inlTrj^eioi. 

2 f; added by Olearius. 

^ h.v after yap in F and P, omitted by editors. 

^ i.e. to kill the serpent, a terrible monster. 
^ "To bend the knee in rest" is the Homeric phrase for 
resting after labour, e.(/. II. 7, 118. 


BOOK II. 21 

the other removing a lion's skin from his shoulder, 
funeral mounds and monuments and incised letters — 
this is Libya, and Antaeus whom Earth bore to do 
mischief to strangers by practising, I fancy, a 
piratical style of wrestling. To the giant who 
undertook these contests and buried those he slew 
in the wrestling ground itself, as you see, the 
painting brings Heracles; he has already secured 
the golden apples here shown and has won renown 
for his exploit among the Hesperid Nymphs — to 
overcome them was not such an amazing feat for 
Heracles, but rather the serpent.^ Without even 
bending the knee, as the saying is,- he strips to 
meet Antaeus, while yet breathing heavily from 
his journey ; his eyes are intent upon some purpose, 
as if in contemplation of the contest ; and he has 
put a curb upon his anger that it may not carry 
him beyond the bounds of prudence. But Antaeus, 
disdainful and puffed with pride, seems to say to 
Heracles, ^^ Ye children of wretched men," ^ or some 
such thing, confirming his own courage by his 

If Heracles had been devoted to wrestling, his 
natural characteristics would not have been different 
from those represented in the painting ; for he is 
represented as strong, and, in that his body is so 
symmetrically developed, as abundantly endowed 
with skill ; he might even be a giant and of a stature 
surpassing man's. He is red-blooded, and his veins 
seem to be in travail as though some passion had 
stolen into them. As for Antaeus, I think you 
must be afraid of him, my boy ; for he resembles 

^ The Homeric phrase used in addressing opponents 
contemptuously, cf. //. 21, 151, Sva-r-nycov Se re iraiSes ificf 
fievei avTiooicnv, 



25 oXiyov airohewv iao<; elvai rco fi)JK6i kol to €vpo<i, 
Kal 6 av)(^T]v iire^ev/crat roh o)/jLOi<;, mv to ttoXu 
iirl Tov av\kva }]Kei, 7r6piy]KTat Be Kal 6 ^pa-^LCov, 
oaa Kal co/ioi. GTepva Kal yaaT}]p tuvtI a(f)vp)j- 
XaTa Kal to /j,7] bpOov tt}? KPtj/jLy]^;, aWa aveXev- 

30 Oepov la-)(ypov p-ev tov ^ XvTalov olSe, ^vvheBe- 
p,evov p,i]v Kal ovk eiaco Te-)(yii<;. 6tl Kal yLteXa? 
'Ai^rato? K6X(j^pv^0T0<i avTcp tov t)\Iov e? ^a(f))]v. 
tuvtI p>ev dp,(f)OLP TO, e? ti]v irdXrjv. 

(5) 'Opa<i he avTov^ Kal TvaXaiovTa^, p.dXXov 

35 he Tre7raXaLK6Ta<i, Kal tov 'HpaKXea ev Tip 
375 K. KpaTelv. KaTairaXaiei he avTov dvco tT;? yt]<i, 
OTi T) Tt] TO) ^ XvTaicp avveirdXaie KvpTovp,evrj 
Kal p€TO)(XL^ouaa avTOv, oTe KeoiTO,^ diTopcov 
ovv 6 'HpaKXrji; 6 tl ')(p)'}aaLTO t[) Vfj (Tvv€'LXi](f)€ 
6 TOV ''KvTalov p,€(TOv dvco Keve(ovo<i, evOa at 
irXevpai, Kal KaTa tov p,r]pov opOov " dvaOe- 
p,€vo<;, eTL Kal tco %6tpe ^vp,/3aXd)v, tov irrfxyv 
Xayapd re Kal dadpaivovarj tj} yaaTpl vTroa')(cov 
eKOXi^eL TO irvevpa Kal d7Toa(f)dTT6i tov 'AvTatov 

10 o^elaLf; TaL<; irXevpal^ eTriaTpacpelaai^ ei? to rjirap. 
6pd<; he irov tov pev olpco^ovTa Kal /SXeirovTa t'? 
TTjv Ti]v ovhev avTcp iirapKovaav, tov h' 'UpaKXea 
la^vovTa. Kal peihidyvTa tco ^pyo). (6) Tt]v 
Kopv(py]v tov 6pov<; p,yj dpyM<; thyj'^, dXX' €K€L iir* 

15 avTP]<; Oeov<; InrovueL TrepicoTrijv e)(eiv tov dycovo<;' 
Kal ydp TOi \pvaovv yeypaiTTai ve(f>o<;, v(p' (L 

^ K€oiTo Kayser ; kivo7to. 

' of^dhv Reiske and Kayser : opdls or dpdws. 


BOOK II. 21 

some wild beast^ being almost as broad as he is 
tall, and his neck is attached to the shoulders in 
such wise that most of the latter belongs to the 
neck, and the arm is as big around as are the 
shoulders. Yonder breast and belly that are 
" wrought with the hammer " ^ and the fact that 
the lower leg is not straight but ungainly mark 
Antaeus as strong, indeed, but muscle-bound and 
lacking in skill. Furthermore, Antaeus is black, 
dyed by exposure to the sun. Such are the 
qualifications of the two for the wrestling-match. 

You see them engaged in wrestling, or rather 
at the conclusion of their bout, and Heracles at 
the moment of victory. But he lays his opponent 
low at a distance above the earth,^ for Earth was 
helping Antaeus in the struggle by arching herself 
up and heaving him up to his feet again whenever 
he was thrust down. So Heracles, at a loss how to 
deal with Earth, has caught Antaeus by the middle 
just above the waist, where the ribs are, and set 
him upright on his thigh, still gripping his arms 
about him ; then pressing his own fore-arm against 
the pit of Antaeus' stomach, now flabby and panting, 
he squeezes out his breath and slays him by forcing 
the points of his ribs into his liver. Doubtless you 
see Antaeus groaning and looking to Earth, who 
does not help him, while Heracles is strong and 
smiles at his achievement. Do not look carelessly at 
the top of the mountain, but assume that gods have 
there a place from which to view the contest ; for, 
observe, a golden cloud is painted, which serves, 

^ i.e. of wrought metal (not cast), "as strong as iron"; 
quoted from Theoer. 22. 47. 

* The contradiction in terms is of course intentional. 




olfiaL a/crji'uvai, Kai o '\\p/jL7J(; ovToal irapci top 
'VXpaKkia yK€L arecpavwacop avrou, on avro) 
Ka\a)<s vTTOKpivejai ti^v iraXi-jv. 


20 (1) 'Ei/ XijSvr) KaOevBopTi tco 'WpaKkel fxera 
TOP 'ApTalov eiTiTidePTaL oi llvy/jLaloi TL/jiwpeli' 
TO) 'ApraLQ) (f)daK0PT6<i' dSeX(f)ol <ydp eipai rou 
^Aptulov, yeppaloi tcp€<;, ovk ddXrjral p-ep ovh' 
lao7ra\6L<s, yijyepel^i Be koi aX,Xa)? Icrxvpoi, koX 

25 ciPLOPTCop eK T?}? 7% viroKvpLaivei i) ylrdp.p.o<s. 
OLKovcn <ydp ol Ylvyp^aloi ti^p yrjp oaa pLVppL'i}Ke<^ 
Kal dyopcip ipaTTOTiOeprai,^ iTTiaLTi^opraL 8e ovk 
dWorpia, iClOC OLKcla Kal avrovpyd' Kal yap 
aireipovai Kal Oepl^ovat Kal TTuyp^aio) ^evyei 

30 e(f)6(7Tdai, Xeyoprai Se Kal ireXeKei ')(^pr'}aaa6ai 
eirl TOP d(na')(yp i)yovpiepoi avrov<; BepSpa elvat,. 
dXXci Tov Opdaov^' irrl top 'HpaKXea ovroi, Kal 
UK) K. aTTOKTelpai KaOevSopra' Selaetap 8' ap ovS' 
iypvyopora. (2) 'O Be ip diraXfj rfj ^^dpip,cp 
KaOevBei Kapdrov avrop vTToBeBvKOTo^ ip irdXy 
Kal irapjl ro) areppw to da6p,a e<peXKeTai ^apBop 
5 epTTLnXdpepo^ tov vttpov, avTo^ t€ 6 "Tttto? 
i(l)eaT7]K€P avTO) ep el'Bei p,eya olpai 7roLOvp,epo^ to 
eavTOV iirl tco tov 'WpaKXeovi TrTojpaTi. KeiTac 
Kal 6 ^ApTaiO<;, dXX' i) Te)^p)] top p,€P 'WpaKXea 
ep^iTPOVP ypd(h€L Kal Oeppup, top Be 'ApTalop 

10 TedprjKoTa Kal avop Kal KaTaXenrei uvtov tjj 

^ So Keiske : aw niBn'ia . 

BOOK II. 22 

I fancy^ as a canopy for them ; and here comes 
Hermes to visit Heracles and crown him because 
he finds that Heracles plays his part so well in the 


While Heracles is asleep in Libya after 
conquering Antaeus, the Pygmies set upon him 
with the avowed intention of avenging Antaeus ; 
for they claim to be brothers of Antaeus, high- 
spirited fellows, not athletes, indeed, nor his equals 
at wrestling, but earth-born and quite strong 
besides, and when they come up out of the earth 
the sand billows in waves. For the Pygmies dwell 
in the earth just like ants and store their provisions 
underground, and the food they eat is not the 
property of others but their own and raised by 
themselves. For they sow and reap and ride on a 
cart drawn by pigmy horses, and it is said that they 
use an axe on stalks of grain, believing that these 
are trees. But ah, their boldness ! Here they are 
advancing against Heracles and undertaking to kill 
him in his sleep ; though they would not fear him 
even if he were awake. Meanwhile he sleeps on 
the soft sand, since weariness has crept over him 
in wrestling ; and, filled with sleep, his mouth open, 
he draws full breaths deep in his chest, and Sleep 
himself stands over him in visible form, making 
much, I think, of his own part in the fall of 
Heracles. Antaeus also lies there, but whereas art 
paints Heracles as alive and warm, it represents 
Antaeus as dead and withered and abandons him 
to Earth. 



(3) H (TTpana he ol Uvy/jLaLOt rov 'HpuKXea 

Trepiaxovre^ fiia fxev avrrj (pdXay^ ryjv apiarepav 

X^^P^ /BdWovcri, Svo Se ovroi Xox^^i arpareuovaiv 

15 eirl Till' Se^idv w? jidWov eppco/ievijv, Kal tco 

TToSe TToXiopKOvai To^orai kol a(f)6vhov)]Tcov 

6x^0<; €K7TXy]TT6fjL€l'Ol t'i]V KP7]/jL'>]1' Oatj' 01 Sc jf] 

K€(f)a\f] TTpoa/jLaxo/jievoL reraKraL fxev ivravOa 6 
/3aai\€v<; Kaprepcordrov avTol<; tovtov Bokovvto<;, 

20 iirdyovai Be kol olov aKpoiroXei /jL7]XCivd<;, irvp 
eirl rrjv Ko/xrjv, eirl to\j<=; ocpOaX/iov^; SUeWav, 
6vpa^ Ttpd^^ eirl to aro/Jia Kal TavTa<;'-^ tT;? 
piv6<i oi/jiai TTuXa?, ft)9 /jLT) dvaTTvevaai ^ 6 
'HpaK\r](;, iiretSdv i) /cecpaXr] dXw. (4) Tavrl 

25 hrj^ irepl tov KaOevSovra, ISov Be co? opdourai Kal 
CO? eVl to; Kii>Bvv(p yeXa tov<; re TroXe/i-tou? Trav- 
avBl (7vWe^dfxevo<i e? T't-jV Xeovrrjv evTiOeraL Kal 
ol/iaL Tfp KvpvaOei (pepei,. 


(1) Mtt;^6c7^e, oi yevvaloi, . . rov 'WpaKXea 

30 Kal irpo^are. aXX" ovv^ rov Xonrou ye vratSo? 

dTrocrxoiro hvolv ijSr] Keifievoiv Kal aroxct^o- 

/jL€vy]<;^ T/)? %e</)o?, w? KaXov 'WpaKXel. fieya^; 

/x€P v/jLmv aBXo<y Kal fxeicov ovBev cjv irpo r?}? 

^ dvpas Schenkl : dupai ; ruas Capps : riues. 

2 ravTas Capps : ras. 

•* aianueva-ai iSchenkl : avawuevaoi and avairyeixTr;. 

* Stj Schenkl : Se or fxtv. 

■' ovv Reiske and others : ov. 

^ (TTOxaCofXfvrjs Morelli : (TTa^ojxivqs or aToxo-^o^fvoiv. 


BOOK II. 23 

The army of the Pygmies envelops Heracles; 
while this one phalanx attacks his left hand, these 
other two companies march against his right hand 
as being stronger ; bowmen and a host of slingers 
lay siege to his feet^ amazed at the size of his shin ; 
as for those who advance against his head^ the 
Pygmy king has assumed the command at this 
point, which they think will offer the stoutest 
resistance, and they bring engines of war to bear 
against it as if it were a citadel — fire for his hair, 
mattocks for his eyes, doors of a sort for his mouth, 
and these, I fancy, are gates to fasten on his nose, 
so that Heracles may not breathe when his head 
has been captured. All these things are being 
done, to be sure, around the sleeping Heracles ; 
but lo ! he stands erect and laughs at the danger, 
and sweeping together the hostile forces he puts 
them in his lion's skin, and I suppose he is carrying 
them to Eurystheus. 


Fight, brave youths, [surround] 2 Heracles, and 
advance. But heaven grant that he spare the 
remaining boy, since two already lie dead and his 
hand is aiming the arrow with the true aim of a 
Heracles. Great is your task, no whit less great 
than the contests in which he himself engaged 

^ In early life Heracles by his prowess won the inde- 
pendence of Thebes from Orchomenos, and received as a 
reward Megara, the daughter of Creon, as his wife. The 
end of this happy period in his life is attributed to the 
jealousy of Hera, who made him violently insane. In his 
madness he slew his young children and his wife Megara. 

2 There is no clue to the word lost here. 



377 K. fxavia^ avTO^ ijOXrjaep. aWa helarjTe fiyjSiv' 
aireariv vfiojv "Apyo^ ^XeTrcov Kal rov<; Evpva- 
6eiha<; airoKrelvaL Sokcov, iyco Se i'jKOvaa avTov 
Trap' KvpiTTiBrj Kal ap/ia i^yovfievov Kal Kevrpa 

5 69 Tou? iiTTTOv^ (pepovTO^ Kal Ti]v FjVpuadew^; 
OLKiav cnreCKovvro^ eKirepaeLV diraTifKov yap tl 
7} fxavia Kal heivov ek tow Trapovrcov ayayelv et? 
ra /jur] Trapovra. 

(2) TouTo^? p^ev ovv dnoxpn ravra, aol 5e copa 

10 yiveaOai t?}? ypa(^7)<;. 6 p,ev Od\ap,o<;, icf)' ov 
a)pp,y]K€, "Sleydpav^ e;^efc Kal top iralha en, Kavd 
he Kal ')(^epvL^a Kal ovkal Kal ay^i^ai Kal Kparyjp, 
rd rou 'EpKeuov, XeXdKTiajai irdvTa Kal 6 p,ei> 
ravpos €(TTi]K€V, lepela he TrpoaeppiirTai rw /3a)/xft) 

15 fip€(j)r] evyevrj^ dpa^ Kal rfj Xeovrfj irarpof;- 
fie/3\7]Tai * 8' 6 pev Kara rov Xaip^ov Kal hi dira- 
Xr)? ye rrj? cj)dpvyyo<; eKhehpdprjKev 6 ^ oIgt6<;, 
6 he €19 avro hiareTaraL to crrepvov Kal oyKoi 
Tov /3eXof9 p-eacov hieKireTralKaai tmv airov- 

20 hvXcov, ft)9 hrjXa eh irXevpdv eppip^p^evov.^ at 
mapeial he avrcov hid^po^oi, Kal p.r} Oavpidarj^, 
el ehuKpvaav rd irepa rod haKpvaar'^ iraial yap 

^ Meydpav Olearius : jx^yaipav. 

2 €u7€»'f) Reiske : ayfvvr\. ^ d/xa added by Capps. 

* )3f^A.7jTai Valckenaer : Trpo(T$e^\r]Tai. 
^ 6 added by Benndoif : 6 l<TThs V. 

* ippijxfxivov Linda\i : ippiix^fvwv. 

' Tlie text is Rohde's : ei 4h6.Kpv(Tdv ri irepl tov ^aKpimai- 
naial yap xP^(^o^^ ^b SaKpvov, Kal fxiKphv 5' XffwS Kal fifya. 

I To face p- -33. 

BOOK II. 23 

before his madness. But fear not at all ; he is 
gone from you^ for his eyes are directed toward 
Argos^ and he thinks he is slaying the children of 
Eurystheus ; ^ indeed, I heard him in the play of 
Euripides ; he was driving a chariot and applying 
a goad to his steeds and threatening to destroy 
utterly the house of Eurystheus ; for madness is a 
deceptive thing and prone to draw one away from 
what is present to what is not present. 

Enough for these youths ; but as for vou, it 
is high time for you to occupy yourself with 
the painting. The chamber which was the object 
of his attack still holds Megara and the child ; 
sacrificial basket and lustral basin and barley-grains 
and firewood and mixing bowl^ the utensils of Zeus 
Herkeios,2 all have been kicked aside, and the bull 
is standing there ; but there have been thrown on 
the altar, as victims, infants of noble birth, together 
with their father's lion's skin. One has been hit in 
tiie neck and the arrow has gone through the delicate 
throat, the second lies stretched out full upon his 
breast and barbs of the arrow have torn through the 
middle of the spine, the missile having evidently been 
shot into his side.^ Their cheeks "* are drenched with 
tears, and you should not wonder that they Avept 
beyond the due measure of tears ; for tears flow 

^ Much of this description seems to be drawn from the 
Heracles Furens of Euripides. Cf. 935 f. 

"Suddenly with a maniac laugh he spake : 

* Why, ere I slay Eurystheus . . . '" Trans. Way, L.C.L. 

2 The god of social institutions, and especially the family 
and tlie home. 

^ i.e., the barb is seen projecting through the spine at an 
angle, showing that it entered at the side. 

* For the thought Gomperz compares Herodotus, 3. 14. 


evpovv TO hiiKpvov, Kav fiLKpov heiawcn kclv fieya. 
(8) OlarpovvTL he tm 'WpaKXec TTepi/cetTai 7ra? 6 

25 TMP 0LK6Ta)l> S7JflO<i olov /SoVKoXOL TaVpW vfipl- 

l,ovri, BijaaL ti<; iiri(3ov\evwv Kal /traracr^etr rt? 
a<ya)va 7roLOv/jL€vo<; Kal K€Kpay(o<; €Tepo<;, 6 h' 
yjprrjrac ^ tmv ^^LpMv, 6 Se viroaKeXi^eL, oi he 
ipdWovrar rw he ataOrjcji^ pulv avTMV ovhejiia, 

30 avappLirrel he rov^ 7rpocn6vTa<; Kal avfiirarel, 
TToXu pev Tov dcfypou hiaTrrvcov, p^eihtciyv he 
^Xoavpov Kal ^evov Kal roU 6(f)0a\poL<; drevl^fov 
€69 aura, a hpa, tijp he tov j3\ep,pLaT0^ evvoLav 
cLTrdycov et? a e^rjTrdTrjTai. (4) Bpv^aTat he i) 

35 (f)dpvy^ Kal 6 civ')(r]v ep^iriirXaTaL Kal dvothovaiv 
at irepl avTov (pXe^e^, ht ojv e? tcl Kaipia rrj<; 
378 K. Ke(f)a\rjf; dvappel ndaa "^^opi^yia t?}? voaov. tiiv 
'FjpLVVV he, i) TavTa ta)(y(Tev, eVt p>ev aKr)vi]<; 
elSe? 7ro\XdKi<;, evTavOa he ovk av Xhoi<^' et? avTov 
yap elcTfpKiaaTo tov 'HpaKXea Kal hid tov 
5 aTepvov ^(^opevei p,ea(p avTw el'aco aKipTcoaa Kal 
TOV \oyiap,ov OoXovcra. Ate'x/ot tovtcov 7) ypacpij, 
7rou]Tal he TTpodTrapoivovai Kal ^vvhovai tov 
'HpaKXea Kal TavTa tov Hpo/ii7)6ea (fydaKOVTe^ 
vtt' avTov XeXva6ai. 

^ ^pTTjrai Reiske and Jacobs : r/TTaraj or ^prai libri. 


BOOK II. 23 

easily with children, whether what they fear be 
small or great. The frenzied Heracles is surrounded 
by the whole body of his servants, like a bull that 
is running riot, surrounded by herdsmen ; one tries 
to bind him, another is struggling to restrain him, 
another shouts loudly, one clings to his hands, one 
tries to trip him up, and others leap upon him. 
He, however, has no consciousness of them, but he 
overthrows those who approach him and tramples 
on them, dribbling much foam from his mouth and 
smiling a grim and alien smile,^ and, Avhile keep- 
ing his eyes intently fixed on what he is doing, 
yet letting the thought behind his glance stray 
away to the fancies that deceive him. His throat 
bellows, his neck dilates, and the veins about the 
neck swell, the veins through which all that feeds 
the disease flows up to the sovereign parts of the 
head. 2 The Fury which has gained this mastery 
over him you have many times seen on the stage, 
but you cannot see her here ; for she has entered into 
Heracles himself and she dances through his breast^ 
and leaps up inside him and muddles his mind. 
To this point the painting goes, but poets go on 
to add humiliating details, and they even tell of 
the binding of Heracles, and that too though they 
say that Prometheus was freed from bonds by him. 

1 Eur. Her. Fur. 934 f. 

"While dripped the slaver down his bearded cheek, 
Suddenly with a maniac laugh. ..." 
Trans. Way, L.C.L. 

2 i.e. to the temples. 

^ Eur. Her. Fur. 86.3 : oV iyw ard^Lo. hpafxovfxai arepvou els 
'HpaK\4ovs (from the speech of the Fury). 




10 (1) Tpa)(v<; ouTo<; Kal vi] At" eV rpax^ia rfj 
yfj' 'Po3o? yap avj)] i) vr)ao<;, ?/? to Tpa)(^UTaTov 
Au'^ioi, J)] aTa(j)iBa<; fiev Kal avKa ayaOi] 
hovvai, apoaai he oxjk evSal/icov Kal a/jLa^evaac 
aTTopo<;. 6 Se arpvcpvo^ Kai ev co/ia) toj yrjpa 

15 y€(opy6<; voelada), ^)eiohd/j,avTa rov Aivhiov et 
irov (iKOvaa'^ e;^e/?. uWa rov Opaaovf;' opyi^erai 
TO) '\\paK\el %eiohdiJia'sy otl dpovvTi avrco 
eVfCTTrtS" d-noa(^('meL rov erepov t6)i> /Sowv Kal 
(TLTeLTai (T(f)6Spa iOa<; o)i> rod toiovtov airiov. 

20 (2) 'llpaKXel yap irov it a pa Ylivhdpro iveru^^e^, 

OTTOre €t? T7]P TOU \s.OpWVOV (JTeyilV d(f)lKO/JL€VO^ 

(jnelraL ^ovu oXov, a)v p^t'jhe to, oard Trepcrra 
y]yelaOaL, (-deioSd/jLavTi Se irepl (3ov\vtov eiri- 
cj)oiT)]aa<; Kal irvp Kopucrdixevo'^ — dyaOol Se 

26 i/jUTTvpevaaaOai Kal /SoXltol^ — diravO paKi^ei rov 

fSovv diroireipcofjievo^ Tcbu aapKcov, el /jLaXdrTOvrai, 

'i]Sr], Kal fjLovop ovxl eyKaXcov o)? /SpaSel rfo irvpi. 

(3) Ta T^9 ypa(f)fj<; ola pijhe to et6o9 irapewpa- 

Kevai T}]<; yf]'^' oirov ydp ri Kal puKpov eauT?}? 

30 dpoaai irapahehwKev i) yrj, eoiKeu, el avviij/xL, 

^ ^oKiTOL Beiuitlorf : ol \i6oi. 

^ In the more usual form of the story Theiotlamas is king 
of the Dryopes on the slopes of Parnassus ; in the service of 
Apollo, Heracles with Deianeira and the boy Hyllus enters 
the land of the Dryopians, asks Theiodamas for food, and, 
when refused, consumes entirely one of the yoke of oxen 
which the king is driving. Philostratus follows the Rhodian 
form of the myth ; here Theiodamas is a peasant ploughing, 
one of whose oxen Heracles consumes amid the curses of the 
peasant. This story is used to explain the worship of 


BOOK II. 24 


This man is rough and, by Zeus ! in a rough 
land ; for this island is Rhodes, the roughest part 
of which the Lindians inhabit, a land good for 
yielding grapes and figs but not favourable for 
ploughing and impossible to drive over. We are to 
conceive of the man as crabbed, a farm labourer of 
"premature old age " ; ^ he is Theiodamas the 
Lindian, if perchance you have heard of him. But 
what boldness I Theiodamas is angry with Heracles 
because the latter, meeting him as he ploughed, 
slew one of the oxen and made a meal of it, being 
quite accustomed to such a meal. For no doubt you 
have read about Heracles in Pindar,^ of the time 
when he came to the home of Coronus and ate a 
whole ox, not counting even the bones superfluous ; 
and dropping in to visit Theiodamas toward evening 
he fetched fire — and even dung^ is good fuel for 
a fire — and roasting the ox he tries the flesh to see 
if it is already tender, and all but finds fault with 
the fire for being so slow. 

The painting is so exact that it does not fail to 
show the very nature of the ground ; for where the 
ground presents even a little of its surface to the 
plough, it seems anything but poor, if I understand 

Heracles, with sacrifice of an ox and curses, at the hot springs 
(Thermydrae) near the harbour of Lindus. Cf. Anth. Pal. 
16. 101. 

^ Cf. Od. 15. 357 : eV ujfjicf yifpai. 

' The passage in Pindar is now lost ; Coronus was king of 
tlie Lapiths, enemies of the Dorians, who were said to live 
near the pass of Tempe. 

** The use of dried dung in the East for fuel is very old ; 
cf. Livy 38. 18. 4. 



ovSe airopcp. 6 he ']ApaKki)<; to fiev eppcofievov 

ttJ? Biavoia^; eVt top /3ovu €^€L, to Be paOv/xou 

avTP]<; Tai<; tov SeioBd/xavTO<; cipaU BeB(OK€P, 

379 K. o(TOv Tr)v irapeiav avelaOai, o yecopyo^ Be XlOoi<; 

eirl TOV 'HpaKXea. kuI 6 Tpoiro^; t/)? aToXP]<; 

Acopio<i, av\ix6<; re t?) Kopuri kcli nrepX to* fxeTcoircp 

iriva Koi eTTLyovvl'i koI ^pax^fj^^t o'lov^ ?; 

5 (f)L\TdT7] yfj TOL/? eavTr]<; a^X,7;Ta9 aTTOTeXei. (4) 

TouTO TOV 'H/^a/cXeof? to epyov /cal 6 (r)eLoBd/jLa<; 

OL/TO? oe/iv6<i irapa AlvBloi<;, 66ev /3ov^ /lev dpoTT]^ 

'HpuKXec OveTUL, KaTap^ovTat Be eirapco/ievoi, 

0(7 a ol/iai 6 yecopyo^ Tore, x^lpei Be 6 'Hpa/cX?}? 

10 Kal AivBLOL<i BiBa)(TL KaTap(*>ixevoL<i to, dyadd. 


(1) M^ ra? tTTTTOu?, w iral, ra? tov Aio/j,t]Bov<; 
aOXov^ i)y(t)ixeda tov 'HpaKXeov;, a? ye /cal 
JlprjKev i]Br) koI crvvTeTpicpe toj poTvdXw — koX i) 
fjiev KeLTUL avTcop, i) Be dairaLpei, tj]v Be dvair'qBav 
15 epel<i, 7] Be TriTTTei, ffdp/3apoL TaU x^^'^^'-^ ^"^ 
6? OTrXijv Xdauoi Kal aXXw? drjpia' (^uTvaL Be cix? 
dvdirXew fieXcav dvOpodireioiV Kal ogtwv elan', oU 
1 Benndorf conjectures iLHKf)hy after adKov. 

^ Perhaps a reference to Sparta. 

2 The story of Abclerus was told to explain the foiuuling 
of the city of Abdera on the south coast of Thrace and the 
institution of the Abderite games. The death of Abderus is 
attributed to the mares of Diomedes, and it is Heracles' 
desire to pay special honour to his young friend which led 
him to found a city and to establish games which were 
called by his name. 


BOOK II. 25 

the picture. Heracles is keeping his thoughts 
intently on the ox, and pays but scant attention to 
the curses of Theiodamas, only enough to relax his 
face into a smile, while the countryman makes 
after him with stones. The mode of the man's 
garments is Dorian ; his hair is squalid and there 
is grime on his forehead ; while his thigh and his 
arm are such as the most beloved land ^ grants to 
its athletes. Such is the deed of Heracles ; and 
this Theiodamas is revered among the Lindians ; 
wherefore they sacrifice a plough-ox to Heracles, 
and they begin the rites with all the curses which 
I suppose the countryman then uttered, and Heracles 
rejoices and gives good things to the Lindians in 
return for their imprecations. 


Let us not consider the mares of Diomedes to 
have been a task^ for Heracles, my boy, since he 
has already overcome them and crushed them with 
his club — one of them lies on the ground, another 
is gasping for breath, a third, you will say, is leaping 
up, another is falling down ; their manes are 
unkempt, they are shaggy down to their hoofs, 
and in every way they resemble wild beasts ; their 
stalls are tainted with flesh and bones of the 

2 The slaving of Diomedes and the capture of his man- 
eating mares was one of the twelve labours of Heracles ; but 
we are here asked to regard the second episode of it as 
harder than the first, since the killing of the mares has 
proved too easy to have been a "labour." Benndorf's con- 
jecture (see crit. note), "a slight task," seems unnecessary. 


et9 ri]V i7r7rorpo(f)Lav ravTijv 6 Aio/iy]Sr]<; exp^j- 

aaro, avro'^ re 6 i7r7rorp6(f>o<; Kal ^ aypLctirepo^ 

Ihelv y al 'ittttoi, 7r/30? ah iremodKev — aWa 

20 TOVTOVL Tov ciOXov ')(^a\€7r(jL>T€pov ')(pT] Sofcecv 

"EyOCOTO? T€ TT/JO? TToWot? 67rLTaTT0VT0^ aVTOV^ 

T(p 'WpaKkel /jl6)^0ov t€ eV avro)^ ov puKpov 
6vT0<i. TOV jap 3?) "A/BSrjpov 6 'HpaK\i]<; 7)111- 
^pcoTOv (f)epeL aTToairdaa^i tcov lttttcov, iSaiaavro 

25 he avTov airaXov en Kal irpo 'Icpirov veov, tovtI 
Be €(7Ti Kal T0i9 \€L\lrdpoi<; avfi/SaXecrOar Ka\d 
yap Si] ere iv rt} Xeovrfj Kelrai. (2) Ta /nev 
Srj hiiKpva rd eir avroh Kal el Si] ri irepL- 
eirrv^aro avrcov Kal 6\o(pvp6fX€vo^ elire Kal to 

30 I3apv TOV TrpoacoTTov to eirl irevOeL BeSoaOo) Kal 
dWo) ipaaTrj' ciW(p^ e)(eTco tl Kal 7) aTt]\7] 
380 K. Ye'/oa? ec^eaTr^Kvla KaXov^ a/jpaTi' 6 8' ou;^ oirep 
OL iroXXol ttoXlv t6 tm W/SS/jprp dviaTJjaiv, yv 
dir^ avTou KaXov/J.€V, Kal ciycDv tco A^h)]p(p 
KeiaeTai, dycovielTaL 3' eV avTW 7rvy/jLr]v Kal 
5 •nayKpciTiov Kal ttuXi^v Kal tci evayajvia iravTa 


^ Kx\ Jacobs : ws. 

- avrhv Reiske and Heine: avrif. 

^ a-jT(f Jacobs, avrhv. 


BOOK II. 25 

men whom Diomedes used as food for his horses, 
and the breeder of the mares himself is even more 
savage of aspect than the mares near whom he has 
fallen — but you must regard this present labour as 
the more difficult, since Eros^^ enjoins it upon 
Heracles in addition to many others, and since the 
hardship laid upon him was no slight matter. For 
Heracles is bearing the half-eaten body of Abderus, 
which he has snatched from the mares ; and they 
devoured him while yet a tender youth and younger 
than Iphitus, to judge from the portions that are 
left; for, still beautiful, they are lying on the lion's 
skin. The tears he shed over them, the embraces 
he may have given them, the laments he uttered, 
the burden of grief on his countenance — let such 
marks of sorrow be assigned to another lover ; for 
another likewise let the monument placed upon the 
fair beloved's ^ tomb carry some tribute of honour ; ^ 
but, not content with the honours paid by most 
lovers, Heracles erects for Abderus a city, which we 
call by his name,* and games also will be instituted 
for liim, and in his honour contests will be cele- 
brated, boxing and the pancratium and wrestling 
and all the other contests except horse-racing. 

^ While other labours were assigned to Heracles by 
Eurystheus, the present *' labour" is difficult only because 
of Heracles' great love for Abderus. 

2 KaXos is here used for the 3'outh who is beloved, as, for 
instance, on Attic pottery vases. 

^ i.e. the inscription reciting the exploits of the departed. 

* i.e. Abdera, a city on the south coast of Thrace. 

^ aWcf) Benndorf : &Wo. 
5 KaXov Lindau : kuK^. 




(1) O jjiev iv Tft) OLKiaKM \ayo)b<i Slktvov Oij- 
pafxa, KcidqraL Se eVt rcou aKeXoiv vttoklvmv 
TOu<? TTpoaOiov^; kciI vireyeLpayp to oS?, dWa kol 

10 /SXeiTei iravrl tqj ^\e/j./j,aTL, (SovXerai he KaX 
KaroTTiv opav St viroy^iav koI to del TTTijaaeiv, 
6 8' €KKpe/id/j,€vo<i T/)? auou 8pv6<; dveppcoyax; tg 
Tijv yaaTepa fcai hid toIv Troholv eKhehvKU)^ 
oiKVTrjTa KaTi]yopel tov kvvu^, o? viro t/}? hpuo<; 

15 KdO^iTai hiavairaiKoi' eauTov koX hifkoiv jjlovo's 
ypi]K€vaL. Ta^i irXijcrLOv tov Xayco v7]TTa<;, dpiO- 
fxei he avTa^^, heva, koX tol*? oaaLirep al vrjTTaL 
X^F^'^ ou hel ^Xi/id^eiv diroTeTiXTai yap avTcop 
TO Trepl Ta aTepva ttciv IkeI toI<; TrXwrot? opvicrc 

20 irXeoveKTOvar}^ tT;? TTifieX?]^. (2) Et he l^V[iiTa<i 
dpTOV^ dya7ra<; i) 6KTa(3Xd>p.ov^, e/celt'oi irXriaiov 
ev jBaOel tw Kavd). kol el [xev oy^ov tl ^/377^6t?, 
avTov^ e^eK; — tov T€ yap /juapdOov f.ieTe)(ovai 
Kal TOV aeXivov Kal €ti t?}? /jL^Krovo<;y iJTrep iaTlv 

26 rjhvajxa tov vttvov — el he hevTepa<; ^ TpaTre^rjf; 
€pa<i, TOVTi e? by^07roLov<^ dvajBdXXov, av he 
aiTov Ta dirvpa. (3) Tt ovv ov Ta^i hpv7r€7r6l<; 

^ S(uTepa<: cxddeil by Jacobs. 

^ "For when the Greeks became more luxurious... they 
began to provide dining-rooms, chambers, and stores of 
provisions for their guests from abroad, and on the first day 
they would invite them to dinner, sending tiiem on the next 
chickens, eggs, vegetables, fruits, and other countr}' produce. 
Tliis is why artists called pictures representing tilings sent 
to guests 'xenia'." Vitruvius, VI. 7, 4, Trans. Morgan. 
The account begins with a description of the painting, then 


BOOK II. 26 

26. XENIAi 

This hare in his cage is the prey of the net, and 
he sits on his haunches moving his forelegs a little 
and slowly lifting his ears, but he also keeps looking 
with all his eyes and tries to see behind him as well, 
so suspicious is he and always cowering with fear ; 
the second hare that hangs on the withered oak 
tree,- his belly laid wide open and his skin stripped 
off over the hind feet, bears witness to the swiftness 
of the dog which sits beneath the tree, resting and 
showing that he alone has caught the prey. As for 
the ducks near the hare (count them, ten), and the 
geese of the same number as the ducks, it is not 
necessary to test them by pinching them, for their 
breasts, where the fat gathers in abundance on 
water-birds, have been plucked all over. If you 
care for raised bread or ^^eight-piece loaves," ^ they 
are here near by in the deep basket. And if you 
want any relish, you have the loaves themselves — 
for they have been seasoned with fennel and parsley 
and also with poppy-seed, the spice that brings sleep 
— but if you desire a second course, put that off till 
you have cooks, and partake of the food that needs 
no fire. Why, then, do you not take the ripe fruit, 

it passes over into an address to the owner of the farm in which 
the painting itself is the speaker, and only in the last sentence 
does the writer speak in his own name. Cf. supra, p. 123. 

2 In early Greek art it was customary to represent trees 
without leaves. 

^ Quoted from Hesiod, Op. et Dies, 442, "a loaf of four 
quarters and eight slices for his dinner." In Hesiod the 
loaf is marked with two intersecting lines which divide it 
into four quarters ; the scholiast explains the word here 
quoted as "giving eight mouthfuls," but Philostratus uses 
it as in contrast to leavened bread. 



ap7rd^€i<;, mv icf)' krepov Kavov acop6<^ ovro^ ; ovk 
olaO' OTL fiiKpop varepov ov/ceO' 6/xoiai<i ivrev^r] 

30 ravraif;, dWa ^Vfival<i ifirj ri]<; hpoaov ; kuI 
fjLJ]S6 Tpayrj/jLciTcov v7repLSr)<i, et tl aoL ixeairiXov 
fieXei Koi i\io<i ^aXdvwv^ a? rpecpei XeioraTOv 
(f)VTOP iv 6^€t TO) eXvrpcp kuI citottw Xen€LV.^ 
381 K. ipperco kol to fxeXL^ 7Tapovat]<; 7raXd6r}<; Tavryjai, 
Ka\ovfjL€vr]<; koi 6 tl ^ av €LWOL<i' oi/to)? jjSv 
TTe'/UyLta. 7r€piafi7TLa)(^€i Be avrifv (f)vXXa olKela 
irapi'^opra rrj iraXdOr] tjjp copav. 
5 (4) Olfiai Tr)v ypacpijv dirocpepeLV rd ^aua 
ravTL TO) Tov dypov heairoTY), 6 Se Xoverai rd-^a 
Ylpa/j,v€iov<; /) HaaLov<; /BXeTrcov ivov tt)? y\vKeia<; 
rpvyo'^ €7rl ttj Tpaire^r] TTielif, a>9 ei? darv kutlcov 
6l,ol areficpvXou kol d7Tpay/.ioavv7]<; kul Kara tmv 

10 daTVTpil3(i)V epevyono. 


(1) 0/ fiep i/cirXijTTOfjLevoi Oeol kol Oeai, irpo- 
€ipi]fjL€vop avTOL<; fjLi]Se Ni^/u^a? aTrelpai tov ov- 
pai'ov, irapelvai Se avTol^ 7T0Ta/j,0L<i, o)v yivovTai, 

^ Aeirav Sclienkland and Beuiulorf : ilire^p or I5uv libri. 

^ After uLfXi the MSS. give rf)? twv /crxdSwi^ avvQi^KT]s, 
which Jacobs deletes as a gloss on ■naKa.dr]s, Hesychius giving 
as a definition of vaXadiq: t] rwv crvKcoy d'ais. 

^ '6 Tl Jacobs: elfre. 

^ A popular term for sweet chestnuts. 
2 The hypothetical speaker uses the term palatht for the 
confection as though he were not quite sure of itij being the 


BOOK II. 27 

of which there is a pile here in the other basket ? 
Do you not know that in a little while you will no 
longer find it so fresh, but already the dew will be 
gone from it ? And do not overlook the dessert, if 
you care at all for medlar fruit and Zeus' acorns,^ 
which the smoothest of trees bears in a prickly husk 
that is horrid to peel off. Away with even the 
honey, since we have here this palathe,^ or whatever 
you like to call it, so sweet a dainty it is I And it 
is wrapped in its own leaves, which lend beauty ^ to 
the palathe. 

I think the painting offers these gifts of hospitality 
to the master of the farm, and he is taking a bath, 
having perhaps the look in his eyes of Pramnian or 
Thasian wines, although he might, if he would, drink 
the sweet new wine at the table here, and then on 
his return to the city might smell of pressed grapes 
and of leisure "* and might belch in the faces of the 


These wonder-struck beings are gods and god- 
desses, for the decree has gone forth that not even 
the Nymphs may leave the heavens, but that they, 
as well as the rivers from which they are sprung,^ 

right word. Its meaning is given by Hesychius as " a layer 
of figs set close together." 

^ i.e., attractiveness and freshness. 

* For similar expressions cf. Aristoph. Nuh. 50,1008. 

^ II. 20. 7 f. To the council summoned by Zeus "there 
was no river that came not, save only Oceanus,nor an}- nj-mph 
of all that haunt the fair copses, the springs that feed the 
rivers, and the grassy meadows." Trans. Murray, L.C. L. 



(ppiTTOvcJi 8e TTjv ^AOrjvav apn ti)<^ tov Aio? 

16 K€(f)a\i]<; iv oTrXoi? eKpayeicrav 'Hcfyala-rou /jltj- 
y^aval'^, w? <^i]aL 6 ^ ireXeKV^;. (2) Ti^v he v\i]V 
tt}? iravoirXia^ ovk av avfi^aXoi rt?" oaa yap 
T?}? l'piSo<; y^pcojiara irapaWarrovai^'^ eU aWore 
aWo (^w?, Toaavra kol tmv ottXcov. kul 6 

20 "H(f)aiaro<; airopelv eoiKev, or ay irore ttjv Oeov 
Trpoaaydyyjrar irpoavciXwrai yap avrw to 
SeXeap virb rod ra oirXa avv€K(pvval ol. 6 Se 
Zev<; dad/jLaivei avv 7)Sovfj, KaOdirep ol /jieyav 
iirl /jLeyuXo) Kapirw StaTrov/jaavre^ dOXov, kol 

26 Ti]V iralha i^iaTopel (f^povcov rep tokco, Kal ovSe 
Tfj<; "Hpa^ ri Seivov ivravOa, yeyr^Oe he, co? av 
el Kal avrf]^ eyevero. 

(3) Kat OvovdLV i^hif rfi ^A07]va hrjixot hvo eirl 
hvolv ciKpoiroXewv, 'AOrjvaloc /cat PoSiOi, yfj Kal 

30 OaXaTTY], . . . ^ kol dvOpcoiroL yrjyevel^, ol fxev 
dirvpa lepa Kal dreX)}, 6 he ^ KOi^vqai hrjiio<; 
TTvp eKel Kal Kvlaav ^ lepoiv. 6 Ka7Tuo<; he olov 
eu(oS7j<; yeypairrai Kal fierd r?}? Kviari^^ dvap- 
pewv. '66 ev CO? irapa aocfiwrepov^ d<^LKeTo t) 
382K. ^60? Kal Ovaavra'^ ev' 'Po8toi? he Xeyerat 

^ <p7](Ti 6 added after Jacobs (who puts (p-rjai after TreAf/cus.) 
2 An adjective describing the Rhoilians seems to have 

fallen out ; Jacobs and 8chenkl suggest 6a\\a7 Toy fuels. But 

the lacuna may be more extensive. 

^ Ki'laau Capps, Kulaa Reiske and He^'ne : Kvlffaai. 

^ The account given has many reminiscences of Pindar, 01. 
7. E.g. 38: "Heaven and Mother Earth trembled before 
her "' ; 35 : " What time by the cunning craft of Hephaestus, 
at the stroke of the brazen hatchet, Athena leapt forth from 
the crest of her father's head"; 48: "Thus it was with 


BOOK II. 27 

must be at hand ; and they shudder ^ at the sight of 
Athena^ who at this moment has just burst forth 
fully armed from the head of Zeus, through the 
devices of Hephaestus, as the axe tells us. As for 
the material of her panoply, no one could guess it ; 
for as many as are the colours of the rainbow, which 
changes its light now to one hue and now to another, 
so many are the colours of her armour. Hephaestus 
seems at a loss to know by what gift he may gain 
the favour of the goddess; for his lure^ is spent in 
advance because her armour was born with her. 
Zeus breathes deeply with delight, like men w^ho 
have undergone a great contest for a great prize, 
and he looks searchingly at his daughter, feeling 
pride in his offspring ; nor yet is there even on Hera's 
face any trace of indignation ; nay, she rejoices, as 
though Athena were her daughter also. 

Two peoples are already sacrificing to Athena on 
the acropolis of two cities, the Athenians and the 
Rhodians, one on the land and one on the sea, [sea- 
born] and earth-born men ; the former offer fireless 
sacrifices that are incomplete, but the people of 
Athens offer fire, as you see yonder, and the savour 
of burnt flesli. The smoke is represented as fragrant 
and as rising with the savour of the offerings. 
Accordingly the goddess has come to the Athenians 
as to men of superior wisdom who make excellent 
sacrifices. For the Rhodians, however, as we are 
told, gold flowed down from heaven and filled their 

fireless sacrifices that, on the citadel, the}' laid out the sacred 
precinct " ; 49 f . : " He (Zeus) caused a yellow cloud to draw 
nigh to them and rained on them abundant gold."' Trans. 
Sandys, L.C.L. 

2 As when, for instance, he made a gift of golden armour 
to Thetis for Achilles. 



Xpvao^ ef ovpavov pevaai Kal Sia7T\y]aai a^MV 
ra(; OLKia<i Kal tov<; arevwirov^' v€(p6Xrjv et? 
avTov^ pi]^avTO^ rod Aio?, otl KUKecvot tT;? 
6 *A^7;m? ^vvPjKav. (4) 'E(^ecrT?;«:e rrj d/cpoTToXet 
Kal 6 haijJLwv 6 IlXouTO?, 'yeypaiTTai, he Trr^/ro? 
pev ft)? e/c v€(f>MV, ■)(^pvaov<; Se airo t?}? i^X»/9, eV 
r/ €(f)dvTj. yeypawTat Kal /BXeircov Ik 7rpoi'Oia<; 
yap auTOt? a<^tVeTo. 

«>/ ISTOI 

10 (I) 'EttcI toi^ T7J9 ll7]V€\67ry]<^ larov a^ez? eVre- 
TVXV'^(*^'^ dyaOfi ypa(f)fj Kal Sokel aoi iravra 
larov €)(€LV, <TT7]fioaL re iKUPOt)^ evTerarac Kal 
avuea Kelrai vtto tmv p^ltcov Kal /jlovov ovy 
VTT 0(^6 eyy eraL // K€pKl<; avri] re 7; Yir^veXoirii 

15 KXaiei 8a.'cpvoi<;, ot? rrjv y^iova T7]K€l 'O/jLrjpo^;, 
Kal dvaXvei a Blv(J)i]V€v. opa k6u ti^v dpd)(^v7]v 
vcpaivovaav €k yeiTovwv, el /ni] Trapvcpacvei Kal 
Tr]v Tly]V€X67ry]v Kal tou? '%r}pa<; en, wv rd 
virepXe-ma Kal p.6Xi<i opard. (2) OlKia<; fiev 

* i.e. wealth. 

2 Plutus is usually conceived of as blind. 

^ Although Kayser suggests that the description of a 
painting representing Penelope's loom once preceded this 
Description 28 and has been lost, Schenkl regards this 
introductory paragrapli as merely a rhetorical device of the 
sophist. The writer assumes that " the boy " has spoken of 
a painting near by of Penelope's loom, and uses this device 
to enrich his description of the present painting. 

lienndorf calls attention to representations of Penelope's 
loom in M071. Inst. IX. 42, and Froehner, Collection 
Brantcghem, PI. 45 ; also to a painting of spiders' webs, 
Helbig, Campan. Wandmal. PI. 99. 


BOOK II. 28 

houses and their narrow streets, when Zeus caused 
a cloud to break over them, because they also gave 
heed to Athena. The divinity Plutus ^ also stands 
on their acropolis, and he is represented as a winged 
being who has descended from the clouds, and as 
golden because of the substance in which he has 
i)een made manifest. Moreover, he is painted as 
having his sight ; ^ for of set purpose he has come to 

28. LOOMS 3 

Since you sing the praises of Penelope's loom, 
having found an excellent painting of it, and you 
think the loom complete in all its parts — and it is 
stretched tight with the warp, and lint gathers 
under the threads, and the shuttle all but sings, 
while Penelope herself sheds tears so hot that 
Homer* melts the snow with them, and she unravels 
what she has woven, look also at the spider weaving 
in a picture near by, and see if it does not excel in 
weaving both Penelope and the Seres ^ too, though 
the web these people make is exceedingly fine and 
scarcely visible.^ Now this doorway belongs to a 

* Od. 19. 204 f. What Homer really sa3-s is, "Her tears 
flowed and her face melted as the snow melts on the lofty 
mountains . . . and as it melts the streams of the rivers 
flow full : so her fair cheeks melted as she wept."' Trans. 

'" The people of the country of silk (sericus), somewhere in 
eastern Asia. 

^ Cf. the description of the spider's web in Od. 8. 284 : 
" When the snare was fashioned for Ares, many of the bonds 
were hung from above, from the roof beams, fine as spiders' 
webs, so that no one even of the blessed gods could see 
them." Trans. Murray. 



20 ovK €v TT parr ova 7]<; irpoirvXaia ravra' (pijaei'i 
avTrjv ')(r}p€V€iv SeairoTMV, avXrj Bk €p7]fjLo<; ercrw 
Trapacpaiverai, kol ovhe ol kLove^ avTrjv en 
epeiSovaiv vtto tov avvi^dveiv koI Karappelv, 
aXX' eanv oIktjtck; apd)(vaL(; iJL.9vaL<;' (f>i\el yap 

25 TO ^(pov ev i)(TV)(^ia hiairXeKeLv. 6 pa xal ra 
juLyjpvp^ara' touto civaTrrvovaaL to vrjfxa /cad- 
idaiv 6t9 rovSa(po<; — hetKvveL he avTd<; 6 ^coypd(f)o<; 
KaTtovaa<; hi' avrou kuI dvappc'x^coiJLeva'; depai- 
7roT7]rov<; Kara tov ^Waiohov Kal fjueXerdyaa^; 

30 TrertaOat — Kal olKLa<; Se 7rpoav(f)aLvovai Tat? 
y(0VLai(i Ta? /xev evpela^, rd^ Se KoiXa's' tovtcov 
at fiev evpelau ^prjaral Oepi^eiv, a? ^ he KoiXa^ 

33 v^aivovcTiv, dyaOov rovro ;^e//iwi'09. (3) KaXd 

383 K. /xev ovv Ka\ ravra tov ^wypd^ov' to yap ovtco 

yXia)(^pw^ apd^i'V^ '^^ ayTijv hiairovrjaaL Kal 

aTL^ac Kara ti-jv (f)vacv Kal to epiov avT7]<; 

inropoxO^-jpov ypdyjrai Kal to ^ dypiov dyadov 

6 h-fp^Lovpyov Kal Secvov rrjv dXtjOeiav. 6 8' rjp^lv 

Kal ra XeirTa Swcpijvev. ISov' TeTpdy(ovo<; p.ev 

avTrj py]pLv6o<; Trepi^e/SXyjTai. Tal<; ya}mai<^ olov 

Tretapa tov laTOu, rrepiijirTai Se ttj p,r)pivOfp 

XeTTTo? /o-To? TToXXov^ aTroTeTopvev pLevo^ tov^ 

^ h.s Brunn : tos. ^ ^^ added by Jacobs. 

^ One looks through the doorway into a court surrounded 
by columns ; the wooden columns have given way, the flat 
roof has fallen in, and the room is occupied only by spiders. 

2 Quoted fi'om Hes. Op. et Dies, Til. 

^ One must assume one of the three alternatives : (1) that 
Philostratus did not observe accurately, for spiders do not 
make tlieir webs in squares, or (2) that nTpdywvos should be 
amended, e.g. to some such word as t(t pairKdo-ios (" woven of 
four strands," cf. Bougot, p 552), or (3) that it should be 
interpreted as "four-angled," not with the usual meaning 

BOOK II. 28 

house by no means prosperous ^; you will say it has 
been abandoned by its master, and the court within 
seems deserted, nor do the columns still support its 
roof, for they have settled and collapsed ; nay, it is 
inhabited by spiders only, for this creature loves to 
weave its web in quiet. Look at the threads also ; 
for as the spiders spew out their yarn they let it 
down to the pavement — and the painter shows them 
descending on it and scrambling up and " soaring 
aloft," as Hesiod says,^ and trying to fly — and in 
the angles they weave their nests, some spread out 
flat, some hollow ; the flat 
ones are good to summer in, 
and the hollow sort they 
weave is useful in winter. 
Now the painter has been 
successful in these respects 

also : that he has w 


the spider itself in so 
painstaking a fashion, has Fi'^- --!• 

marked its spots with fidelity to nature and has painted 
its repulsive fuzzy surface and its savage nature — all 
this is the mark of a good craftsman and one skilled 
in depicting the truth. And he has also woven 
these delicate webs for us. For look ! here is a 
cord forming a square ^ that has been thrown about 
the corners to be as it were a cable to hold the web, 
and to this cord is attached a delicate web of many 

"square." In the latter case the web in the corners would 
take the usual form. Bougot (p. 486) quotes Blanchard, 
Metamorphoses des Insectcs, p. 684, who describes the web of 
the large Epeira as having clearly " a cable to hold the web." 
Cf. Fig. 24, which is drawn to represent a web of the Epeira 
type, i.e., hung from "cables," the encircling lines in a 
spiral, and the whole " four-angled." 


10 kvk\ov<^, ^p6\0L he eKJevel^ airo rov irpwrov 
kvkXov fiexpi^ '^ou a/jLifcpordrov SiairXeKOvrai 8ia- 
X€L7T0VT€<^ uTT ^ d\\7]X(i)v odov 01 kvkXoi. al he 
epiOoi Sl avTwv /SaSl^ovaL reivovaai tou? k€- 
'y^aXaa/nevov; tmv fiircov. (4) WXXd Kal fiiadhv 

15 dpvvvTaL Tov vcfyaiveLV xal aiJOVvjaL Ta<; fiviw;, 
eireiSdv rol^ Icrrol^ efiTrXaKcoaiP. odep ovBe ttjv 
Otjpav avTOiV iraprjXOev 6 ^coy pd(f)0(;' rj fiev yap 
e^eraL tov 7roh6<;, y Be ciKpov rod Trrepou, rj Be 
eaOierai t?}? K€(f)aX7]<;, dcTiraLpovai Be TreLpco/jLevac 

20 Bia(f)uyeLP, 6/jlo)<; ov rapdrrovaLP ovBe hiaXvovai 
TOV lajov. 


(1) Tou? iJLev d/uL(j)L TvBea Kal Kairavea Kal el 
Bt] Ti9 'iTTTro/xeBcov Kal TlapOevoTralo^ evTavOa 
^AOrjvaloL Odyjrovaiv dyoiva dpdpevoi tov virep 

25 T(iiv awfidToyv, YloXvveiKrjv Be tov OlBiiroBo^ 
WvTiyovi] r) dBeX(f)Tj OdivTeL vvKTcop eK(f)0iT7]aaaa 
TOV Teixov<; KaLTot KeK7]pvy/ievov eV avTw /xi] 
OdiTTeLV avTov /jirjBe evovv ttj yfj, rjv eBovXovTO. 
(2) Ta /Jiev Bij ev tw rreBUp veKpol eirl veKpoU 

30 Kal LTTTTOL, CO? €7reaov, Kal tcl oirXa, co? aireppurf 
T(ov dvBpoiv, XvOpov re ovToal 7r7;Xo9, (p (fyam 
T7]v 'EvvcD %at/?ef J/, vtto Be tw Teix^i to, fiev tcov 
383 K. ciXXmv Xox(iy^v acopLaTa, p,eydXoL re elai Kal 
vTrepftefiXyjKore^ dvOpconcov, Ka7rav€v<; Be yiyavTi 
e'lKaaTaC irpo^ yap tm peyeOeL jBe^Xi^Tai vtto 

1 d7r' added by Beutle}'. 

BOOK II. 29 

concentric circles, and tight lines, making meshes, 
running from the outside circle to the smallest one, 
are interwoven at intervals corresponding to the 
distance between the circles. And the weavers 
travel across them, drawing tight such of the threads 
as have become loose. But tliey win a reward for 
their weaving and feed on the flies whenever any 
become enmeshed in the webs. Hence the painter 
has not omitted their prey either ; for one fly is 
caught by the feet, another by the tip of its wing, 
the head of anotlier is being eaten, and they squirm 
in their effort to escape, yet they do not disarrange 
or break the web. 


Tydeus and Capaneus and their comrades, and 
any Hippomedon or Parthenopaeus that may be 
here, will be buried by the Athenians, when they 
take up the war to recover their bodies ; but Poly- 
neices the son of Oedipus is being buried by his sister 
Antigone, who steals outside the walls at night, 
though proclamation has been made that no one 
shall bury him or commit him to the earth he had 
tried to enslave. And so we see in the plain corpses 
upon corpses, and horses lying as they fell, and the 
arms of the warriors as they slipped from their 
hands, and this mire of gore in which they say 
Enyo^ delights; while beneath the wall are the 
bodies of the other captains — they are tall and 
beyond the normal height of men — and also Capa- 
neus, who is like a giant ; for not only is he of huge 
stature, but also he has been smitten by the thunder- 

^ Goddess of war. the companion of Ares. 



Tov Aio<s Kol €71 Tv^erai} rov UoXuveLKrjv Be 

5 T) WvTLyovtj fieyav kul fcar eK€ivov<^ ovra Kai 
civyjpi]TaL TOV VEfcpov Kal Odyjrei Trpo? rw tov 
'Et€0/c\€Ov<; cn^jxaTi SiaWciTTeLP ijyovfjLeprj tov^ 
aB€\(f>ov(;, 0)9 Xolttov gtl} (3) Tt (fn^aofiev, w 
iTOL, TTjV ao(f)Lav T/}? 7/)a(/>7J9 ; aeXijvrj fiep yap 

10 TTpoajBdWei (pco^ ovttw tticttov 6(f)da\fioL^, /jLeaTi) 
Se eK7r\i]^6co<i i) /copy] Opi^velv o)p/jiy]K6 irepL- 
iSdWovaa tov d6€\(j)6v ippcofievoi^ toT? injxeai, 
KpaTel he o/aco? tov 6pi]vov SeSoLKvld irov tcl tcov 
(j>v\dK(ov a)Ta, TrepiaOpelv t€ /3ov\ofu,evy] irdvTa 

15 TO, irepi^ o/ico<i e? tov dSeXcpov fiXeTret to yovv 
€9 yr)v KdfiiTTOvaa. 

(•i) To 3e rTy? poid<^ epvo<; avTO(f)V€<;, m iral, 
XeyeTUL yap 8r] KrjTreuaai avTo 'Epiz^ua? eVi to) 
TdcbcD, Kciv TOV KupTTOv a7rdar)<s, alp.a €KOLOOTai 

20 vvv €Ti. davfia Kal to irvp to iirl Tol<i iva- 
yla/jLaaiV ov yap ^vfifidWei, eavTcp ovBe ^vyKe- 
pdvvvai TT]v (f>\6ya, to ivTevOev Se dWrjv kuI 
dWrjv TpeireTai Kal to dp^LKTOv BifKol tov 


25 (I) 'H TTVpd Kal TCL e? avTijv ea(f)ayp,ha Kal 6 

diroKeip^evo^ eirl tyj irvpa p^el^cov i) dvOpco-rrov 

^ 6TJ TiKperai Wesseling and Reiske : i-nirvcptTai. 
2 ert Salmasius : eVn. 

^ As were the Giants in their battle with the Gods, cf. 
supra, Description 17, p. 199 and note 1. For the fate of 
Capaneus cf. p. 257. 

2 Benndorf calls attention to the relief in the Villa Pamtili 
(Robert, Sarkophagreliefs, II. p. 193, PI. 60), where Antigone 

BOOK II. 30 

bolt of Zeus 1 and is still smouldering. As for the 
body of PolyneiceSj tall like his associates, Antigone 
has lifted it up ^ and will bury it by the tomb of 
Eteocles, thinking to reconcile her brothers in the 
only manner that is still possible. What shall we 
say, my boy, of the merits of the picture ? Well, 
the moon sheds a light that the eyes cannot quite 
trust, and the maiden, overcome with fear, is on 
the point of uttering a cry of lamentation as she 
throws her strong arms about her brother, but 
nevertheless she masters the cry because, no doubt, 
she fears the ears of the guards, and though she 
wants to keep watch in every direction, yet her 
gaze rests upon her brother as she kneels on the 

This shoot of a mulberry, my boy, has sprung up 
of itself, for the Erinnyes,^ it is said, caused it to 
grow on the tomb ; and if you pluck its fruit, blood 
spurts out even to this day. Wonderful also is the 
fire that has been kindled for the funeral sacrifices ; 
for it does not come together or join its flames into 
one, but from this point on * it turns in different 
directions, thus indicating the implacable hatred that 
continues even in the tomb. 

30. EVADNE5 
The pyre and the victims sacrificed upon it and 
the corpse, laid on the pyre, which seems too large 

is carrying the body of Polyneices ; and to Helbig's discussion 
of night-scenes {Camp. JVandmal. p. 363 f.). 

3 i.e., the avenging Furies. 

* The speaker apparently points to the place where the 
flame begins as a solid mass, before it spreads out in 
divergent directions. 

^ Compare the story of the death of Evadne, Euripides, 
Suppl. 990 f. 



Bo^ai veKpo<^ 7] yvv)] re ?; a^ohpov ovro) irijBrjpa 
e? TO TTvp aipovaa iirl roiotaSe, m iral, yeypairrai' 
rov }\.aiTavea ol 7rpocn']KOV7e<i Oc'iTTTOvcnv iv tm 
30"Apyei, airedave Se apa iv &)}l3aL<; vtto tou Ato? 
€7ri./3e^7]Ka)<; 7J877 rod t€L')(ov<;. ttoitjtmv yap rrov 
i]Kovaa<;, &)? K0/jL7rdaa<; tl 69 top Ala Kepavvcp 
ej3\i]6ri fcal irplv e? rrfV yrjv ireaelv anreOavev, 
ore Si) Kol ol Xo^ayol 01 Xoittoi vtto rfj KaS/jL6ia 
35 eireaov. 

(2) l^iKJjadvTcov W.6qvaio)V racjiPjvai. (j<^a<; irpo- 
385 K. Ketrai 6 Ka7rap6v<i rd fiev ciWa e)(^(ov loaiTep 

TuBci/? KOI 'iTTTTOfMeBcOV Kol 01 XoLTTOL, TOVtI Sk 

virep TTcivra^i Xo%a70i79 re kol /SacnXea^i' E.vdBpi] 
yap T) yvvi] diroOavelv iir avrco cop[xi-jK6v ovre 
5 ft(/)09 TL eVt T))V hipi-jv eXKOvaa oure ^poy^ov 
TLV0<^ eavT7)v aTTapToyaa, ola yaTrdaavro yvvalKe<; 
iir dvhpdaw, dXX' e? avrb to irvp 'lerai ovttco 
TOP c'lphpa ex^t'V ^lyovfjiepop} el /jli) kuI avTijp 
6X01' TO fieu Si] €PTd(f)iop Tft) KaTTapet toiovtov, 
10 /; 8e yvP7) KaOdvep ol e? ra lepela ^ aTe(f)dpov(; 
re Kal xp^^^v i^aaK0vpT€<i, co? (f^aiSpd Ovolto 
Kal e? X^P^^ '^^^^ 6eol<^, ovtco<^ eavTi^v aTclXaaa 
Kal ovBe iXeeiPOP /SXeirovaa TrijSa e? to TTvp 

^ So F and the first hand in PL, rjyouyue'j/Tj the other 
MSS. ("she ... in the belief that slie does not yet possess 
her husband uidess he likewise possesses her "). Some 
editors ^vould emend to jield the meaning, "thinking that 
her husband had not yet received due honours (irdi'Ta fx^iv 
Heyne, ra irpoacpopa <x^"' Schenkl) unless . . .'' 

2 The M.SS. read Upa, M'hich all editors have ooriected. 

^ Philostratus apparently follows a different version of 
the story from that of Euripides, for in the latter the burial 


BOOK II. :;o 

for that of a man, and the woman who takes so 
mighty a leap into the flames, make up a picture, 
my boy, to be interpreted as follows. Capaneus is 
being buried in Argos ^ by his kinsmen, having been 
slain at Thebes by Zeus, as you recall, when he had 
already mounted the walls. Doubtless you have 
heard the poets ^ tell how, when he uttered a boast 
against Zeus, he was struck by a thunderbolt and 
died before he reached the ground, at the time 
when the rest of the captains fell beneath the 

Now when the Athenians have secured by their 
victory the burial of the dead, the body of Capaneus 
is laid out with the same honours as those of Tydeus 
and Hippomedon and the rest, but in this one point 
he was honoured above all the captains and kings : 
his wife, Evadne, has determined to die for love of 
him, not by drawing a knife against her throat nor 
by hanging herself from a noose, modes of death 
often chosen by women in honour of their husbands, 
but she throws herself into the fire itself, which 
cannot believe it possesses tlie husband unless it has 
the wife as well.* Such is the funeral-offering made 
to Capaneus ; and his wife, like those who deck 
their victims with wreaths and gold ^ that these may 
go to the sacrifice resplendent and pleasing to the 
gods, thus adorning herself and with no piteous look, 

is conducted by the Athenians, whereas here Capaneus is 
being buried by his kinsmen in Argos. 

2 e.g. Aesch3'lus, Sept. in Thel 
127 f.; Euripides, Phoai. 1172 f. 

3 The citadel of Thebes. 
* But see the critical note. 

^ Probably the reference is to gold-leaf used to cover the 
horns of the victim, a practice often mentioned by Homer. 


KoXovaa olfiai tov avhpa' koI 'yap (Booiar] eoLKev. 

15 SoK€L S' aV flOi Kol T1JV K6(f)a\7]V VlT0(7-)(^elv TO) 

aK^TTTw virep tov \\aiTavew<;. (3) Ot hi "E/jcore? 
kavTMv TTOLOv/jLevoi ravra rijp irvpav airo rcov 
XafiiraSicov amovai koI to irvp ov (f)aai 
')(^paiveiv, aW' i^hiovi re /cat KaOapwTepw ')(^pyj(j6(j- 
20 Oai 6d\jravT€'; avTw tov^ /caXco? )(pr]aa/jL€VOV<; to) 


(1) ' EXX?;!^ iv ^ap^dpoL^, dviip ev ov/c avhpd- 
aiv UTe ^ diToXwXoai kol Tpvcpcoaiv, dTTiK(x)<; €)(0)v 
/jbdXa TOV TpL/3(ovo<;, dyopevec ao(f)bv oljiai tl 

25 fieTaiTOLCdV avTov<i kol fieOiaTd^; tov OpviTTeadai, 
MrjSot TavTa koI 3a^vX(ov /juia^] kuI to cn]fjLeiov 
TO (SaaiXeiov 6 ')(pvaov<^ iirl r?)? TreXr?;? deTo<i koI o 
^aaiXeij^; iirl 'X^pvaov Opovov cttlkto^ olov Tad)(;. 
ovK d^iol eTraiveloOai o ^a)ypd<f>o<;, el Tidpav kuXox; 

30 fxepipirjTai Kal KaXdaipLV rj KdvSvv ?') drjpLcov 
T6paTcoS€L<^ /jLop(f)d(;, ola iroLKiXXovaL /Sdpfiapoi, 

^ are added by Schenkl. 

^ Ic, the fire of their torches which association with 
death will in this instance not pollute, but render more pure. 

2 Ostracized from Athens in 472 B.C., Themistocles went 
first to Argos, then to Corcyra and Epirus and Ionia. When 


BOOK II. 31 

leaps into the flames^ calling her husband, I am sure ; 
for she looks as if she were calling out. And it 
seems to me that she would even submit her head to 
the thunderbolt for the sake of Capaneus. But the 
Cupids^ making this task their own, kindle the pyre 
with their torches and claim that they do not defile 
their fire, but tliat they will find it sweeter and more 
pure/ when they have used it in the burial of those 
who liave dealt so well with love. 


A Greek among barbarians, a true man among 
those who are not men, inasmuch as they are ruined 
and dissolute, surely an Athenian to judge by his 
coarse cloak, he addresses some wise discourse to 
them, I think, trying to change their ways and make 
them give up their luxury. Here are Medes and 
the centre of Babylon, and the royal device — the 
golden eagle on the shield,^ — and the king on 
a golden throne richly spangled like a peacock. 
The painter does not ask to be praised for his fine 
representation of tiara and tasselled cloak (kalasiris) 
or sleeved jacket [kandys) or of the monstrous shapes 
of animals with which barbarian garments are em- 

Artaxerxes came to the throne in Persia, Themistocles went 
up to Susa and won favour with the new king ; he was 
assigned the government of the district of Magnesia, where 
he died. 

^ Xenophon, Anah. 1. 10. 12, uses these same terms in 
describing the standard of Cyrus the Younger. "They did 
see, they said, the royal standard, a kind of golden eagle on 
a shield, raised aloft upon a pole." Trans. Brownson, 




dW iiraiveiaOw fiev eirl tu> )(^pvaa) ypdcfxop 
38G K, avjov evijrpiov Kal aw^ovra, o i]vdyKaaTaL, koI 
VT) Ata eiTi rw rcov evvovx^cdv el'Sei' koI t) avXrj 
'X^pvaP] earo) — SoKetynp /x?) yeypd(f)6ai' yeypaTrrai, 
yap o'la ojKoBofiJ]aOat — Xi^avwrov re koI afj.vpv7}<; 
5 alaOavofieOa — rd^; yap to)v depcov eXevOepia'^ 
ovTco TrapacpOelpovaLV ol ^dp^apoL — Kal hopv- 
(f)opo<; dX\o<; dXXw SiaXeyeadco irepl Tov''RXXr]vo<; 
€K7rXi]TT6fM€voi avTov Kajd Sj] Tiva crvvecTLV 
fieydXwv avrov epywv. (2) (de/xiaroKXea yap 

10 ol/iat TOP Tov Neo/cXeov<; ^ Xdi]vt^6ev e9 ^a^vXoiva 
TjKeLv /bLerd rrjv XaXa/iilva jr^v Oeiav diropovvra, 
OTTOL a(iidi]aeTaL irore tP]<; 'RXXdSo<;, Kal Bia- 
XeyeaOai ^aaiXel irepl 5)v ar parity ovvto<^ avrov 
6 He/3f7;9 o)V7]TO. €K7rXi]TT€L Ss avrov ovSev rcov 

16 \l7]SLK(t)v, dXXd reOdpaiiKev olov Kadearo)^ irrl 
rod XiOoV Kal i) (fxovr) ovk drro rov rj/jLeSaTrov 
rpoTTOV fjLijBl^oyv 6 Se/jLcaroKXrj^;' e^eirovifae yap 
eKel rovro. el 8'' diTLarei<^, opa rov<; aKOvovra^, 
&)? TO ^ ev^vverov eTriarjfiaivovaL rol<i o/jUfxaaiv, 

20 opa Kal rov (defiiaroKXea ri]v /lev rod irpoaooTTOv 
Grdaiv TrapaTrXyaiov rol<^ Xeyovai, rrerrXavi]- 
fxevov he rrjv rcov 6^6aXfi(ov evvoiav viro rod 
Xeyeiv, w? fierefiaOev. 

^ rh added by Kciyser. 

^ On tlie dress of Cyrus the Great, see Xenopl)on, C'pr. 
8. 3. 13: "Next after these Cyrus himself upon a chariot 
appeared in tlie gates wearing his tiara upright, a purple 
tunic shot with white (no one but the king may wear such 
an one), trousers of scarlet d3'e about his legs and a mantle 
{k-(cndys) all of purple. He had also a fillet about his tiara, 
and his kinsmen also had the same mark of distinction, and 

BOOK II. 31 

broidered ; ^ but he should be praised for the gold 
which he has painted as threads skilfully interwoven 
in the cloth and preserving the design to which it 
has been constrained, and, by Zeus, for the faces of 
the eunuchs. The palace court must also be of 
gold — indeed, it seems not to be a painting at all ; 
for it is so painted as to seem to be a real building — • 
we catch the fragrance of both frankincense and 
myrrh — for the barbarians use these to pollute the 
freedom of the air ; and let us infer that one spear- 
man is talking to another about the Greek, mar- 
velling at him from a vague knowledge of his great 
achievements. For I think that Themistocles the 
son of Neocles has come from Athens to Babylon 
after the immortal victory at Salamis because he is 
at a loss to know where in Greece he would be 
safe, and that he is conversing with the king about 
the services which he rendered to Xerxes while in 
command of the Greek forces. He is not perturbed 
at all by his Median surroundings, but is as bold 
as though he stood on the Athenian bema ; and this 
language he speaks is not ours, but Themistocles is 
using the Median tongue, which he took the pains 
to acquire there.^ If you doubt this, look at his 
hearers, how their eyes indicate that they under- 
stand him easily, and look also at Themistocles, the 
posture of whose head is like that of one speaking, 
but note that there is hesitancy in the thoughtful 
expression of the eyes, due to his speaking a new 
language recently learned. 

they retain it even now. His hands he kept outside his 
sleeves." Trans. Miller, L.C.L. 

2 Cf. Plutarch, Them. 126D, tV Uepaiha yXCnrav drro- 
)(pa)VTa)S iKfjiaOojv ivervyxcive ^aoLXel St' avrov. 




(1) 'O fi€v xw/30? 'ApKaSla, to KoXXiarov 

25 ^ ApKahia^ kuI m /idXiara 6 Zeu? %at/?€t — 

^OXv/jLTTiav avTO ovofid^Ofiev — aOXov he outto) 

7rdXr]<; ovSe rov TraXaieiv epo)?, dXX' earai. 

UaXaiarpa yap ?; 'Kpiiov r)^y]aaaa vvv ev 

WpKahia TrdXrjv evpffKe, koi i) yij y^alpei ttw? 

30 T&) evpi^fjLari, eireihrj aihrjpo^ /xev iroXe/iiaryjpio'; 

evaiTovho'^ diroKeio-eraL roU dvOpcoiroi^, ardBca 

Be i)Bico arparoTTeScov So^et koi dywviovvraL 

387 K. yv/ivoL. (2) Ta /lev St] TTaXalafiara iraihia. 

Tavrl yap dyepwya aKipTa irepl rrjv TLaXalarpav 

aXXo e-TT^ dXXw e? aini]v Xvyi^ovTa, eh] 8' av 

yrjyevrj' ^rjal yap vir dpBpela^ i) KOprj /iijr av 

5 yrjiiaadai to) eKOvaa /jli}t av reKetv. Sia7re(f)UKe 

Se diT dXXijXcov ra it aXaicr fxara'^ KpdrKTTOv yap 

TO ^VVrj/JL/JLeVOV Trj TTVyflf].'^ 

(3) To he elBo^ r?)? HaXaL(rTpa<;, el iiev ecfyyj/Soy 
SiKd^OLTOy Kopi] ecTTai, el he. ei? Koprjv Xa/jL^d- 

^ Schenkl and Beinidorf think that something has been 
lost from the text after iraXaia/^aTa — an enumeration of the 
kinds of wrestling ending witli the pancratium, a combina- 
tion of wrestling and boxing (Plato, Hep. i. 338c). 

2 Trvy/xfi Kayser : TraAp. 

^ Pelops, near whose tomb the Olympic games were cele- 
brated, seems to have been originally a deity of the pre- 
Dorian population of Arcadia and Pisa ; in the earliest form 
of the legend he was the son of Hermes, the autochthonic 


BOOK II. 32 


The place is Arcadia,^ the most beautiful part of 
Arcadia and that in which Zeus takes most delight 
— we call it Olympia — and as yet there is no prize 
for wrestling nor even any love of wrestling, but 
there will be. For Palaestra, the daughter of 
Hermes, who has just come to womanhood in 
Arcadia, has discovered the art, and the earth seems 
to rejoice at the discovery, since iron as an instru- 
ment of war will be laid aside by men during the 
truce, and the stadium will seem to them more 
delightful than armed camps, and with naked bodies 
they will contend with each other. The kinds of 
wrestling are represented as children. For they leap 
sportively around Palaestra, bending towards her in 
one wrestler's posture after another ; and they may 
be sprung from the earth, for the maiden shows by her 
manly aspect that she would neither marry any man 
willingly nor bear children. The kinds of wrestling 
differ from one another ; ^ indeed, the best is the 
one combined with boxing.^ 

The figure of Palaestra,* if it be compared with a 
boy, will be that of a girl ; but if it be taken for a 

god of Arcadia. In locating Olympia in Arcadia rather than 
EHs, Philostratus follows the pre-Dorian story of the origin 
of the Olympic games. 

2 See critical note. 

^ The reference seems to be to the pancratium ; see critical 

* Frohner {Gaz, arch. XIV, 1889, p. 56) published a Roman 
terracotta vase with medallions, in which are depicted 
Schoeneus, Atalanta with an apple, the victorious Hippo- 
medon carrying a palm branch, and Palaestra, a seated 
young woman nude to the waist and carrying a palm 
branch (Fig. 25, p. 265). 



10 vono, 6(f)7]/3o(; 86^ei. Ko/xt] re yap oaij /i7]S' 
avairXeKecrOai 6/u/ia re d/i(f)OTep(p tm ijOet /cal 
ocppix; o'la kol ipdjvrcov virepopav koi iraKaiov- 
Tcov' (p7]al jap Trpo^ afitpco ra eOvq ippayaOac 
fia^oiv re ovS' ai> iraXaiovTa Oiyelv nva, roaovrov 

15 avrfj irepielvai rr}? re^i^?/?. koI avrol Se ol 
fia^ol piKpa rf;? 6p/jLf}<; irapacfyaLvovaiv coairep iv 
/jL€ipaKi(p (i7ra\(p, 6r}\v re iiraLvel ovBev, 66 ev 
ovBe \€VKd)\evo<; deXei elvaL, ovBe Ta<; ^pvdSa<; 
€7raiv€LV €0iK6v, OTL XevKalvovaiv eavTa<; iv ral'^ 

20 aKiaL<;, dXkd tov "WXlov are kolXtjv WpKaSiav 
OLKOvaa alrel )(p(o/jLa, 6 8' olov di>Oo<; rt iirdyei 
avrfj Kal (poiviTTCi t7]v Kopi-jV fxeTpia rfj eiXr]?- 
(4) KaOrjaPai Be, m iral, rijv Koprjv irdvao^ov n 
TOV ^(oypdcpoV Trkelarai yap toI<; KaOr)/i€voi<; al 

25 (JKial Kal to KaOvjadai avrf}^ iKavco<^ eva')(^ij[iov, 
TTpdrret Be tovto Kal 6 OaX\h<; t?)? e\aLa<; ev 
yvfivu) TO) koXttw. daTrd^erac Be ttov to (pVTOv 
TOVTO i) llaXataTpa, eTreLBrj irdXr] re dptjyei Kal 
Xcilpovaiv avTw irdvv dvOpwiroi. 

^ f'lArj Heringa and Reiske : tSri. 
- ai/rf) Kayser : avTrjs or avTo7s. 

1 Cf. p. 263, note 4. 

BOOK II. 32 

girl, it will seem to be a boy. For her hair is too 
short even to be twisted into a knot ; the eye might 
be that of either sex ; and the brow indicates disdain 
for both lovers and wrestlers ; for she claims that she 
is able to resist 
both the one 
and the other, 
and that not 
even in a wrest- 
ling bout could 
anyone touch 
her breasts, so 
much does she 
excel in the 
art. And the 
breasts them- 
selves, as in a 
boy of tender 
years, show but 
slight signs of 
beginning full- 
ness. She cares for nothing feminine ; hence she 
does not even wish to have white arms, and 
apparently even disapproves of the Dryads because 
they stay in the shade to keep their skin fair ; nay, as 
one who lives in the vales of Arcadia, she begs Helius 
for colour, and he brings it to her like a flower and 
reddens the girl with moderate heat. It shows 
the skill of the painter, my boy, that the maiden is 
sitting, for there are most shadows on seated figures, 
and the seated position is distinctly becoming to 
her ; the branch of olive on her bare bosom is also 
becoming to her. Palaestra apparently delights in 
this tree, since its oil is useful in wrestling and men 
find great pleasure in it. 


Fig. 2i 



30 (1) 'H fjLev ')(pvar) ireKeia er eVt t?)? Spv6<; iv 
\ojiOL<; i) ao(f)y} koI y^p-qajjioi, ou<; eV Ato? dva- 
(ftOeyyerat, Kelrai 8' ovto<; 6 7re\€KV<;, ov /uedrJKcv 
388 K. 'EXXo? 6 SpVTO/xo';, a^' ov Kara AwScovrjv ol 'KWoi, 
are/jL/jLara 8' uvrjirTaL Trj<; Spv6<;, eTreiSi] KaOdirep 
TlvOol TpL7rov<; ^p7;cryU0L'? eKc^epet. (poira 8' 6 
fiev epeaOai, tl avnjv, 6 8e Ovaai, koI X^P^^ 

5 ovToal eV ^tj^mv TrepieardaL ttjv Spvv olfcetov- 
jievoL Trjv ao(pLav tov SevSpov, ol/jLac Be kol ttjv 
Xpvo'V^ opvLV eKsl TaXevOrjvaL. (2) 0/ 8' viTo<f>rj- 
rai rou Ato?, ou<; dvLTrroirohd'^ re Ka\ x^/jLaL€vi^a<i 
eyvo) "OfMTjpo^, avToay^e^Loi Tive<^ elat Kal ovttq) 

10 /careaKevaa /levoL tov ^lov, cjiaal 8e fi7]B' dv Kara- 
(TKevdaaaOai' tov yap Ala x^lpeiv a(f)laiv, 
eTreiSr] daird^ovTai to avToOev. i€p6t<; yap 
ovTOL, Kal 6 fJLev TOV €pe^|raL /cvpio<;, 6 8e tov 
KaTev^aaOat, tov ^ 8' e? ^ iroiTava xph TrpdTTeiv, 

15 TOV 8e es' ov\d<; Kal Kavd, 6 8e Ov6l tl, o h ov 

irap/jaec eTepw Betpac to lepelov. ivTavOa 8e 

lepecaL Act)8a)i^t8e9 iv cTTpvcpvu) re Kal lepw tw 

^ Thv Reiske and Kayser : rtf. ^ 5' es Schenkl : Sc. 

^ Dodona was the seat of the oracle of Zeus, reputed to be 
the oldest oracle in Greece (cf. Iliad 16. 233) ; it was situated 
in Epirus near the modern Janina. Hesiod places it in 
Hellopia {Cat. of Jf'omen mid Eoiae, 97) : " A ri(,-h land on the 
border of which is built a city, Dodona ; and Zeus loved it 
and (appointed) it to be his oracle, reverenced by men. . . . 
And they (the doves) lived in the hollow of an oak {<p-r)yov)." 
Trans. Evelyn-White, L.C.L. Herodotus (II, 55) speaks of 
the holy doves who first called attention to its niantic power. 
The oracles were answers to questions, in the form of a 


BOOK II. 33 

33. DODONAi 

Here is the golden dove still on the oak^ wise in 
her sayings ; here are oracles which are utterances 
of Zeus ; here lies the axe abandoned by the tree- 
cutter Hellus, from whom are descended the Helloi 
of Dodona ; and fillets are attached to the oak, for 
like the Pythian tripod it utters oracles. One comes 
to ask it a question and another to sacrifice, while 
yonder band from Thebes stands about the oak, 
claiming as their own the wisdom of the tree ; and 
I think the golden bird has been caught there ^ by 
decoy. The interpreters of Zeus, whom Homer 
knew as ^-men with unwashen feet that couch on 
the ground," ^ are a folk that live from hand to 
mouth and have as yet acquired no substance, and 
they assert that they will never do so, since they 
think they enjoy the favour of Zeus because they are 
content with a picked-up livelihood. For these are 
priests ; and one is charged with hanging the gar- 
lands, one with uttering the prayers, a third must 
attend to the sacrificial cakes, and another to the 
barley-grains and the basket, another makes a sacri- 
fice, and another will permit no one else to flay the 
victim. And here are Dodonaean priestesses of 

rustling of the oak's branches. (Cf. siipra, Description 15, 
p. 187.) A spring at its foot inspired those who drank of it. 
The priests, called by Homer " Selloi " (here Helloi), found 
favour by depending wholly on Zeus for their food ; the fact 
that they slept on the ground suggests contact with the god 
in sleep (incubatio) as a means of learning the divine will. 

2 This would naturally mean in Thebes. The allusion is 
uncertain. Benndorf thought that the reference was to 
Egypt, where, according to Aelian, Dc Nat. An. 6. 33, 
birds are brought down from the skv by a kind of magic. 

3 Quoted from Iliad 16. 235. 



ecSei' eoLKaai 'yap Ov/jna/jLarcov re avairvelv Kal 
airovhoiv. (3) Kat to ')(^cdpiov Se avro ^fco^e?, w 

20 Trat, yeypaTTTat Kal ofjL(f)Pj<; p^earov, ')(^a\Krj re 
'Fl;)^<jt) iv avTcp T6Tip7]TaL, r)v olpai 6pa<; iiTL- 
/SdXXovaai' t7]v %e?/3a ro) aropari, eireihi] 
')(^a\K6lov aveiceiTo rco Ail Kara AcoScovtjv yx^Vf 
e? 7To\v ri]<; r}pepa<; Kai, pi^pi Xd(3ono rt? avTov, 

26 p,ii aicoTTCov. 

x5' nPAi 

(I) To pev iirl ral'^' D.paL<^ elvai ra<^ rov ovpavov 

TTuXa? 'OpDJpw d(f)(t}p€v elhevaL Kal e^^iv — etVo? 

ycip TTov avTov ^vyyeveaOai Tal<; "D.paL<;, ore rov 

aWepa eXa^e — tovtI he to (nrovhat^opevov viro 

30 T?)? ypa(f)}j<^ Kal dvOpcoTTw ^vp^aXelv paSiov. at 

yap Si] ^D-pat avT0L<; eLSecriv e? ttjv yrjv d(f)tK6' 

pevat ^vvdiTTOvaai Td<^ j(^elpa'^ eviavTov olpuaL 

380 K. eXiTTOvai Kal i) yfj ao(f)}] ovcra ev(f)opei ai)Tal<i tcl 

eviavTOv TrdvTa. (2) "M?; iraTelre ti-jv vaKLvOov 

Tj TO, poSa " ovK epM 77/309 Ttt? 7]pivd<;' VTTO yap 

Tov iraTeladai tjSlco (j)aiveTaL Kal avTcov tl tcop 

5 ilpwv l]Siov TTvel.^ Kal " pjj ep^aiveTe diTa\al<; 

rat? dpovpai^ " ovk epoi Trpo? ra? ■)(^ip,epLov<; 

(T(f)0)V' to yap TraretaOaL avrd^; viro rwv 'Hpcov 

TToiyjaei darax^v. at ^avdal he avTai /Saivovaiv 

^ Man}' attempts have been made to emend ifiSiov irvd : ^7J 
At" drnTTj/ft Jacobs, vrj Am Tri/e? Westermann ("exhale, by 
Zeus, a fragrance of the Horae themselves"). 

^ The Seasons. 

2 Cf. Iliad, 5. 749: ''The gates of Heaven which the 
Horae had in their keeping, to whom are entrusted great 


BOOK II. 34 

stiff and solemn appearance, who seem to breathe 
out the odour of incense and libations. The very 
place, my boy, is painted as fragrant with incense 
and replete with the divine voice ; and in it honour 
is paid to a bronze Echo, whom I think you see 
placing her hand upon her lips, since a bronze 
vessel has been dedicated to Zeus at Dodona, that 
resounds most of the day and is not silent till some- 
one takes hold of it. 

34. HORAE 

That the gates of heaven are in charge of the 
Horae ^ we may leave to the special knowledge and 
prerogative of Homer,^ for very likely he became an 
intimate of the Horae when he inherited the skies ; 
but the subject that is here treated in the painting 
is easy for a man ^ to understand. For the Horae, 
coming to earth in their own proper forms, with 
clasped hands are dancing the year through its 
course, I think, and the Earth in her wisdom brings 
forth for them all the fruits of the year. " Tread 
not on the hyacinth or the rose " I shall not say to 
the Horae of the spring-time ; for when trodden on 
they seem sweeter and exhale a sweeter fragrance 
than the Horae themselves. '^ Walk not on the 
ploughed fields when soft " i shall not say to the 
Horae of the winter-time ; for if they are trodden on 
by the Horae they will produce the ear of grain. 
And the golden-haired Horae yonder are walking on 

heaven and Oh'mpus, whether to throw open the great cloud 
or shut it to." Trans. Murray. 

^ It is implied both here and in the phrase "inherited the 
skies " that Homer became a god after his death ; and works 
of ancient art depict his apotheosis. 



€ttI t/}? rcov aaraxixov KOfirj'^, ov /j,7]V a)<; KXdaat, 

10 7] Kd/jLyjraL, dW' elcrlv ovrco tl iXa(f)pai, 009 yu-?;Se 
e7rj]/iv€iv TO X)]iov.^ ^apiev v/jlwj', o) cifiireXoi, to 
\a/3ea6aL tojp oircopivcov eOeXeiv epdre 'yap irov 
TOiv Qpcov, on vp,d<^ epyd^ovrai KaXd<; koX 

15 (3) TauTL ix€v ovv olov 'yecdp'yiaL t/)? >ypa(f)r]<;, 
avral 3' al ' flpai fidXa i)helai koI haifioviov 
Te'xyrjf;. olov fieu yap avrcov to aBetv, o7a Se 17 
SlVT] TOV KVkXoV Kul TO KaTOTTLV rj/uilv /jL-qSe/jLid'i 
^aiveodai vtto tov Tracra? olov ep-^eaOat^ 

20 ^pa')(iwv he civco Kal iXevOepla d(f)€TOV k6/jL7]<; Kal 
irapeid 6epfiy] vtto tov Spofiou Kal 01 6(f)6aX/jLol 
avy')(^op€vovTe<^. '^d^a tl Kal p^vOoXoyrjcraL 
avy)(^(jL>povaiv virep tov ^coypd(f)OV' Bok€l ydp fxoL 
')(opevovaai'^ Tal<^ "npai<; evTVX^^ aeiaOijvaL utt' 

25 aL/TWi/ et? Tr]V Tex^^W, t'cro)? alvLTTOfievodv twv 
Oewv, OTi XPh ^^^ cjpa ypd(f)€LV. 

^ rh Arjicu Scheiikl : rep 'i]\i<f or t^ Arj'y. 

^ Cf. Iliad, 20. 227 : " Would course over the topmost ears 
of ripened corn and break them not " (said of the mares of 
Krichthonius). Trans. Murra\'. 

2 The word is taken from Homer, Iliad, 2. 148. 

^ The interpretation of Benndorf, who compares supra p. 
302, 4K, and p. 311, 23. The painting furnislies the writer 
witii fruits to gather as the fields yield a harvest to the 


BOOK II. 34 

the spikes of the ears, but not so as to break or bend 
them ; ^ nay, they are so Hght that they do not 
even sway the stalks. It is charming of you, O 
grape-vines, that ye try to lay hold of the Horae of 
the autumn-tide ; for you doubtless love the Horae 
because they make you fair and wine-sweet.^ 

Now these are our harvestings,^ so to speak, from 
the painting ; but as for the Horae themselves, 
they are very charming and of marvellous art. How 
they sing, and how they whirl in the dance ! Note 
too the fact that the back of none of them is turned to 
us, because they all seem to come towards us ; and 
note the raised arm, the freedom of flying hair, the 
cheek warm from the running, and the eyes that join 
in the dance. Perhaps they permit us to weave a 
tale about the painter; for it seems to me that he, 
falling in with the Horae as they danced, was caught 
up by them into their dance, the goddesses perhaps 
thus intimating that grace (Jiord) must attend his 

* According to Benndorf, whose interpretation is here 
followed, (TiLddnvai (for ivaeiadrivaL) seems to mean that one 
of the surrounding spectators has been caught up by the 
dancers and made to share their dance. Benndorf interprets 
in this way a relief found on the Athenian Acropolis (pub- 
lished by Lechat, Bull. corr. hell. xiii. PL XIV, p. 467 f.), 
where Hermes with a flute is leading the dance of three 
Charites, the third of whom is initiating a small figure, i.^. 
not a divine being but a man, into their dance. Lechat calls 
attention to the essential likeness of Charites, Horae, and 
Nymphs, but names these figures Charites because the latter 
were worshipped in mysteries "in front of the entrance to 
the Acropolis " (Paus. 9. 35. 3). 








In his preface to this^ the second, series of Imagines 
the younger Philostratus states his intention to 
" vie with earlier writers " in his description of 
paintings. Specifically he is following in the steps 
of his grandfather, the author of the earlier series 
of Imagines, though we find nothing like slavish 
imitation of that work. His high regard for 
the older Philostratus is stated in the eulogy of 
his preface ; it is indicated by the frequent use 
of phrases borrowed from his predecessor, inten- 
tionally or unintentionally ; and it is clearly shown 
by his choice of subjects. While he also frequently 
quotes from classic authors, the phrases taken from 
the older Philostratus number rather more than 
phrases or quotations from all other authors put 
together. As to his choice of subjects, ten of his 
seventeen descriptions deal with themes suggested 
by his predecessor. 

Philostratus the Younger. Philostratus the Elder, 
3. Hunters resting. I. 28. Preparation for and 

progress of the hunt. 

5. Heracles in swaddling I. 26. Hermes in swaddling 

clothes. clotlies. 

6. Music of Orpheus; ani- I. 10. Music of Amphion ; 

mals and trees. stones of Thebes. 



Philostratus the Youxcer. Philostratus the Elder. 

9. Pelops, Hippodanieiaand I. 17. Hippodameia, Pelops 

Oenomaiis. and Oenoinaiis. 

10. Pyrrhus and Eurypylus. I. 7. Memnon and Achilles. 

11. Departure of the .-ir^o. II. 15. Arrival of the yir^o. 

12. Hesione freed. I. 29. Andromeda freed. 

13. Sophocles and bees. II. 12. Pindar and bees. 

14. Hyaciuthus before death. I. 24. Hyacinthus after 


15. Meleager and the Caly- I. 28. Boar hunt. 

donian boar. 

None of them is a co])y of the material he found, 
but all treat the same or similar themes in a way 
that invites comparison. 

The most striking difference from his predecessor 
lies in the fact that the later writer makes far less 
effort for rhetorical effect. The so})hist, the lecturer 
for display, has retreated into the background. We 
find none of the ''curious knowledge" that was 
scattered through the works of his grandfather; 
the studied simplicity is no longer noticeable ; the 
" boy " and the effort to show a conversational 
manner rarely appear. In general the description 
is much more definite, as though he wished to 
make clear the particular pictures he is describing, 
although some of the descriptions confuse the story 
and the picture (cf. \a, Achilles on Scyrus), sometimes 
confusing elements are introduced into the picture/ 
and sometimes two or three scenes arc described 
in the .same picture without indicating the transition 
from one to another.^ Moreover, he takes satis- 

^ Three figures representing the river in the contest with 
Heracles, in No. 4; three goddesses, not Athena alone, seek 
to bribe Eros to help Jason, in No. 8. 

^ ?>os witli Ganymede, and Eros clinging to the skirts of 
Aphrodite, in No. 8 ; the single combat of Pyrrhus, and the 
outcome of the combat, in No. 10. 


faction in filling out the details of the description 
(cf. Nos. 5; 15),i when the elder Philostratus de- 
scribed only the main points as illustrating the story 
of the painting. 

While the elder Philostratus constantly stressed 
the illusion of reality in the paintings, perhaps as 
an inherited rhetorical device, his grandson rarely 
mentions it. He does speak of the hands and feet 
and garment of Orpheus as in motion (No. 6), of 
reflections on the ball offered to Eros when it is 
tossed into the air (No. S, 5), of the rapid motion 
of Aeetes' chariot (No. 11, 5), and the waves made 
by the onrush of the monster that attacked Hesione 
(No. 12, 4), but he does not suggest that the 
painted object could be confused with the object 
itself His figures of speech are relatively few. 
Under the spell of Orpheus' music the trees weave 
their branches to make a music-hall for him (No. 
G, 2), the tail of the monster attacking Hesione 
is like the sail of a ship (No. 12, 4), the legs of 
Meleager are firmly knit, " good guardians when 
he fights in the hand-to-hand contest" (No. 15, 5). 
He makes less use of literary allusions than does his 
predecessor, though his method of handling them 
is similar.- His one excursion into literature is his 

^ References to the descriptions of the younger Philo- 
stratus are here given by the number (or number and 
section) of the description. 

2 It should be noted, however, that the range of literary 
aHusion is neither so wide nor so free as in the case of 
the older Philostratus. Nearly half the allusions are to the 
Imagines or the Heroica or the Lives of his grandfather ; as 
the Shield of Achilles is based on Homer, so the account 
of the babe Heracles is based on Pindar (Xo. b), and the 
account of Medea (Nos. 7, 8) on Apollonius of Rhodes ; and 



somewhat dull rendering of the scenes on the Shield 
of Achilles (No. 10, 5f.) ; this may be based on a 
painting or relief reproducing Homer, though the 
evidence for such a view is not convincing ; but 
it is certainly written for readers who know well 
the Homeric passage. He does not dwell on the 
drawing of the pictures, on symmetry or proportion, 
or on special devices used by the painter ; and his 
allusions to colour do not suggest that colour 
interested him as an important factor in painting. 
In one instance (No. 3, 2) he follows the method 
of his grandfather (e.g. Phil. Sen. I. 14, 3) in de- 
scribing the beauty of a grove, but the beauty of 
nature does not seem to appeal to him personall}'. 

Perhaps the most interesting example of his 
relation to the older Philostratus is found in his 
panegyric of Sophocles (No. 13 infra). Because the 
elder Philostratus wrote a jianegyric of Pindar in the 
form of a description of a picture, the younger writes 
a panegyric of Sophocles in the same manner. 
Nevertheless there is a striking difference in that 
the Pindar is hardly a picture, while the Sojihocles 
takes clear form as a picture. The only pictorial 
elements in the Pindar ^ are the bees and a statue 
of Rhea before the house of Pindar's father ; the 
bees are there, their stings extracted, to a])ply 
tiieir honey to the newborn babe and instil their 

^ svpra, p. 179. 

of the relatively few alhisions tliat remain, his references to 
the Greek tragedians are curiously, -with one exception, 
references to fragments preserved in other literature (four 
times) and to the opening lines of plays by Sophocles or 
Euripides (six times). One cannot attribute to him the wide, 
intimate acquaintance with classical literature which was 
shown bj' his grandfather. 



sweetness into him as he lies on laurel branches in- 
side the house^ but the babe is not in the picture ; 
and Pan^ we are told, will stop his leaping to sing 
the odes of Pindar, but apparently Pan is not in 
the picture. The Sophocles is no less a panegyric 
than the Pindar ; bees are flying about anointing 
Sophocles with mystic drops of their own dew, 
as though they might sting the onlooker ; Asclepius 
himself will listen to a paean of Sophocles ; but 
here we are presented with a definite picture of 
Sophocles standing modestly before a Muse in the 
presence of Asclepius. 

This dependence of the younger Pliilostratus on 
his grandfather, which is most evident in his choice 
of subjects and in particular in the description of the 
picture of a poet just described, may well raise the 
question whether the later author is describing real 
pictures or imagining pictures to suit his literary 
purpose. In spite of the logical and often detailed 
descriptions, the latter view seems perhaps the more 
reasonable. None the less it may be said of him 
as of his predecessor, that his paintings are so 
genuinely conceived in the spirit of the age that 
they may be treated as sound data for the student ot 
late Greek painting. 

In his Introduction the younger Pliilostratus, after 
his eulogy of his grandfather, outlines succinctly a 
theory of pictorial art which may also be regarded 
as an expression of the thought of his age. It is 
the function of painting, we are told (§ .3), to set 
forth the character and the inner life of the persons 
represented ; (§ 4) to produce the illusion of reality, 
that '' charming deception" by which men are led 
to think that things exist which do not exist ; 



(§ 5) to follow the rules of symmetry and harmonious 
relation of parts, which have been laid down by 
men of old time ; and (§ 6) to present to the eye 
the same play of the imagination which is character- 
istic of poetry. Of these several factors which 
enter into painting, only one seems to have made 
a deep impression on the personality of our author, 
namely the delineation of character and inner ex- 
perience. Tlie nature of Diomedes and Odysseus 
(No. 1), the state of the mind of Marsyas and the 
barbarian and Apollo (No. 2), the character of the 
different hunters and the thoughts they are ex- 
pressing (No. 3), the spiritless and dejected Oeneus 
and the frightened blushing Deianeira (No. 4), the 
fright of Alcmene, the courage and intelligent 
caution of Amphitryon (No. 5), the love of Medea 
and Jason (No. 7), the haughty spirit of Pelops, the 
modesty of Hippodameia, and the Mildness of 
Oenomaus (No. 9), and similar features in later 
descriptions, are what the younger Philostratus 
chooses to dwell on. For him the art of the painter 
consists in the ability to delineate the character, 
the tlioughts, the intentions, tlie emotions of the 
persons represented. While the older Philostratus 
continually stressed the illusion of reality in paint- 
ing, his grandson grouped the art of painting Avith 
dramatic literature as forms of art to be judged by 
their success in presenting personalities. 





3C0 K. (1) M?; dcpaLpco/jLeda Ta<i Te')(ya<; to ael acp^ea- 
Oai SvaavTi/SXeirrov i)'yovfxevoi to irpea^vTepov 
fir)S\ et T(p TMV iraXaLOTepcov irpoeiXiiiTTai ti,^ 
TOVTO ^ijXovv KUTa hvvafxiv (^eihaifieOa cr;^;;/iaTi 
5 evTrpeirel to paOvfiov v7roKopi^6/jL6vot, aW' Ittl- 
/3d\(i)/jLev Tw (j>6daavTi- tvx,opt6<; yap aKOirou 
d^Lco<i \6yov irpd^ofiev, el he tttj ical Gc^aXrjvai 
^vfi/Saii], TO yovv eTraivovvTa^^ c^aiveaOai 'Oj- 
Xovv TCL ev e')(ovTa eavTol<^ Scoao/xev. 

10 (2) Tt Br] /jLOi tuvtI TTpoavaKeKpovcjTai ; ecnrov- 
hacTTai Ti9 ypa(piK)]<i epycov eKcfypaai^ tcd/jlo) 
6fxa)vi>/jLCp Te KoX /ir/TpoTrdTopL Xiav 'ArTi/cw? t/}? 
yX(OTTri<; e^ovaa ^vv copa Te Trporjy/iepTj kol 
ToVfi). TavTT]<; KaT lx^V %co/9^jcrat 6eXi]aavTe<^ 

15 dvdyKi^v ea^Ojiev irpo tt}? 6Xq<^ eirL^oXr]^; koI 
TTepl ^coypa(f)La(; Tivd hieXOeh', &)? dv koI o X0709 
e)(r) TrjV oLKe'iav vXi^v icpapfioTTovaav tol<; vtto- 


(3) Za)ypa(f)La<; dpiaTOv koI ovk eVl ajJUKpol^ 

20 TO eTTLTijSevfjba' ^PV J^P '^^^ 6p6(0<; TrpoaTa- 

TevcrovTa r/}? re^i^/;? (f)vaiv Te dvdpwTreiav ev 

Bie(TK€(j)6aL KOL LKavov elvai yvcofiaTevaat ^)6(i)v 

^v/jL/3oXa Koi aiooTTcovTcov Kal tl fiev ev irapeicov 

Ti added by Olearius. 

iiraivovvra'i Reiskc, Hey lie : 4iraivovvra. 



Let us not deprive the arts of their chance to be 
kept up for ever, on the ground that ^ve think the 
earlier period hard to match ; and let us not, just 
because we have been anticipated in any undertaking 
by some writer of former time, refrain from emulating 
his work to the best of our ability, using a specious 
pretext with which to gloss over our indolence ; but 
let us rather challenge our predecessor for, if we 
attain our goal, we shall accomplish something worth 
while ; but if at any point we fail, at least we shall 
do ourselves the credit of showing that we strive for 
the noble ends we praise. 

Why have I made this prelude ? A certain de- 
scription of works in the field of painting was written 
with much learning by one whose name 1 bear, my 
mother's father, in very pure Attic Greek and with 
extreme beauty and force. Desiring to follow in 
his footsteps we felt obliged before setting out on 
the task to discourse somewhat on the art of painting, 
in order that our discussion may have its own 
matter in harmony with what is proposed. 

Most noble is the art of painting ^ and concerned 
with not insignificant matters. For he who is to be 
a true master of the art must have a good knowledge 
of human nature, he must be able to discern the 
signs of men's character even when they are silent, 
and what is revealed in the state of the cheeks and 

^ Lit. "figure-painting." 



KaraardaeL, ri 8e iv 6<^6a\ixodi> /cpdcrei, ri ht iv 

25 6(j)pv(OV Tjdei K6LTai Kal ^vvekovTi elirelv oiroaa 

391 K. 69 yvco/jiTjv Teivei. tovtcov Se iKavoi<^ ^X^^ f^^' 

atpijaet irdpra /cal cipiara vTroKpivelraL i) %et/3 

TO oIksIov eKdarov Spafia, /jLe/jLtjvora el tu^ol t) 

6pyil,6/ievov y evvovv i) x^lpovra i) 6p/jLi]T7]v i) 

5 ipojvra, Kal KaOdira^ to dpp-oStov icj) CKdara) 
ypd-yjrei. (4) 'HSela Se Kal i) iv avrco dirdri^ Kal 
ovBev 6v€lSo<; (j)epovaa- ro yap roL<; ovk ovaiv &)? 
ovai irpoaeardvaL Kal ayeadau vtt' avrojv, co? 
elvaL vofii^eLv, d(f) ov /3Xa/5o9 ovhev, ttw? ov y^rv^^a- 

10 ywyrjaaL iKavov Kal alria^; eKro^ ; 

(5) AoKovai Se jjlol iraXaioi re Kal cro(f)ol 
av8pe<; ttoWcl virep ^v/jL/i6Tpia<; t^? eV jpacpiKfj 
ypdyjrai, olov v6/jlov<; TiOevTe^; tP]<; eKdarov roiv 
fieXcov dva\oyLa<; &)? ovk ivov t/}? Kar^ evvoiav 

15 KLV)]a€a)<; eTTiTV')(^elv cipiara /it) el'aco rov €k 
(f)vaea)<; fxerpov rf]^ dppLovia^ yKovai]^;- ro yap 
eK(f)v\ov Kal e^o) /lerpov ovk dirohex^adai (pv- 
aew<; 6p6co<; ixovay]<; Kivrjaiv. (G) ^KOTrovvri Be 
Kal ^vyyeveidv riva tt/do? TTOLr/rLKrjV €)(€iv i) 

20 rexi^V evpiaKerat Kal kolvi] ri^ dfKpotv ehat, 
(pavraaia. 6eo)v re yap irapovaiav ol TTOtrjral 
69 ry]P eavroiv aKy]V7)v eadyovrai Kal irdrra oaa 
oyKov Kal aep.vorT]ro<; Kal yjrv^^aycoylaf; e)(erai, 

^ I'lutarch (Mor. 348 C) discusses the " deception " inherent 
in tlie art of the drama, in particular tragedy, (|Uoting(iorgias 
to the effect that the poet who deceives is wiser tlian the one 



the expression of the eyes and the character of the 
eyebrows and, to put the matter briefly, whatever has 
to do with the mind. If proficient in these matters 
he will grasp every trait and his hand will successfully 
interpret the individual story of each person — that a 
man is insane, perhaps, or angry, or thoughtful, or 
happy, or impulsive, or in love, and, in a word, will 
paint in each case the appropriate traits. And the 
deception ^ inherent in his work is pleasurable and 
involves no reproach ; for to confront objects which 
do not exist as though they existed and to be 
influenced by them, to believe that they do exist, is 
not this, since no harm can come of it, a suitable and 
irreproachable means of providing entertainment ? 

Learned men of olden times have written much, I 
believe, about symmetry in painting, laying down 
laws, as it were, about the proper relation of each 
part of the figure to the other parts, as though it 
were impossible for an artist to express successfully 
the emotions of the mind, unless the body's harmony 
falls within the measurements prescribed by nature ; 
for the figure that is abnormal and that exceeds 
these measurements cannot, so they claim, express 
the emotions of a rightly constituted being. If one 
reflects upon the matter, however, one finds that the 
art of painting has a certain kinship with poetry, and 
that an element of imagination is common to both. 
For instance, the poets introduce the gods upon 
their stage as actually present, and with them all 
the accessories that make for dignity and grandeur 
and power to charm the mind ; and so in like manner 

who does not ; and that the hearer who is deceived is wiser 
than the one who is not, in that he is easil}' moved by his 
pleasure in what he hears. 



ypa(f)iK)} 76 6/iiOLCo^, a Xeyeiv ol Troiyral €)(^ov(n, 

25 javT iv T(p ypd/jLfiart aiifxaivovaa. 

(7) Kat Tt ')(^py] Xeyeiv irepl tmv apL^i]X(i)(; 
eipr^fievwv 7roWot<; rj irXelova Xeyovra hoicelv e? 
iyKcofXLa KaOiaraadai rod 7rpdy/ia70<; ; dpKel 
yap Koi ravra SeLKVvvai to aTTovSa^o/jievov ij/juv 

30 &)9 ovK airo^e^XrjaeTai ttoi, el Kal ^ Kopuhf] 
(T/jLLKpd' ypdfi/jLaai yap Trpoarv^wv ')(eipo<^ d- 
(TTeta?, ev oh dp-^alac irpd^cL^ ovk dpiovaw^ 
exovaai rjaav, ovk ij^lcoaa aiwirfj irapeXOelv 
ravra. dXX iv i)pZv /xij 6(f)' evo^ ro ypdjifia 

35 TTpoioi, earo) Ti? vrroKeifjievo^, irpo'^ ov ypr) rd 
KaO' efcaara SiapOpovv, IV ovro) Kal 6 \0709 to 
dp/jLorrov exoi^ 


392 K. (1) 'H KOfJLMaa rfj a^^ufp ijpcoivi] — opa^; ydp 
rrov rrjv vtto rco Spec crri(f)pdv ro eZ^o? koI 
6<jraXp6vy]v KvavM — XKvpo<;, w Tral, vrjao^, rjv 
06LO<i ^o^oatX,/}? dvep^coBea KaXel. eari 8' avrfj 
5 Kal 7rr6pdo<; iXda<; iv ralv x^polv Kal dfxireXov 
KXrj/jLa. 6 5' VTTO TOi? irpoTToai rov opov^ wvp- 

^ ci kjX Jacobs : 1^. 

^ Cf. Plutarcli {Moi\ 748 A), who discusses the relation of 
poetry, dancing, and painting. "For dancing is silent 
poetry, and on the other hand poetry is a dance of speech. 
... It would seem that as poetry resembles the use of 
colour in painting, so dancing resembles the lines by which 
figures are defined." 

2 Cf. the same sentiment, Od. 12. 451 f. 



does the art of painting, indicating in the lines of 
the figures ^vhat the poets are able to describe in 
words. ^ 

And yet why need I say what has been admirably 
said by many,^ or by saying more give the impres- 
sion that I am undertaking an encomium of painting ? 
For even these words^ few indeed though they be, 
suffice to show that our present effort will not have 
been wasted. For when I have met with paintings 
by a clever hand, in which ancient deeds were treated 
not without refinement, I have not thought it right 
to pass them by in silence. But in order that our book 
may not proceed on one foot,^ let it be assumed that 
there is a person present to whom the details are to 
be described, that thus the discussion itself may have 
its proper form. 


The heroine crowned with reeds — for doubtless you 
see the female figure at the foot of the mountain, 
sturdy of form and dressed in blue — is the island of 
Scyros, my boy, which the divine Sophocles calls 
" wind-swept." ^ She has a branch of olive in her 
hands and a spray of vine. And the tower in the 
foot-hills of the mountain — that is the place where the 

^ i.e., as a discourse of one person. 

* While the Homeric poems tell nothing of Achilles' con- 
nection with Scyros, later writers say that Peleus sent him 
there to king Lj'comedes at the age of nine in order to keep 
him out of the expedition against Troy. There he was 
brought up in maiden's garments with the daughters of 
LN'comedes, till Odysseus and Diomedes (or Ajax or Phoenix 
and Nestor) were sent at the bidding of Calchas the prophet 
to fetch him. The scene was a favourite one with Greek 
painters from Polvgnotus on. 

» Soph. Frag. 539 N. 



70?, irapOevevovjai evravda al rod Av/cofA,ijSov<; 
fcopai ^vi' rf) hoKovar) irapa ©eViSo? r}K€LV. (2) 
To 'yap roi yioipojv eirl tw ttcilSI 86y/j,a rov 

10 TTarpo^; N7]peco<; 1) BeVf? jiadovcra koI ox; iir 
a/x^o) TTeiTpwfjLevov avrw eh] 7) ^i]v a^Xew? *] 
evKXed yevo/uLevov Ta^iara reXevrav, airoOero'^ 
avrfi 6 7ra2<; ^vv Tat9 AvKOfjL)]8ov<; dvyarpdaip 
iv ^Kvpo) KpvTTTeraL, Koprj fiev elvai SoKcav Tal^ 

15 aXXaL<;, fxiav he avTMV rijv Trpea^uTcirijv ^vv 
a7ropp/]Tcp yvov<; epcori, Koi irpoLonv ye e'<? rofcov 
copav 6 ')(p6vo<; top Hvppov efcScoaei. (3) 'AXX' 
ouK evravda Tavra. Xet/JLcov Be irpo rov irvpyov 
— €7rLT7]Beio<; yap 6 t6tto<; tt)? vrjaov K6paL<^ 

20 dvdcbv d(f>6oviav hovvai — kol 6pa<^ ye^ 00? dXXi] 
dXXa-)(^oae inroaKiBvavTaL rd civOrj cnroKeipovaai. 
KaXXo^ fxev ovv dfjLi])(avov diraacbv, dXX' al fiev 
aTe;)^t/&)? e? OtjXecav copav aTroKXivovai ^oXah 
T€ 6(p6aX/jLMV dirXd eK^XeTrouaac; /cal Trapeidf; 

25 dvdeL Kal rfj Trpo^ eKaara op/iy ev fxdXa to 
6r}\v eXeyxovaai, i]Bl Be 1) dvaxai'Ti^ovaa Tr)v 
KopiTjv Kal 0Xo(7Vpd avv dffpoTijrc avriKa fidXa 
hLeXeyxOi^o-erai T7]v (f)vaLv Kal to ^vv dvdyKjj 
eTTLTrXaaTOV eK^vaa top 'Ax^XXea eKSel^ei- Xoyov 

30 yap e? tov<; "EjXX7]va<; e/iTreaovTo^ tov t/}? 
HeTiBo^ diroppyjTOV aTeXXeTaL Aio/x>;S>;? ^vp 
'OBvaaet errl tijv ^Kvpov BieXey^ovTe^;, oirr) 
TavTa e^^i. 
393 K. (*i) 'O/oa? Be d/i(f>(i) tov p.ei' Kal jSe^vOiCfievov 
TTfv TO)v 6(f)daX/jL6)v dKTLva Bid iravovpyiav oifiai 

1 Cf. Iliad 9. 410 f. "Thetis telleth me that twofold 
fates are bearing nie towards the doom of death : if I abide 



daughters of Lycomedes follow their maidenly pur- 
suits with the seeming daughter of Thetis. For when 
Thetis learned from her father Nereus the decree of 
the Fates about her son — that one of two things had 
been allotted to him, either to live ingloriously or 
becoming glorious to die very soon ^ — her son was 
put away among the daughters of Lycomedes on 
Scyros and now lives hidden there ; to the other 
girls he seems to be a girl, but one of them, the 
eldest, he has known in secret love, and her time is 
a])proaching when she will bring forth Pyrrhus. But 
this is not in the picture. There is a meadow before 
tlie tower, for this part of the island is a garden 
made to produce flowers in abundance for the 
maidens, and you see them scattered here and 
there plucking the flowers. All are surpassingly 
beautiful, but while the others incline to a strictly 
feminine beauty, proving indisputably their feminine 
nature by the frank glances of their eyes and the 
bloom of their cheeks and their vivacity in all they 
do, yet yonder girl who is tossing back her tresses, 
grim of aspect along with delicate grace, will soon 
have her sex betrayed, and slipping off the character 
she has been forced to assume will reveal Achilles. 
For as the rumour of Thetis' secret spreads among 
the Greeks, Diomedes in company with Odysseus 
sets forth to Scyros to ascertain the truth of this story. 
You see them both, one keeping the glance of his 
eyes ^ sunk low by reason, I think, of his craftiness 

here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my 
home return, but my renown shall be imperishable ; but if I 
return home . . . lost then is my glorious renown, yet shall 
my life long endure." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 

2 For the phrase tV tSiv ocpdaX/xwv aKrlva, cf. the elder 
Phil. Vit. Soph. 61, 3, and Ima(j. 311, 18 K. 


KOI TO hiaOpelv tl aei, 6 Se rou Ti^8eco9 e/xcfypcov 
jjiev, €TOi/jLO<i Be TTji/ ypco/uLrjv koI to hpaaTt]pLov 
5 TTpoTeivwv. KaTOiriv he avTcov kul 6 rfj adXTTLyyi 
(Ti-jiiaivdyv ri By) ^ovXcTai Kal tl to rj6o<; r/}? 
<ypacf)P]<; ; (5) "^ocfyo^; cov \)Bvaaev<^ kol iKavo^ 
TMV aBrjXcov 6i]paTri<; tt/jo? tov tmv Oi^pcDfievwv 

eXeyx^^ f^VX^^^'^^^ '^^ ^^^' p^^^'i y^P eV tov 
10 Xeifiwva TaXdpov^ re Kal oaa iraial Kopat*; e? 
TvaiBiav evTrpeir?] Kal TravoirXiav, al jxev ovv 
AvKO/jLt]Bov<; e? to oIkeIov y^copovcnv, 6 Be tov 
Il>;Xeco9 TaXdpoi<; fiev kol KepKiai ^aipeiv Xeyei 
rrapaXLTToov avTO, rat? K6pat,<; yBij, e? Be ttjv 
16 iravoirXlav 6p/iyjaa^ yvfivovTai re to evTev- 

(1) . . . aOai. 6 Be IIvppo<; ovk dypoiKO'; eTC 
ovB' ev avxP-^ acppiycoi', ola /SovkoXoov veavcev- 
fiaTa, dXX' ijBrj aTpaTL(t)T7]<;. eaTrj fiev yap 
20 olkoi'tIm €7rep€Laa<; eavTov Kal aTro/SXeTTcov e? 
TTJV vavv, ea6)]<; Be avTw (f)oiviKl<; ef cjfiov 
aKpov €9 Tr]V cipLCTTepav dveiXij/jL/jLevy] X^^P^ '^^^ 
XevKo^; virep yovv x^^cov, to Be Ofifxa auTw 
yopyov fiev, ovk ev op/jufj Be, dXX' ev dvafioXaU 

^ Jacobs saw that the end of this description and the 
beginning of the next have been lost. 

^ The same phrase is used by the elder Philostratus, Fit. 
A poll. 11, 20 (02, 24 K). 

^ Cf. .Soph. Ajax 2, where the word d7]p(ifxeyov, " ever on 
the prowl," is used by Odysseus. 

3 Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) was the son of Achilles by 
Deidameia, daughter of Lycomedes, Born after the de- 



and his habit of continual scheming, the other, 
Tydeus' son, prudent, ready in counsel and intent on 
the task before him. What does the man behind 
them mean, the one who blows the trumpet? and 
what is the significance of the painting ? ^ Odysseus, 
shrewd and an able tracker of secrets,^ devises the 
following plan to test what he is tracking out ; when 
he throws down on the meadow w-ool-baskets and 
objects suited to girls for their play and a suit of 
armour, the daughters of Lycomedes turn to objects 
suitable to their sex, but the son of Peleus, though 
he claims to find pleasure in baskets and weaving- 
combs, forthwith leaves these things to the girls, and 
rushing to the suit of armour he divests himself of 
the feminine attire he has been wearing. . . . 


. . . And Pyrrhus is no longer a countrj^ boor 
nor yet growing strong amid filth like brawling sons 
of herdsmen, but already he is a soldier. For he 
stands leaning on a spear and gazing towards the 
ship ; and he wears a purple mantle brought up 
from the tip of the shoulder over to his left arm 
and a white tunic that does not reach the knee ; 
and though his eye is flashing, it is not so much the 
eye of a man in full career as of one still holding 

parture of Achilles, the boy was brought up by Lycomedes 
lill, at the bidding of the seer Helenus, Odysseus and 
Phoenix came to fetch him to accomplish the capture of 
Tro}'. His victory over Eurypylus is described below (Xo. 10, 
p. 325f. ). The departure of P\'rrhus from Scyros, his assistance 
to Odysseus in securing the bow of Philoctetes, and his 
exploits at Troy are scenes frequently depicted on Greek 
red-figured vases. 



25 €Ti fcal tCo a(j')(^ciWeiv tj] rpi^fj Kal avaTvnol 
TL 7) yi'co/jLi] TO)v iv '\\i(p flLKpOV vdTepov, 
7) k6/jL7] J'vv fiev 7)av^d^ovTO<; iiriKpe/jLarai ro) 
fiercoTTO), 6pfi7]aavTO<; Se draKryjaeL^ avvairo- 
vevovaa rai? rov 6v/iov /cLV7]ae(7iv. (2) At 3e 

30 dvaaKiprcoaai averov alye'^ Kal rd draKTovvra 
/SovKoXia Kal ?; eV fieaoi,<; ippi/jL/jLevr] KOpvvr) 
(jvv KoXavpoiri roiovhe, w iral, Xoyov ex^rar 
dx06/jL6vo<; rfi /jL7]Tpl kol TO) TraTTTTft) T^9 iv rfi 
V7]a(i) eSpa^, iireiSr] eV 'A;^/XA,et reOvecoTL Seu- 

35 aavTe^ irepl rw TraiSl dirco/jLorov i7roL7]aavTO ttjv 
Tov Uvppov e^oSov, aL7To\LOL<; T€ Kal fiovalv 
394 K. kavTOv €(f)laT7]aiv diravx^vi^cov tov<; drifid- 
^ovTa<; rrjv dyeXijv ravpov;, o'l S?) irpo's tw iv 
Se^id heLKVvvTai opei. (3) Aoylov Be e? tou? 
" EjX\T]va(; €/ji7r€a6vro<;, cl><; ovk dWw ro) dXcor6<i 

5 eaotro rj Tpola irXrfV rot? AlaKiBai^;, areXXeraL 
6 ^olvL^ e? TTjv ^Kvpov dvd^cov TOV iralSa Kal 
KaOop/jLia-dfievo^ ivrvyxdvei 01 ovk cIBotl ovk 
et3a>9 7tX7]v oaa to d^pov re Kal dhpov tov 
eihov^ VTreSeLKVv avTov 'A;!^tX\e&)9 elvai iralha. 

10 KavTevOev yvwpiaa^;, 09 eh], €K7rv(TT0<; yiveTai 
Tw T€ Avko/jL7]861 Kal TT) A7]tBafji€ia. (4) TavO* 
V "^^X^^l ^P^X^^ TOVT(i) ypd/jL/iaTi dvahihdaKeiv 
7)fjid<i iOeXei, yeypaiTTai he a>? koI iroiTjTal'i ^Srjv 



back and vexed at the delay ; and his mind images 
something of what will happen a little later in Ilium. 
His hair now^ when he is at rest, hangs down on 
his forehead, but when he rushes forward it will be 
in disorder, following, as it tosses to and fro, the 
emotions of his spirit. The goats skipping about 
unchecked, the straying herds, and the shepherd's 
staff with its crook lying among them where it has 
been thrown ^ imply some such story as this, my 
boy : — Vexed with his mother and his grandfather 
for being kept on the island, since after the death 
of Achilles in fear for the boy they had sworn that 
Pyrrhus should not depart, he set himself over the 
goats and kine, subduing ^ the bulls that scorned 
the herd — the bulls that may be seen on the mountain 
at the right. But when the oracle came to the 
Greeks that Troy would be captured by none other 
than the descendants of Aeacus, Phoenix is sent to 
Scyros to fetch the boy, and putting ashore he en- 
counters him, each unknown to the other except in 
so far as the boy's graceful and well-grown form 
suggested that he was x\chilles' son. And as soon 
as Phoenix recognized who he was, he himself be- 
came known to Lycomedes and Deiodameia. All 
this is what art would teach us by means of this 
small picture, and it is so painted as to furnish to 
poets also a theme for song. 

^ Iliad 23. 84:5-(j : "Far as a herdsman flings his crook, 
and it flieth whirling over the herds of kine. . . ." 

^ Lit. "turning back the neck'' and thus throwing them 
to the ground ; cf. Philostratus, Her. 190, 1, where the same 
phrase had been used. 

^ aTttKrija-ei Jacobs : droKTrjo-eie. 




L") (1) Ka6yjp7]TaL 6 ^pv^, /SXeirei yovv airo- 
\a)\o<; i]S?] 8ia ^vveaiv ojv Trelaerai koI varara 
Sj] avXijaat ireTTLarevKev ovk e? Kaipov e? tov 
T^9 At^toO? Opaauvd/jL€vo<;, eppLirrai re uvtm 6 
avXo<; aT{,/io<; /xt) avXelv en, co? Kal vvv aircihwv 

20 iXijXeyfCTaL' kol TrapiaTrjKe jiev rfj ttltvi, d(p' 979 
Kp€/jLaa0j]a€a6aL olSe ravTrjv eavrou KaraSiKa- 
adfjLevo<^ Slktjv ckjko^ hehdpOat. (2) 'Tiro^Xeirei 
he e? TOV ^dpjBapov rovrov rrjv uKfirjv rf;? 
fjLa)(^atpa^ TrapaKovco/jLevov e? avrov 6pa<; ydp 

25 TTOV, &)? al fjLev %6t/36? 69 Tr^v dKovr\v avTW kol 
TOV aiBrfpov, dvaj3XeiT€i he e? tov ^lapavav 
yXauKiMV Tft) 6(f)6aX/jL(o kol Kofirfv tlvcl hiav- 
fcrra? dypiav Te /cal avxf^^o'civ. to Be iirl 
T% 7rap€Ld<; epev6o<^ (f)ov(x)VTo<; oljjiai, koX /; 

30 6(f)pv'i Be virepKeLTai tov 6/jLfiaT0<; 69 avyrjv ^ 
^vvy]y/j.€V7} Kal BiBovad tl tw dvfxw 7]6o<^, dXXa 
Kol aicnjpev dypiov tl vtto twv fxeXXovTcov avTca 

^ avyr]u F: avTrtw suggested by Jacobs, opyV ^>y an 
anonj-mous critic. 

^ The story is that Marsyas presumptuously undertook to 
prove that tlie music of his flute was superior to Apollo's 
music on the lyre. Defeated in the contest, he was flayed 
alive. Cf. Xen. A^iab. I. 28: "It was here (at Celaenae), 
according to the story, that Apollo flayed Marsyas, after 
having defeated him in a contest of musical skill ; he hung 
up his skin in the cave from which the sources issue, and it 
is for this reason that the river is called Marsyas." 




The Phrygian has been overcome ; at any rate 
his glance is that of a man already perished, since 
he knows what he is to suffer, and he realizes that 
he has played the flute for the last time, inasmuch as 
inopportunely he acted with effrontery towards the 
son of Leto. His flute has been thrown away, con- 
demned never to be played again, since just now 
it has been convicted of playing out of tune. 
And he stands near the pine tree from which he 
knows he will be sus- 
pended, he himself having 
named this penalty for him- 
self — to be skinned for a 
wine-bottle. 2 He glances 
furtively at the barbarian 
yonder who is whetting the 
edge of the knife to be 
applied to him ; for you see, 
I am sure, that the mans -^^•-^' -^• 

hands are on the whetstone and the iron, but that 
he looks up at Marsyas with glaring eyes, his wild 
and squalid hair all bristling. The red on his 
cheek betokens, I think, a man thirsty for blood, 
and his eyebrow overhangs the eye, all contracted 
as it faces the light ^ and giving a certain stamp 
to his anger ; nay, he grins, too, a savage grin in 
anticipation of what he is about to do — I am not 

^ i.e. in case he should be defeated by Apollo in the 
contest. The expression is current in classical writers, e.g. 
Solon. Frag. 33, 7 Bergk. ; Aristophanes, Nv.h. 442. 

^ A similar expression is used by the elder Philostratus, 
Vit. Apoll. 283, 10 K (VII. 28). 



hpaaOai, ovk olK e.ire x^^P^^ ^'^^ '^^t (ii^oiSovaij^; 
69 Ttjv a(f)ayi]if r/}? yuco/i7]<;. (3) 'O Se 'AttoX- 
395 K. Xcov yeypaTTTac SiavaTravcov eavrov iirl Trerpa^ 
rivo<i, 7} \vpa Se ev apiarepa Keifievi) eri, ttX^/'t- 
rerac vivo rP)^ X^^po? t/"}? Xam? eixirLirrovar)^ 
7]p€fiaLco<i Kol olov SiaylraX\ova7]<i. opa^; Be Kal 
5 pnOvfiov TO Tuv Oeov elSo^; Kal ixeihiafxa eirav- 

6oVV TW TTpOaCOTTO),^ 7) T6 X^' P V ^^^I'Ci iTTLKeiTaC 

TO) AToX-TTft), 7Tpa(o<; ^vi'ixovcTa TO irXriKTpov, 
KaTappaOvfiovfjievr] vtto tov €9 ttjv vlk7]v %at- 
povTO<i. avTov Kal 6 7roTa/jio<; tov Mapava 
10 iTTCovvfilav dfieiylrayp, (4) "Opa fiot Kal Trjv twv 
^aTvpcop dyeXrjv, ola OpijvovuTe^; tov Mapcruav 
y€ypa(f)aTai, ft)9 €7n(f)aivovT€<i to dyepwxov Kal 
dveaKipTTjKO^; ^vv tw dnaadaL. 


(1) Ti 5' OVK av eiiroi^ irepl tovtwv, ov<; ayec 
15 p,€P diro 0)]pa<; rj ypa(f>7], Trrjyrjv 8' avTol<i dva- 
SlBcoaiv (iKpaicpvi) ttotl/jLOV tc Kal hiavyov^ 
vd/iaTO<i ; 6pa<; Si ttov Kal to irepl T7]v injyrjv 
a\ao<^, (pvo-€(o<; epyov olfiai t)]<; ao(f>i)<;' iKavij 
yap irdvTa, oaa /SovXeTai, Kal BetTai Tex^V^ 
20 ovSei', i] ye Kal Te;^/'at9 avTaU dpxr) Ka6eaT7jK6. 
(2) Tt yap ipSet 7rp6<; ttjv t?}9 aKid<i irapaaKevtjv ; 
aiSl fiev 7)fiepihe<; dypiai dvco epirvaaaai ^ twj/ 
hevhpodv ^vp^e/SXi'jKaac tov^ twv KXyj/jLaTcov 
KopvpL^ov^ dXXov dXXcp avpSeovaai, crpiXa^ he 

* TrpoawTTCf Olearius: aa-wiroo. 

^ auw fpirvffacrai Arnim : dt/epTrvaaaai. 



sure whether because he is glad or because his mind 
swells in pride as he looks forward to the slaughter. 
But Apollo is painted as resting upon a rock : the 
lyre which lies on his left arm is still being struck by 
his left hand in gentle fashion^ as though playing a 
tune. You see the relaxed form of the god and the 
smile lighting up his face ; his right hand rests on 
his lap, gently grasping the plectrum^ relaxed be- 
cause of his joy in the victory. Here also is the 
river which is to change its name to that of Marsyas.^ 
xAnd look, please, at the band of Satyrs, how they 
are represented as bewailing Marsyas, but as dis- 
playing, along with their grief, their playful spirit 
and their disposition to leap about. 


Is there any praise you would withhold from these 
men whom the painting is bringing back from the 
hunt ? And it causes a pure spring of sweet and 
pellucid water to gush for them from the earth. 
And no doubt you see the grove around the spring, 
the work of wise Nature, I believe ; for Nature is 
sufficient for all she desires, and has no need oi 
art ; indeed it is she who is the origin of the arts 
themselves. For what is lacking here to provide 
shade ? Those wild vines climbing high up on 
the trees have brought clusters of shoots together, 
fastening them to one another : while the bryony 

1 Ovid, Metam. VI. 383 f., after describing the death of 
Marsyas, tells how the tears of his companions gave rise to a 
river which bore his name. 

2 Cf. the treatment of the same theme by the elder 
Philostratus, Imag. I, 28, p. 107 f. 



25 avryj kui kitto'^ o/jlou re Ka\ KaO" ev hiaGyovie's 
iTVKvov Tiva rOVTOV KOi 7]Sl(0 Te^i^T/? 6po(f)ov 
7]/j.LV irapexovcriv. 6 he rcoi> cnjSovcov X^P^'^ '^^^ 
ra TMv ciWcov opvecov /aovaela cra^w9 7)fiLv ra 
Tov fiekixpOTcirov ^ocpoKXiov; eVt yXwrrau 

30 dyei 



elacd KaT avrov evaro/J-ova ch]S6i>€^, 


(3) 'AW' ye tmv OrjpevTMv 6/il\o<; 7]SeL<; 

396 K. fiev koL arL(f)pol ^ koI irveovre^i en tov ev rfj 0/]pa 

6v/jl6v, aWo^ Be dWo tl 7rpdTTovT€<^ hiavairav- 

ovcTi a(f)d<; avTov<^. olov, co Beoi, Kal co? 7)8v to 

(Ta(f>e^ T^9 Tex^V^ ^^^ ^^ ^cttiv opdv Trjv eKdaTOV 

5 TVXV^' (JrLJBd^i fxev at'Too-^eS^o? avTrf Slktvcov 

olfiai ^vyKeiixevT) Bex^TUi tov<; dpxovTa^;, Kokov 

elirelv, r/)? 6rjpa<^. (\) koX ttcvtc jxev ovtol. 

6pa<; Se tov fieaaiTaTov avTcov, o)? Bieyeipa^; 

eavTov edTpaiTTai irpo'^ tov<; vTrepKaTaKeifievov^ 

]0 TOV eavTOv, /jlol BoKelv, dOXov d(f)7]yov/jLevo<; Kal 

TO KaTa^akelv OdTepov tcjv Orjpiwv tt/owto?, a 

St) T0)v BpVMV e^rjpTrfTat 8i,ktvoi<;, e\a^o<i olfxai 

KoX crO? eyKeifxeva. y yap ovk eiTrjpOai act 

BoKel Kal x^^P^'-^ '^^ '^PIV > ^^ ^' dT€ve<; fiev 

15 opcoaiv e? avTov dcpTjyovfievov, dTepo<; Se a<f)a)V 

evaiTOKXiva'i eavTov Trj aTi^dhi BiavaTravei irov 

Kal auTO? Ta^a dvaypdyfrcov ^ tl t^;? 6rjpa<; 

oLKelov epyov, OdTepov Be tov ^vacriTLOv Kepa^ 

^ TTuKfOTTTepoi Olearlus from Sophocles : TrvKiSrepoy, ■kvkv6- 


^ (TTKppoi Olearius : <npi<pvoi. 
^ ava-ypd-^wv Reiske : avaypacpcav. 


yonder and the ivy, both together and separately, 
provide for us over there a close-knit roof that is 
more pleasant than art could produce.^ The chorus 
of nightingales and the choirs of other birds ^ bring 
clearly to our tongues the verses of Sophocles, 
sweetest of poets : '' And within (the copse) a 
feathered choir makes music." ^ 

But the band of hunters, charming sturdy youths 
still breathing the excitement of the hunt but now 
variously engaged, are resting themselves. Ye gods ! 
how wonderful and how charming is the clearness 
of the painter's art, and how well we may discern 
the story of each one I This improvised couch, made 
of nets, I think, receives those whom we may rightly 
call ^' the leaders of the hunt." They are five in 
number. You see the midmost of them, how he 
has raised himself and has turned towards those 
who lie above him, to whom, it seems to me, he is 
relating the story of his contest and how he was 
first to bring down one of the two wild beasts which 
are suspended from the trees in nets, a deer ap- 
parently and a boar. For does he not seem to you 
to be elated * and happy over what he has done } 
The others gaze on him intently as he tells his 
story ; and the second of them as he leans back on 
the couch seems to be resting a while and planning 
soon to describe some exploit of his own in the 
hunt. As to the other wing of the company, the 

^ The description is based on a passage in the elder Philo- 
stratus, Vit. ApolL 49. 2.3 fK (II, 7). 

2 Eur. Frag. 88. 2 f. has the phrase "choir of nightin- 

3 Quoted from Soph. Oed. Col 17 f. 

* For this use of iiraipeiv, cf . Phil. Imag. 347, 7 K. 



o ^ 7r/J09 Tft) iiecrandrw kvXlko^ i)fjLLheov<i ev 

20 Oaripa ralv ^(epolv ova7j<; rrjv Se^iav virep 

K€(f)a\y]<i Trepiayaycov ti-jv Wyporepav aSeiv /iol 

SoKel, 6 5e e? rov hiciKOvov opwv ao^elv KeKevei 

T7)V KVklKa. 

(5) Xo(/)6<; re o ^coy pd(f)0(; Kal uKpi/Stj^; ttjv 

25 x^^P^' cLvaaKOTTOvvTi yap iravra irapoKeXenrTai 

ovBe Tcop oiraovcov ovhev ohl pev yap Tpv(f)0<s 

hevhpov KaT6L\y(f)0D(; KuO^jTat, eve(TK€va<j[xevo<^ 

CO? el)(ev ev tm irepl rrjv Otjpav Spo/JLO), kclk ^ 

7n]pa<; ivrj/jipLeprj^; avrw heiirvSyv hvelv he kvvmv 

30 6 p,ev eVretW? eavrov irpo avrov eadUiy 6 he tol<; 

oTriadiOL^; evoK\daa<^ dvex^u ttjv Beprjv eV8e;^o- 

jjuevo^^ TO, 69 avTov aTroppLTTTOv/jLeva, 6 Be irvp 

dva.ylra's fca\ ev6e\<^ rwv aKevcov, oaa irpo^ tovto 

Xp^cttu, rd TT/oo? rr/r Sacra dcfyOova irapexet 

35 a(f)LaL fxdXa eiTLa'nepx^''^ avTo<; eavrov, daKo^ 

397 K. T6 ouTO? elKfi eppLTrrai ttotov diravrXetv toJ 

^ov\o/jLev(p, Svelv re Oepairovroiv 6 fiev SaiTp6<; 

olfiai pLOLpa^ rep^veiv (f)y]al tt}? laaia<; einp^eXov- 

p.ej'0<; ev tm diroTep^eiv, 6 S' virex^t, to virohe^o- 

6 pLevov Td<; p.oipa<i fcra? irov diraLTcov elvai. to 

yap ev 0)]pa Kard ye tovto SiaWdTTOv e? tvxW 




man next to the central figure, a cup half full in 
one hand and swinging his right hand above his 
head, seems to me to be singing the praises of 
Artemis Agrotera,i while his neighbour, who is 
looking towards the servant, is bidding him hurry 
the cup along. 

The painter is clever and exact in his craftsman- 
ship ; for if one examines the whole picture, nothing 
has been overlooked, not even as regards the attend- 
ants. The man yonder, having found a branch broken 
from a tree, sits on it, dressed just as he was in the 
chase after the quarry and making a meal from the 
pouch which hangs at his side. One of the two 
dogs, stretched out in front of him, is eating, while 
the other squats upon his hind legs and stretches 
out his neck to catch the morsels that are being 
thrown to him. A second man kindles a fire, and 
putting over it some of the pots adapted to this 
use he makes ready for the hunters the abundant 
food, hurrying at his task ; this wine-skin has been 
thrown down here at random for anyone that wishes 
to draw drink from it; of two other servants, one, 
the carver I suppose, tells us that he is cutting 
portions with due care to make them equal, and the 
other holds out the platter that is to receive the 
meat, doubtless demanding that the portions be 
equal ; for in this matter at least the management 
of a hunt leaves nothing to Fortune. 

^ Artemis the goddess of wild beasts whom the hunter 
must propitiate. 

^ 6 added by Olearius. 

^ KOLK Jacobs : /cat. 

2 it/Sexdn-^vos added by Arnim. 



(1) Zr^T6?9 TcTft)?, Tt9 ?; Koivwvla hpaKOVTO^; re, 
09 evTavOa ttoXv^ avearfjKev iyeipa^; lov 'Trr}-)(yv 

10 Kara vcora Ba(f)Oivb<; koI ^yeveia KuOieU utt' opdfj 
KoX TTpiovcorfj rfj Xo^ia ^Xeircov re S€iP(x)<; SeSop- 
K0<; Koi iKavov et? eKirXri^Lv ayayelv, ravpov ^ 
T€, 09 VTTO Toaavrrj Kepaia yvpa)aa<; top av)(€va 
Kal hLaaKciiTTcov Ty]V iv iroal yr)u &)9 69 i/iM^oXrjv 

15 L€Tat, Kal dvBpo^; tovtov i^jiidi-jpo^;' ^ovirpwpa 
fiev yap avrw irpoawira- Kal y6P€ia<; d/j,(f)L\a<f)))(; 
irriyai re va/Ltdrcov iKTrXrj/jL/jLvpovaat rov yevelov. 
TO re (TvveppvrjKo^ <jo^ €9 Oeav irXrjOo^ Kal 7) iv 
/jbiaoi^; Koprj, vvpucfyr] Tt,<; ol/iaL, rovrl yap ^pr) 

20 VO6CV TO) dficf)' avTrjv KoapLW, Kal yepwv ovto<; iv 
dOvfio) TM eiSei veavLw; re iKSv6/jL€V0<; X€ovTrj<; 
Kal ponaXov iv ralv ^^epoiv €)(^wr, Tjpcoivtj re ti<; 

^ The contest between Heracles and Acheloiis was a 
favourite subject in art from early times (cf. Pans. 6. 19, 
22 for the description of a group at Olympia, which included 
Ares, Athena, Zeus and Deiaueira as well as Heracles and 
Acheloiis). In early drawings Acheloiis is given the form 
of a centaur, but by the fifth century he is regular!}' repre- 
sented as a bull with a human face. As pointed out by Jahn 
{Eph. Arch. 168'2, p. 317 f.), Acheloiis here has the form of a 
man, but witli the horns of a bull springing from his fore- 
head. While tlie presence of the serpent and the bull with 
Acheloiis is not explained in the description, apparentl} the 
painter intended to depict two of the forms that the river 
assumed during the struggle. The failure of Pliilostratus to 
understand what he described may be regarded as direct 
evidence that he was dealing with an actual picture. Evi- 




Probably you are asking what these three figures 
have to do with each other — a serpent "ruddy of 
back " ^ which rises there Hfting its long form^ a 
beard hanging beneath an erect serrated crest, its 
glare terrible and its glance one that cannot but 
work consternation ; a bull that curves its neck 
beneath those mighty horns and, pawing the earth at 
its feet, rushes as for a charge ; ^ and here a man that 
is half animal, for he has the forehead of a bull and 
a spreading beard, while streams of water run in 
floods from his chin.* The multitude that has 
gathered as for a spectacle ; the girl in their midst, 
a bride, I suppose (for this must be inferred from the 
ornaments she wears) ; an old man yonder of sad 
countenance ; a youth who is divesting himself of a 
lion's skin and holding in his hands a club ; and 
here a heroine of sturdy form who has been crowned 

dentl}' the picture gave two scenes (if not three) : first the 
situation before the conflict, and secondly the outcome of 
the conflict ; for the hitter can hardly be treated as mere 
rhetoric on the part of Philostratus. The subject is depicted 
on a tripod base in the Constantinople Museum [Mitlh. d. 
deutsch. Palaestina-vereins Yll, PI. Ill), where Acheloiis 
appears as a bearded man with horns of a bull ; one horn 
lies at the feet of Heracles, and blood spouts from the head 
where it had been broken otif. (Benndorf.) 
2 Quoted from Homer, 11. 2. 308. 

^ Cf. Eur. Her. Far. 869 : " Like a bull in act to charge." 
* Cf. Soph. Track. 8f. : "For my wooer was a river-god, 
Acheloiis, who in three shapes was ever asking me from my 
sire — coming now as a bull in bodily form, now as a serpent 
with sheeny coils, now with trunk of man and front of ox, 
while from a shaggy beard the streams of fountain-water 
flowed abroad." Trans. Jebb. 


avT7] aTi(f)pa Kal Trpo? \6yov tw fivOfp r;'}? 
'ApKaScov TpO(f)T]<; i>^y^ iarepL/iei^i). KaXvBoov 

25 olfiai ravra. 

(2) Tt? Be 6 T)]<; ypa(f)7]<; A-070? ; 'Ai^eXwo? 
TTorayLio?, u) TTOLy AriiaveLpa<^ r/}? OiVeo)? e/owz^ toi' 
ycip.ov anevBei Kal YI€lOu> jxev air ear l twv Spco- 
/j,ev(i)v, a\\o<; Se ciXXore Sokcov vtto rot? opw- 

30 /jL€voi<; elheaiv eKTrXtj^eiv ^jyelraL rov Olvea. 
TOVTOv yap elvai yivwGKe rov iv rfj ypa(f>(j, 
KaTi](f)f] Brj^ iirl rfj iratSl Ayjiaveipa a6vp,(0^ 
39S K. TOP]cTTi]pa opcoarj. yeypaiTTai yap ovk alSol 
T7]i> irapeiav i^avOovaa, aWa irepLhei]^ ola 
TTeiaerai tw irapa (f)vatv t/}9 av^vyia<^. aW 
6 fiev yevvalo<^ 'H/ja/tX?}? oBov irdpepyov (paalv 

5 €Kovai(o<; vc^icnaTat rov aOXov. 

(3) Kal ra fiev ev dva0o\ai<; ravra, IBov Se Kal 
o)? ^vveariJKaaiv i]Sr], Kal oaa fiev iv dp-)(^al<i rrj<; 
Bi,a/jLd)(r]<; 6eov re Kal drpeirrov i']p(oo<; vtto- 
voeuaOco, ro S' av reXo<; 6 fxev €? ^ovKepwv 

10 dvafiop<pci)aa^ eavrov 6 7TorafjLO<; eirl rov 
'HpaKXea oopfirjaev, 6 Se rfj Xaia rov Be^iov 
Xafiofievo^ Kepw'^ Odrepov rw poirdXcp roiv Kpo- 
rd(f)(i)v €KTrpe/jiVL^€L, KuvrevOev 6 fiev alfiaro<; tjB^j 
jjidXXov 7) vdparo<i dcptyat Kpovvov<; aTrayopevayp, 

15 6 Be 'llpaKXi]<; yavv/jL€vo<; rw epyrp 69 ryjv A7)id- 
veipav opa Kal ro fxev porraXov avrw e? yrjv 
eppiirrai, irporeivei Be avrfj ro rov 'A^eXtoOf 
Kepa^ olov eBvov rod yd/xov. 

1 S)} Schenkl : 5e. 



^vith beech leaves in harmony with the story of her 
Arcadian nurture — all this, I think, is Calydon. 

What is the meaning of the painting? The river 
Acheloiis, my boy, in love with Deianeira the daughter 
of Oeneus, presses for the marriage ; ^ and Persuasion 
has no part in what he does, but by assuming now 
one and now another of the shapes we see here, he 
thinks to frighten Oeneus. For you are to recognize 
the figure in the painting as Oeneus, despondent on 
account of his daughter Deianeira, who looks so 
dolefully at her suitor. For she is painted, not 
with cheek reddening through modesty, but as 
greatly terrified at the thought of what she will 
suffer in union with that unnatural husband. But 
the noble Heracles willingly assumes the task as 
an "incident of his journey," to use a popular 

So much by way of prelude ; but now see how 
the contestants have already joined battle, and you 
must imagine for yourself all that has transpired in 
the first bouts of the struggle between god and 
irresistible hero. Finally, however, the river, as- 
suming the form of a horned bull, rushes at Heracles, 
but he, grasping the right horn with his left hand, 
uproots the other horn from its forehead with the 
aid of his club ; thereupon the river-god, now 
emitting streams of blood instead of water, gives 
up the struggle, while Heracles, full of joy at his 
deed, looks at Deianeira, and throwing his club on 
the ground holds out to her the horn of Acheloiis 
as his nuptial gift. 

^ It must be remembered that Deianeira had been promised 
to Acheloiis by Oeneus. 



(1) W0vp6i<;, 'HpaK\€i<;, aOvpei^ Kal yeXa^; i^Bt) 

20 Tov aOXov, ev a7rapydvoL<; (ov Kal ravra, Kal tov<; 

e^ 'Hpa^ SpciKOpra^ eKcirepou cKarepa %ef/3l (Itto- 

Xa/Scov ovS€V€7riaTpi(f)r) tT;? fir]Tpo<; €K(ppovo^ irape- 

(7T6t»a-?;? Kal irepiheov^. aXX ol fiev i]Sr} irapelvraL 

/i7]Kvi'aPT6<s e? yfjv Tou? 6Xkov<; Kal tol'; Ke(f)aXa<; 

25 e'jTLKXivavT6<^ rah rod vyjiriov ')(6palv vTrocpaiv- 

ovaa<i TL Kal tmv oBovtcov Kupxapoi he ovtoi Kal 

tcoSei? Xo(f)taL re avroU vtto tov Oavdrov e? 

Odrepa eTTLKpejiel's koI rd Ofi/xara ov SehopKora 

r} T€ (/)oX/? ovK e^avOovaa ^(pvo'M Kal (^oivlkl 

30 ert ovSe irpo^ rd^; Kivi]ae(o<i Tp07rd<; viravyd^ovaa, 

dXX' vircoxpo^ ^al iv tm Sa(f)OLvw TreXiSvr]. 

(2) To ^e tT/? WXk/jL7]V7]<; elBo^i dvaaKOTTOvvri 
di>a(f)6p€iv fxev diro tT;? tt/ocot*/? eKirXi^^iw^ SoKel, 
399 Iv. dTnaret Be vvv oh ')]8t] opa, i) 8' eK7rXi]^L<i avrip 
ovSe Xe-^co KelaOai ^vv 6^(^00 pr] or ev 6pa<; ydp ttov, O)? 
d/3XavT0<: Kal jXOvoxiTwv draTnjhijaaaa t/)? 
€VP7]<i avv draKTW rfj ko/itj Td<; y^elpa<^ eKire- 
5 rdaaaa ^oa, Oepdiraival re, oaai iraprjaav 
TiKTovar), eKirXayelaaL dXXr) dXXo n rrpoaSia- 
Xeyovrai tt) irXi^aiov. (3) Ol he iv ottXol^ ovtoi 

^ Cf. the treatment of the birth of Hermes bj tlie elder 
Philostratus. I, 26, p. 99. 

2 The description of the scene follows closely the story as 
told by Pindar, Ncm. I. 41 f., viz. the attack of two serpents 
on the new-born babe, Alcmene's rush to the rescu(;, the 
approach of Theban chiefs led by Amphitryon, and the 
prophecy of Teiresias. Theocritus, XXIV. 55 f., gives the 
story in much the same form, except that here the babe 




You are playing^ Heracles, playing, and already 
laughing at your labour, though you are still in 
swaddling clothes ; and taking the serpents sent 
by Hera one in each hand you pay no heed to 
your mother, who stands near by 
crazed with fear.^ But the 
serpents, already exhausted, 
are stretching out their coils 
upon the ground and drooping 
their heads towards the babe's 
hands, showing withal a 
glimpse of their teeth ; these 
are jagged and poisonous, and 
their crests sag to one side as ^^^' -"• 

death approaches, their eyes have no vision in them, 
their scales are no longer resplendent with golden 
and purple colours, nor do they gleam with the 
various movements of their bodies, but are pale and, 
where they w^ere once blood-red, are livid. 

Alcmene, if one looks carefully at her face, seems 
to be recovering from her first fright, but she now 
distrusts what she really sees, and her fright has 
not permitted her to remain in bed even though 
she has lately given birth to a child. For doubtless 
you see how, leaping from her bed, unsandalled and 
only in her shift, with disordered hair and throwing 
out her arms she utters a shout, while the maid- 
servants that were attending her in her travail are 
in consternation, talking confusedly each to her 
neighbour. Here are men in armour, and one man 

Heracles is ten months old. Cf. Fig. 27, from a coin of 

X 2 


fcal 6 yv^po) TU) ^L(f>6i eroifio^y ol fiev Qrj/BaLcou 

eKfCpiTOL ^OT]doVl>T€<; ' A/ji(f)lTpV(i)VL, 6 8' VTTO Tr;i^ 

10 7rpcoT7]v dyyeXiav a7ra<Td/jL€Vo<; to f/0o? 66? 
d/jivvai' ofiov eirearr) toT? Spci)/x€voL<;, /cal ovk oW 
elre eKTreirXip/ev el're ;\;at/3et Xolttov t) p,ev yap 
X^^^P ^'^' ^'^ "^V ^TOLfio), 7) 8e r(ii)v 6(f)0aXp,cou 
evvoia x^^Xivd rfj %6t/Dl e^iaTTjaLv, ovhe e^ovro^i 

15 6 Ti KOi djjLvvaLTo, Koi ^PV^M-^^ TTpo fxt^Oeia^ 
SeofjLBva TO, TTapoi'Ta opcovTo<;. (4) Tavrd rot 
Kal a)3t 7r\i]aL0v 6 Teipeaia^ OeaTTi^wv ol/xac 
oTToao^; 6 vvv ev (f7rapydvoL<; ojv earai, yeypaTrrai 
Se evdeo^i fcal pavTiKOv iiraaOiiaivwv. (5) 

20 FeypaTrrai Kal i) Ni)f ev ecBei, ev y ravra, 
\afjL7rahi(p KaraXdfiTrovaa eavrrjv, w? /X7; dfjidp- 
Tupo<^ Tov TraiSo? 6 dOXo<; yevifrai. 

9' OP0ETS 

(1) 'Op(pea TOV ri}? Movar)<; OeX^ai ttj /jlou- 

aLfcfj Kal Ta /x)] pbeTe^ovTa Xoyov Xoyoiroioi (fiaai 

25 irdvTe^;, Xeyei he Kal o ^(oypd(f)o<;' Xecov re ovv 

Kal crO? avTrp TrXrjaiov dKpoaTal tov 'O/jc^eo)? 

Kal eXa^a Kal Xaywo'^ ovk d7ro7r7]Sa)VTe<; r?}? 

^ The plirase is taken from the elder Philostratus, Her. 
182. 14 K. 

2 The phrase is from the elder Phil., ImcKj. II. 21, p. 38C, 
21 K. 

^ For (f eUei in this sense, see the elder Phil., Imag. 
p. 376, 5 K. 

* Cf. the elder Phil. I, 10, p. 45, on the power of music. 
Priest, seer, founder of mystic cults in many parts of Greece, 


who stands ready with drawn sword ; ^ the former 
are the chosen youth of the Thebans^ come to the 
aid of Amphitryon ; but Amphitryon has at the 
first tidings drawn his sword to ward off danger 
and has come with them to the scene of action ; 
nor do I know whether he is overcome with fear 
or rejoices ; for his hand is still ready to act, but 
the thoughtfulness revealed^ by his eyes sets a curb to 
his hand, since he finds no danger to ward off, and 
he sees that the situation before him needs the 
insight of an oracle to interpret it. Here, in fact, 
is Teiresias near at hand, foretelUng, 1 think, what 
a hero the babe in swaddling clothes will become ; 
and he is represented as divinely inspired and 
breathing out prophecies. Night also, the time 
in which these events take })lace, is represented in 
human form^; she is shedding a light upon herself 
with a torch that the exploit of the child may not 
lack a witness. 


That Orpheus, the son of the Muse, charmed by his 
music even creatures that have not the intelligence 
of man, all the writers of mytlis agree, and the 
painter also so tells us. Accordingly, a lion and a 
boar near by Orpheus are listening to him, and also 
a deer and a hare who do not leap away from the 

Orpheus is here simply the ' ' son of the Muse,"' the singer whose 
music liad power to charm nature, animate and inanimate, as 
well as men. As a musician he was closely associated with 
Helicon and the Muses, and in this capacity lie went on the 
Argonautic expedition. In wall-paintings, on painted vases, 
and in mosaics, Orpheus the musician was a favourite 


6p/jL)]<; Tov Xeoi^To?, kuI 6aot<; iv di'jpa B6ivo<i 6 
Otjp, ^vpayeXd^ovrai avrw paOv/jLco vvv paOvpioi. 

30 av he p^ijBk tou? 6pvida<i a/oyw? J'S???, fXT] tov<; 
fiovaLKOv<; /jlovop, ol<; evevarop^elv rot? dXaeaiv 
e6o<;, cOOC opa /jlol kuI top Kpayenjp koXolop koX 
400 K. TTjP XaKepv^av avrrju Kal top tov Ato? deTOP. 6 
flip, oTTOio^ ap.(f)co TO) TTTcpvye ToXaPTevaa^, efw ^ 
eavTov arei^e? e? top ^Op(j)ia ^Xeireiy ovS' iiri- 
aTpe(f)6/i6PO<i tov 'JTT(OKo<i rrXtiaiop 6pto<;, ol he 
o ^vyKXeiaaPTe^; Ta<; yepv^ oXol ^ elal tov OeXyop- 
T09, XvKOL T€ ovTOi Kul dpp€<^ dpafiL^, f) Tedrj- 
TTOTe^;, (2) peapieveTat he tl kol /jLel^op 6 
^coypd(f)o<;' hephpa yap dpaa7rdaa<; tcjp pi^oyp 
dicpoaTa<^ ayei TavTa tm ^Op^el Kal irepiLaTrjo-LP 

10 avTW. irevKT] re ovp Kal KV7rdpiTT0<; Kal KXi)Opo<; 
Kal aXyeipo^i avTrj Kal oaa aXXa hephpa ^vfx^a- 
XoPTa Tou? TTTopOov^i olov ^^elpa^; irepl top ^Opcpea 
eaTTjKC Kal to OeaTpop avTw ^vyKXeiovaip ov 
herjOePTa Te')(pri<^, 'ip oi re 6ppi6e<; eV avTcop 

15 Kadet,oLPJO Kal eKelpo<^ utto crKta fiovaovpyon]. 

(3) 'O he KaOrfTaL dpTi'X^vovp pep €K(SdXX(OP 

LOvXop iinppeoPTa Trj irapeia, Tuipap he 

^ €|a) Piccolos : e|. 

2 6\oi Morelli : o followed by space for three letters. 

1 Quoted from Find. Nnn. III. 82. 

^ Quoted from Hesiod, 0pp. 747. 

^ Cf. Find. Pyth. I. 6 f . and .'^cliol. The notes of Apollo's 
lyre cause the eagle to sleep on the sceptre of Zeus. 

* Orpheus is frecpiently represented in art as wearing the 
tiara or Fhr^'gian cap, apparently because of his associations 


lion's onrush, and all the wild creatures to whom 
the lion is a terror in the chase now herd with him, 
both they and he unconcerned. And pray do not 
fail to note carefully the birds also, not merely the 
sweet singers whose music 
is wont to fill the groves, 
but also note, please, the 
'^chattering daw," ^ the 

eagle of Zeus 
poised aloft 

' 2 and the 
The eagle, 

ventures a still more 
torn trees up by the 

on Dotn his 
wings,^ gazes intently at 
Orpheus and pays no heed 
to the hare near by, while 
the animals, keeping their 
jaws closed — both wolves 
yonder and the lambs are 
mingled together — are 
wholly under the spell of 
the enchanter, as though 
dazed. And the painter 
striking thing ; for having 
roots he is bringing them yonder to be an audience 
for Orpheus and is stationing them about him. 
Accordingly, pine and cypress and alder and 
the poplar and all the other trees stand about 
Orpheus with their branches joined like hands, and 
thus, without requiring the craft of man, they en- 
close for him a theatre, that therein the birds may 
sit on their branches and he may make music in 
the shade. Orpheus sits there, the down of a first 
beard spreading over his cheeks, a tiara * bright with 

witli Thrace and Asia Minor. Cf. Fig. 28, wall-painting of 
Orpheus charming animals and birds. 


Xpvaavyf] iirl K€(pa\ij<; alcopcov to re o/jl/jlu avrw 
^vv dffpoTi^TL ivepyov koI evdeov ael t^? jpcio/jLrj'; 
20 el<; OeoXoyuiv Teivov(n]<;. Tci^a he tl /cal vvv 
dhei- Koi i) 6(f) pv<i olov airocDipaivovaa rov vovv 
TMV aapidTcov ea6i]<; re auTw fieravdovaa 7r/3o? 

Ta9 T7}9 KLV)](7€W^ TpOTTU^i, KOl TOtV TToSolu fl€V 

\aio<; direpeiScov els ry^v yrjv dvex^c rrjv KiOdpav 

25 vTTep fjLTjpov K€ifi€V7iv, 6 8e^io<; Be dva^dWeraL 

rov pv6/J.ov iTTLKpOTCov rovSa(f)o^ rw irehiXrp, al 

X^^P^'^ ^^ V P'^^ Be^id ^vvexovaa dirpl^ ro 

irXrjKTpov iTrtreTaTai tul<; ^OoyyoL^ iKKeLp,ev(p 

Tw dyKOdVL KOL KapiTcp elaco vevovn, rj \aid Be 

30 opdoU 7r\/]TTeL Tot9 BaKTv\ot<; tou? fxirov^, 

aXX* earai Tf? dXoyla Kara aov, (b Opcpev' 

teal vvv p,ev Oi-jpia Oe\y€c<; Kal SevBpa, SparTai<; 

Be yvvai^lv €Kp,6\7]<; Bo^eL'^ Kal BiaaTrdaovrai 

a6)p,a, w Kal 6i]pia (pOeyyo/xevM evp,evel'^ dKod<; 

35 irapeax^v. 


401 K. (1) Tt? ?; ^Xoavpov pev einaKvviOv virep 
6(f)daXpL03v atpovaa, ti]v Be 6<^pvv evvoia<; p^ecrrr] 
Kal lepOTTpeiTi]^ t7]v Kop^ijv TO re 6p,p,a ouk oiB' 
etre epcoriKov 'i]Bri etre n evOeov vTrocpaLvouaa 

1 Cf. the description of Amphioii, the elder Phil. Iniag. 
p. 43. The erect tiara was the prerogative of roj^alty in 
Persia and Xear East kingdoms. 

2 The pin-ase is taken from the elder Phil. Imxg. 324, 2G K. 
^ Apparently the left arm steadies the lyre, which rests 

on the left tliigh. 



gold standing erect upon his head, his eye ^ tender, 
yet alert, and divinely inspired as his mind ever 
reaches out to divine tliemes.^ Perhaps even now 
he is singing a song ; indeed his eyebrow seems to 
indicate the sense of what he sings, his garment 
changes colour with his various motions, his left foot 
resting on the ground supports the lyre which rests 
upon his thigh, his right foot marks the time by 
beating the ground with its sandal, and, of the 
hands, the right one firmly grasping the plectrum 
gives close heed to the notes, the elbow extended 
and the wrist bent inward, while the left with 
straight fingers strikes the strings.^ But an amazing 
thing will happen to you, Orpheus : you now charm 
wild beasts and trees, but to women of Thrace you 
will seem to be sadly out of tune and they will tear 
your body in pieces,^ though even wild beasts had 
gladly listened to your voice. 


Who is the woman with a grim frown above her 
eyes,^ her brow charged with deep thought, her hair 
bound in hieratic mode, her eye shining either already 
with love or with inspiration, I know not which, and 

* The story of Orpheus' death at the hands of the Thracian 
women was widely current in Greece, but it is told in most 
various forms and explained in different ways. Commonly 
it is stated that he was torn in pieces b}' the women of 
Thrace, as Pentheus was torn in pieces b}' the Bacchantes, 
while the Muses, the animals and trees, and even the rocks 
joined in mourning his death. Cf. the version of Ovid, Met. 
11. 1-66 

^ Lit. "lifting tlie ridge of skin above her eyes in a grim 


5 avyjjv ^ re dppt]TOv eKheiKvvaa rov Trpoaco-rrov 
T7JV Heap ; rovrl hrj to tcov 'HXidScov yvcopia/ia' 
yiijheiav oJpai y^pyj voelv ti]v AliJtov. (2) 
^ FjVopfj.i(Td/i€vo^ yap tm ^daiSi 6 tov ^ldaovo<; 
<7ToXo9, 6t€ to xPvaovv perrjeL Bepa<;, Kal et? 

10 T7]v TOV AltJTOv TrapekOodv TToXiv, ipa i) Kopi] 
TOV ^evov XoyLCTfio^i re vireiaiv avTtjv di]6ri<;, Kal 
6 TL fikv ireTTovOev, ovk olSev,^ uTaKTel Be Ta<; iv- 
voia<^ Kal Trj "^v^fj dXvei. ecnaXTai he ovk evepyo<; 
vvv ovhe ev ^vvovaia tcov KpeiTTOvcov, dW' ox? Kal 

1.3 TToXAot? opdv. (3) To Se tov '\daovo<; eZSo? 
d/3pov fiev, ov /ji7]v e^o) tov eppwaOai, o/jLfia re 
avTcp )(apo7rov vrroKeiTai tq} tyj^ bcppvo^ I'-jOei 
(f)povova7]<; re Kal 7ravT0<; v7r€paipova7]<; tov 
dvTL^ooVy loiikw Te I'jOr] ffpvei KadepirovTL Kal i) 

20 KopLTi ^avOr] einaaXeveL tw /leTooTra), to. he ye 
T>}? cttoXj)? XevKov ^^^tTCOva e^coaTai XeovTTJv 
€^7]pT7]fj,€vo<; Kal Kprjirlha evrjiTTai, ukovtiw re 
eirepelaa^ eavTov eaTTjKC to Te 7]0o<; tov irpoa- 
(OTTOV ^ olov fJ^i'jTe vTTepcppovelv, alSetTaL ydp 

25 fjLTjTe viroKeladai, Oappel ydp tov ddXov. (4) 
"Epw? he eavTov jroielTai Tavra Kal tm to^w 
€7repeL(Ta<; eavTov evaXXd^ tw TTohe laTijac to 
Xafiirdhiov e? Trjv y?]V r/oe'-v/ra?, eTreihrj ev dva^o- 
Xal<; eTL Ta tov €po)TO<;. 

^ o'77v Gonipcrz : avri^v. ^ o!5*v Jacobs : o'.Sa 

^ TrpoffwiTO'' Morelli : dcruiirov. 

' Cf. Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. IV. 726 f. Circe 
recognises Medea by this characteristic, " And she longed to 
hear the voice of the maiden, her kinswoman, as soon as she 


with an ineffable radiance^ when she permits her face 
to be seen? This in truth is the distinguishing 
mark of the descendants of Helios ^ ; I believe one 
must recognize Medea, the daughter of Aeetes. For 
now that the expedition of Jason, on its quest of the 
golden fleece, has come ashore at the river Phasis 
and has arrived at the city of Aeetes, the girl is in 
love with the stranger, and unwonted reflections 
enter her mind ; and though she does not know 
what has happened to her, her thoughts are all 
confused and she is distraught of soul. She is not 
now dressed for her priestly functions, nor as if she 
were in the company of her superiors, but in a 
manner suitable for the eyes of many. The form of 
Jason is slender, but not at all lacking in strength ; 
his flashing eye is overhung by a brow that is 
haughty and defiant of all opposition ; the first beard 
creeping over his face grows luxuriantly,^ and his 
light-brown hair tumbles down upon his forehead ; 
as for his dress, he wears a white tunic fastened by a 
girdle, over which a lion's skin is flung, and on his 
feet are laced boots ; he stands leaning on his spear ; 
and the character revealed by his face is that of one 
who is neither over-proud, since he is modest, nor 
meek, since he is bold for his undertaking. Eros is 
claiming this situation as his own, and he stands 
leaning on liis bow with his legs crossed, turning his 
torch towards the earth, inasmuch as the work of 
love is as yet hardly begun. 

saw that she had raised her eyes from the ground. For all 
those of the race of Helios were plain to disc2rn, since by the 
far flashing of their eyes they shot in front of them a gleam 
of gold." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L. 

2 The phrase is taken from the elder Phil. Her. 141, 27 K- 


7/ A0TPONTE5: 

(1) 0/ ii> A/0? av\f} a6vpovTe<^, "E/ao)? olfiai 

402 K. Kal ravvfit]Si]<;, el' tl xph '^^^ /^^^ '^V ^'^P?^ 

voetv, Tov 5' ciTTo Tou To^ov Kal Tcov iTTepwv 69 

iiriyvwaiv ayeiv. aOvpovaL fxev ovv aaTpayaXoi^ 

ouToi,^ yeypdcparai 8' 6 /lep v^piariKcof; eiri- 

5 T(t)6d^(ov 6 "E/3<w9 Aral irXi'^pi) rP]<; liKtjf; tov 
koXttov dvaaeicov, 6 he hvelv acrrpayciXoiv en 
TOV fiev Kal avTov a7roX(i)XeKQ)<^, tov S' e(f>' 
o/iola TT poire /jLttcov iXiriBc. KaTr](f)r)<; Se avTcp 
irapeia Kal 7) tov OjifjiaTO^ clktU KaLTOt d^pov 

10 oVto? ^elBvOiafievri - to t/}? dvLa<^ €7rtai]fjLaLV6i. 
(2) Heat T6 Tp€t<; avTat €(f)eaT(oaal acpiaiv, al 
/JL€V ovS' e(f)6p/jir]vevovTo<i SeovTai, W6)]vd re yap 
avToOev ISovTi SyjXr] Trjv opioyvLOv TTOirjTau (pacri, 
TTavoirXiav dpurexop^evrj Kal yXavKOV vtto tt)? 

15 K6pvOo<; opcoaa ^vv dppevwirw re tw -ijOei Tt^v 
irapetdv eirKpoivLTTOvaa, ?)St Se av to (f)LXop,€iS€<; 

^ ouToi Morelli : ouai, 

2 a and P give ^^^vOiafxevov ; cf. sui>ra 393, 1 K., p. 288. 

^ Eros and Ganymede are associated apparently as the 
two young boys in the company of the gods, who play 
together in Olyinpus. Cianymede, son of Tros (or Laomedon) 
■was snatched away by Zeus from the hills near Troy to be 
the cup-bearer of the gods, since he was the most beautiful 
of mortal men. As coming from Asia Minor rather than 
Greece proper, he wears a tiara. 

2 The account follows closely the description of Eros and 
Ganymede playing dice in ApoU. Rhod. Aryon. III. 117 f. 
Cf. Fig. 29, l)oys playing dice. 

' Because "born" with her when she sprang from the 
head of Zeus. 




The boys who are playing in the palace of Zeus 
are, I suppose, Eros and Ganymede,^ if the one may 
be known by his tiara and the other identified by 
his bow and his wings. They are playing with dice ; 
and Eros is 
represented as 
taunting the 
other insolently 
and as shaking 
the fold of his 
garment, full as 
it is of his win- 
nings, while his 
companion is 
represented as 
having lost one 
of the two dice 
left to him and 
as throwing the 
other with no 
better hope.^ 
His cheek is downcast and the glance of his eye, 
albeit a beautiful eye, indicates by its despondency 
his vexation. And these three goddesses standing 
near them — they need no interpreter to tell who 
they are ; for Athena is recognised at a glance, 
clothed as she is in what the poets call the " panoply 
of her race," ^ casting a '^'bright glance"* from 
under her helmet, and ruddy of face as well as 
masculine in general appearance ; the second one 


FiG. 29. 

* Referring to the Homeric epithet yKavKunns, " bri 
glancing," if this interpretation of the word be accepted 



vTTo tP] tov Kearov I'vyyc kuv tw yp(i/j./iaTt. 
arjixaiveL/'Wpav he ye rijv TpLTi-jv elvai to aefivov 
fcal ^aatXiKov tov etSou? (^rjai. 

20 (3) Ti Brj /SouXovTUi koI rt? /; t>}? ^vvovaia^ 
avTac<; uvdyK^] ; ciyovaa roi)? 7revT7]Koi>Ta i) 
^Apyo) evcop/xiaTai tm <t>dcnSL Y^oaTTOpov re Kal 
'S,vfi7r\r)yd8a<; Sie^eXOovaa. 6pa<; Se Kal tov 
TTOTa/jLov avTov ev ^aOel hovaKL Keifxevov, ev 

25 ^Xoavpo) Tft) etSei, k6/jli] Te yap dfi(piXa(j)T]<; 
avTO) Kal dvecTTrjKvla yeveLu^; t€ v'7T0(f)pLTT0vaa 
Kal yXavKLOdVTe'^ ocj^OaXjioi, to Te ddpoov tov 
pevfiaTo<; ovk diro kuXttiSo'^ eK^^eofjuevov, fjirep 
ovv e'lcoOev, aW' utto iravTo^ eKirXrj/i/jLvpov 

30 evvoelv SlScoctiv rjfMtv, 67r6ao<; iiri'^^eLTat, Toy 
Il6uT(p. (4) Tov Be T?5? vavTiXia^i ddXov dK0V€L<; 
olfiaL Kal TTOLrjTcov TO j^pvaovv hepa<i XeyovTcov 
irdcn pteXovadv re T-qv 'Apyco Kal 'Ofiy']pov (phal 
cf)pd^ovcriv. dXX^ o'l fiev t>}? W.pyov<; vavffdTai 

35 eV i7ri(TK€\jrec TOiv KaT6iXf](f)6T(ov, ai Oeal Se e? 
LKeaiav tov "E/)&)to9 yKovaLv alTovaac ^vXXa/Belv 
403 K. (j(f)Laiv eirl acoTtipia twv TrXojTTjpcov ttjv Aljjtou 
yhjSeiav peTeXdovTa, fjnaOov Be ol r^? virovpyia^ 
i) p/]Tr)p a(f)atpav TrpoBeiKWcn Aio<i avTrjv 
dOvppa yeyovkvai Xeyovaa. (5) 'Opdf; Kal t?]V 
5 Te)(y7]v ev ttj ypa(f)fj ; ')(^pvaov fiev avTi-j, pacfyrj 
Be avTrj oia voelaOat fiaXXov rj opdaOai, eXcKd^; 

^ The epithet applied to Aphrodite in Homer, e.g. Iliad 
3. 424. 

^ The " magic of her girdle" i.s described, Ilmd 14. 214 f. 

^ On the representation.? of the river Pha.sis, of. Purgold, 
Archaeologische Unter.^udaingcn zu Claudian inid Sidonius, 
p. 34 f. (Benndorf). The type of the recumbent river god is 



even in the painting shows the " laughter-loving " ^ 
disposition caused by the magic of her girdle ; ^ and 
that the third is Hera her dignity and queenliness 
of form declare. 

What do the goddesses desire and what necessity 
brings them together? The Argo carrying its fifty 
heroes has anchored in the Phasis after passing 
through the Bosphorus and the Clashing Rocks. 
You see the river himself lying on his deep bed of 
rushes ; ^ his countenance is grim, for his hair is 
thick and stands upright, his beard bristles, and his 
eyes glare ; and the abundant water of the stream, 
since it does not flow from a pitcher as is usually the 
case, but comes in a flood from his whole figure, 
gives us to understand how large a stream is poured 
into the Pontus. You have heard, I am sure, about 
the prize which was the object of this voyage, since 
poets tell of "the golden fleece," * and the songs of 
Homer also describe the Argo as "known of all." ^ 
But while the sailors of the Argo are considering 
the situation, the goddesses have come as suppliants 
to beg Eros that he assist them in saving the sailors 
by going to fetch Medea, the daughter of Aeetes ; 
and as pay for this service his mother shows him a 
ball which she says was once a plaything ^ of Zeus. 
Do you see the clever art of the painting ? The 
ball itself is of gold ; the stitching on it is such 
as to be assumed by the mind rather than seen 

found in description of Meles, the elder Phil., supra, p. 159, 
and again in the description of Xanthiis, infra, p. 325. 

* The word for the golden fleece, S4pas, is the one regularly 
used by the poets, e.g. Eur. Med. 5. 

^ Qu(jted from the Odyssey, 12. 70. 

^ Here also the account closely follows ApoU. Rhod. Argon. 
III. 132 f. 


re Kvavov icf)' eavT7]<; eXtTTOvaa ^ Ka\ dvappKpelaa 
Td\a TTOV TO diroxf^povi^ a€\a<; fiapfiapvyal'i 
darepwv eiKa^eiv avrrjv" Scoaei. (6) 'O Be tov<; 
10 fiev darpayciXovi; ovSe opa en, pL'\jra<; Be avToif^ 
^a/jbd^e i^tjprt-iTai tov t/)? fX7]Tpo(; ireirkov eV- 
aXydeuaai rrjv V7r6a)(€aiv avrw, ov yap iWelylreLP 
TOV dOXov. 

6' IIEAO^^ 

(1) 'O p.ev inrep reTpoopcov Be rjirei'pov fiea^]<; 

15 iTTTrevaeiv p,eXX(ov vir opOf) Tidpa kul AvBla 
aToXfj, HeXoyjr oipai, Opaau<^ i)vio)(o^ kuXov 
elirelv. Wvve yap ttotc Kal Bid 6aXdaai]<; tovtl 
TO dpfia, Tlocr6LBa)j>o<; oI/jlui Bovto'^, aKpa ttj tov 
Tpoxov dyjriBi vir dBidvTW d^oii Ta tt)^ yaX/]v)]^ 

20 BiaOewv vcoTa. (2) "Oppa 5' avTM yopyov Kal 
av)(y]v dv€crTT}K(b<; to t/}9 yvcopj]<i eTOipov iXey)(^€L 
1] re 6(f)pv<i virepaipovaa Bi]Xol KaTacppopetaOat 
TOV Olvopaov VTTO TOV p,€LpaKLOv. (ppovcL ydp 
T0i9 'iiTiroi^, eTreiBi] v^jravx^^^^ '^^ ^^^^ ttoXXol 

25 TOV p,vKTr}pa fcal kolXoc ttjv oirXrjV Kal to 6p,p,a 
KvdveoL T€ Kat €T0ip.0L y^aiTi^v T€ dpcpiXacprj 

^ khirrovaa Olearius : eKiTTOvaav. 
^ avTTjv Jacobs : avrfi. 

^ The description should be compared witli the treatment 
of the same subject by the elder Thil. Jving. I. 17, p. 69. The 
scene is laid at Olympia and pictures the preparation for the 

2 The upright tiara was tlie prerogative of royalty, cf 
p. 260, n. 1. 

3 Quoted from Iliad 8. 126. 

* Iliad 13. 127. Poseidon in his car "set out to drive 
over the waves . . . and the axle of bronze was not wetted 



by the eye^ and spirals of blue encircle it ; and very 
likely, when it is tossed in the air, the radiance 
emanating from it will lead us to compare it with 
the twinkling of stars. As for Eros, he no longer 
even looks at the dice, but throwing them on the 
ground he clings to his mother's dress, begging her 
to make good her promise to him ; for, he says, he 
will not fail in the task. 

9. PELOPS 1 

The man mounted on a four-horse chariot who is 
setting out to drive across the mainland, wearing an 
upright tiara 2 and Lydian dress, is Pelops, I believe, 
a '' bold charioteer"^ it is fair to call him. For he 
once guided this chariot even across the sea, doubt- 
less because it was the gift of Poseidon, speeding- 
over the back of the calm sea on the very edge of 
the wheel and keeping the axle unwetted.* His 
flashing eye and erect head attest his alertness of 
mind, and his haughty brow indicates that the youth 
despises Oenomaiis.^ For he is proud of his horses, 
since they hold their necks high, are broad of nostril, 
hollow of hoof,^ dark-eyed and alert, and they lift 

beneath " ; cf. the description of Pelops' chariot, the elder 
Phil., supra, p. 71. In Greek story, Pelops is associated with 
Asia Minor, usually with Lydia, from which he came to the 
Peloponnesus, which bears his name. Because he was the 
favourite of Poseidon, the god gave him the chariot which 
bore him across the sea from Asia Minor to secure Hippo- 
dameia as his bride. 

^ The father of Hippodameia. 

^ Xenophon, Art of Horsemanship 1. 3: "For high hoofs 
have the frog, as it is called, well off the ground. . . . More- 
over, Simonides saj's that the ring, too, is a clear test of 
good feet ; for a hollow hoof rings like a cymbal on striking 
the ground." Trans. Marchant, L.C.L. 



Kvai'Mv a.7raLcopovi>T€<; avx^i'cov, o? Srj dakaaaiwv 
rpoTTO';. (3) YlX'Tjaiov he avrcjv 'Imrohdfxeia rrjv 
fiev irapeiav alhol ypd(f)ovaa, i'vp,(f)7]<; Be aroXrjv 

30 dfiTTexofjLevTj /SXeirovad re 6(f)0a\/ioL<; ol'oi<; 
aipelaOai to rov ^evov fidWov. epa re yap 
Kal Tov yevvtjropa p^vaaTTerai toloutol<; aKpoOi- 
vioL's (ppovovi^ra, a Sr] Kal opa^, Ke^aXd^ ravra^, 
404 K. TO)v ^ TrpoTTvXalcov dvrjp,pevy~i eKdart], Kal a)(^)]fia 
EeS(i)Kev 6 'X,p6vo<; IBlov, ov eKaaro^ dircoXero 
a(f)6t)v. Tou? yap Srj pv7]aTi]pa<; tt}? Ovyarpo^ 
7]K0VTa^ Kreuvcov dydWerai rol^ yvcopLa/jLaat tov 
5 <p6vov. (4) KiScoXa Be vTrepLTrrd/ieva acpcov 
6\oij)vperac tov eavTCJp dyfova ttj tov yd/iov 
^v/ji^daei i(pVfivovvTa' ^vpL^rjvaL yap Bt] 6 
rieXo'vl^, ft)? iXevOepa Xoittov ?) iral'^ eh] tov 
dXdaTopo';. Kal 6 AlupriXo? ^e ^vviaTwp r?)? 

10 ^vpb^daeo)^ avTolv eaTLv. (5) 'O B' ovk airoOev 
6 Olvojxao'^y dXX! eTOLjiov avTco to dpfia Kal to 
Bopv vTrepTeTaTat tov Bi(f)pov KaToXa^ovTi to 
peipdKLOv KTelvaiy 6 Be tu) iraTpl Ovcop "Xpec 
airevBet ciypw^ IBelv Kal (j^opwv to oppa Kal tov 

15 MvpTiXov eTTLairepx^L. (6) "E/jco? Be KaT7]<^r]<i 

^ A relative like wv seems to be required before tw ; 
or possibly we should read dvrjufxdvag (Reiske) kKaaTOT^ 

^ i.e. she sides with Pelops, while her father is hostile to 
all the suitors. 

^ The covenant of marriage seems to mean in the first 
instance the agreement that a suitor should win Hippo- 
dameia if his chariot should outrun tliatof Oenomaiis, while 
otherwise he should be slain by Oenomaiis. In the case of 
Pelops the covenant includes Pelops' promise to Hippodameia 
to free her from the curse due to the death of her former 


their abundant manes above their dark necks as is 
the manner of sea-horses. Near them stands Hippo- 
dameia ; she colours her cheek with a modest blush, 
wears the raiment of a bride^ and gazes with eyes 
that choose rather the stranger's part.^ For she 
loves him and she loathes the parent who takes 
pride in such spoils as indeed you see — these heads 
which have been suspended one after another from 
the gateway, and the time which has elapsed since 
each of the men perished has given them each a 
distinctive appearance. For Oenomaiis slew those 
who came to sue for his daughter's hand and he de- 
lights in the tokens of their death. But their shades 
hovering over the place lament each the contest in 
which it took part, as they descant upon the cove- 
nant of marriage ; ^ for Pelops, they recount, has 
made a covenant, promising that henceforth the 
girl will be free from the curse. And Myrtilus is 
witness to the covenant of the twain. Oenomaiis is 
not far away ; nay, his chariot is ready, and on the 
seat is laid the spear with which to slay the youth 
when he overtakes him ; ^ and he is hurriedly 
sacrificing to his father Ares, this man of savage 
aspect and with murder in his eye ; and he urges 
Myrtilus on. But Eros, sad of mien, is cutting ^ the 

3 Cf. Rhod. Argon. I. 756 f. : "And therein (on the mantle 
of Pallas) were fashioned two chariots, racing, and the one 
in front Pelops was guiding, as he shook the reins, and with 
him was Hippodameia at his side, and in pursuit Myrtilus 
urged his steeds, and with him Oenomaiis had grasped his 
couched spear, but fell as the axle swerved and broke in the 
nave, while he was eager to pierce the back of Pelops." 

* The action of Eros may be ascribed to the love of Pelops 
for Hippodameia, or we may think of the love of Myrtilus 
for Hippodameia as the reason for the betrayal of Oenomaiis 
by his charioteer (Benndorf). 



rbv a^ova tov apfiaTO<i ivre/jLveL eKarepov hihov^ 
voelv, OTL re ipwaa y Kop-q tov ipa)VTO<; ^ iirl tov 
TTUTepa ^vfiffaiveL Kal to, fieWovTa ire pi ti-jv 
ITeXoTro? oIkIuv eV yioLpMv ^iveadai. 


20 (1) Ta EvpvirvXov koi NeoTTToXe/jLOv ttoljjtcjv 
V/JLV6L x^P^'^ iraTpM^eiv re avTov<; d/jL(j)(t) Kal Trjv 
%et/)a €vSoKifjLOV<; kut la^vv elvai, (f)rjal Se Kal 
7; ypa(f)ri TavTW 1) tv^V yap ttjv i^ ciTracr?;? 7/79 
dp€Tt]v e? /jiiav iroXiv avveveyKOuaa 01 fiev ovk 

25 a/cXeei? o'lxovTat, uX)C olot irpo^; ttoXXoi/? SvaTt]- 
vcov Bi T6 TratSe? elirelv oc epiw /levet dvTLocoatv, 
ol Be yevvaloL yevvaLwv KpaTovat. 

(2) Ta fxev Srj irepl tcov iv tw vlkolv CTcpa, 
vvvi he irepl tov<; ^vveaT(OTa<; rj Oea. TroXt? fiev 

30 avTTi "iXio? ocppvoecraa, Kad^ "Ojxripov, ireptOel 
he avTyv Tclxo'i olov Kal 6eov<; firj ciira^LcocraL 
rr}? eavTcov x^^P^^^ vavaTaOfiov re eVt OciTepa 
405 K. Kal GTevo<^ 'ILXX^jaTTuvTOu 8idppov<; ^Aalav 
]Lvpa)7rr)<; Btelpycov. tovv fieaw he Trehiov TroTa/JLO) 
hiaipelTat 'B.dvOw, yey paiTTai he ov fiop/xvpcov 
d(f)pa), ovh' 0I09 enl top tov Ilr)Xect)<; eTrXr^/jL/jLvpev, 
5 dXX^ evvr] p.ev avTW Xcoro? Kal Opvov Kal ciiraXov 
hovaKO'^ KOfxai, KaTUKetTaL he fxaXXov 7) dveaTrjKe 

^ ipwvTos Jacobs : (puTos. 

^ In the later years of the Trojan war tlie son of Telephus, 
Priam's nephew P^urypyhis, leads the Mysians to the aid of 
the Trojans, where he is slain by Achilles' son Neoptolemus 
(Pyrrhus) at the head of the Myrmidons. Cf. the account 
of Achilles and Memnon, supra, p. 29. 
* The reference is to the heroes gathered at Troy. 



axle of the chariot, making clear two things : that 
the girl in love with her lover is conspiring against 
her father, and that the future which is in store for 
the house of Pel ops comes from the Fates. 


The story of Eurjpylus and Neoptolemus is sung 
by a chorus of poets, who tell us how each resembles 
his father and is famous for the prowess of his arm ; 
and this painting also relates this tale. For when 
fortune has gathered into one city the valour of 
every land,^ some go away not inglorious but able to 
say to the world, " children of wretched men are 
they who encounter my wrath," ^ and men of noble 
birth overcome men of noble birth. 

The account of the victory is another tale, but the 
scene before you now has to do with the combatants. 
Here is the city of "beetling Ilium," as Homer ^ 
calls it ; and a wall runs round about it such as even 
the gods disdained not to claim as the work of their 
own hands. On the other side is the station of the 
ships and the narrow strait of the Hellespont that 
separates Asia from Europe. The plain between the 
city and the strait is divided by the river Xanthus, 
which is represented, not as ^^ roaring with foam " ^ 
nor yet as when it rose in flood against the son of 
Peleus,® but its bed is lotus grass and rushes and 
foliage of tender reeds ; it reclines instead of stand- 

^ Quoted from lUad 6. 127. Cf. si'pra, p. 225 n. 

* 762^.22. 411. 

^ Ibid. 18. 403, where the phrase is used of the stream of 
Oceanus: of. 21. 302 f. 

* For the attack on Achilles by the river Xanthus see 
Iliad 21. 212 f. For the personification of the river, cf. supra, 
pp. 159 and 319. 


Kal Tov TToBa iirex^L raU injyaU xjirep ff/x- 
fierpla's vvv hivypaivcov avra . . . vd/jLarofi to 
pevfxa fierpiov,^ (3) ^rparid re eKarepcoOev 

10 Wvacjv T€ (vv Tpcjal Kal 'KWyjvcov i/c Oarepov, 
01 pep KeKpL7]K6Te<i I'-jhi) oi Tpcoe?, oi Se dKpi]T€<^ 
01 ^vv KvpvTTvXo). 6pa<; Be avrcjv, co? ol iiev 
ev ToU oTrXoi? KuOrjvTai Td')(^a irov rovro Eupu- 
TTvXov aLTT](7avT0<;, Kal ^aipovai rfj dvaKW)(^fj, ol 

15 Be eKOvpoL re Kal e^opp,oiV7e<s ol Mucrot levTai 
TO T6 ro)v '¥jXki]v(jdv ev opLoia Karaardaei, toZ? 
^pwalv ovrcov irXrjv twv ^ivppiBovcov ipepyol 
yap Kal irepl tov Uvppov eroipioi. 

(4) T&) veavia Se, KdX\ov<; p.ev evcKev icpeppi]- 

20 revocT^ av ovBev, eTreLBr) ev ottXol^; rd vvv, 
peydXoL ye ixrjv Kal virep tou? dXXov<i' r)XLKia 
re dp,(f)0LV I'ar} rd<; re tmv 6(f)0aXpa)v l3oXd<i 
evepyol Kal ov peXXovre^, yopyov yap ro opfia 
viTo rrj<; KopvOof; eKdcrrw, Kal avvairovevovre's 

26 Tat9 TO)v X6(f>a)v KLvrjGeai Kal 6 Ovp.6<; eTniT perret^ 
a<^l(TL aiyf) re pevea irveiovaiv eoLKaai. Kal ra 
oirXa Be dpcpolv irarpwa, dXX' 6 pev KvpvirvXo^ 
darjpoL^; earaXraL Kal rrapaXXdrrovcri rrjv avyr]v 
OTTT] re Kal ottw^ Kivolro, rj lpi<;, rw Wvppw Be 

30 rd e'f 'H(f)aiarov irdpearLV, eKo-rd<; rror avrcov 
^OBvo-aev<; Kal d7Tev^dpevo<^ rrjv eavrov vlktjv. 

^ IxtTpivv P and Morelli : ixerpov. The text is corrupt. 
2 iinirpdirci Olearius : (TnTpdwd. 

^ Cf. the account of the sources of the Nile, the elder 
Phil., supra, p. 21. 

^ See critical note 

^ Quoted from Iliad 3. 8. 

* For a garment compared to the rainbow cf, the elder 
IMiil., Imag. p. 67 ; ffcr. 200, 2f. 


ing erect, and presses its foot on the sources ^ to 
keep them within bounds, now moistening . . . the 
stream keeps within bounds. ^ On either side is an 
army — of Mysians together with Trojans, and oppo- 
site them of Greeks ; the Trojans are already ex- 
hausted, though the Mysians under Eurypylus are 
fresh. You see how the former sit down in their 
armour, no doubt at the command of Eurypylus, and 
how they enjoy the respite from fighting, whereas 
the Mysians, full of spirit and impetuous, rush for- 
ward ; and how the Greeks are in the same state as 
the Trojans with the exception of the Myrmidons, 
who are active and ready for the fray under 

As for the two youthful leaders, nothing can be 
made out regarding their beauty, since they are clad 
in armour at this time, but they are certainly tall 
and overtop their fellows ; the age of the two is 
the same, and to judge by the glance of their eyes 
they are active and unhesitating. For the eyes of 
each flash beneath their helmets, they bend their 
heads with the waving of their plumes, and their 
spirit stands out conspicuous in them, resembling as 
they do men ^^ who breathe out wTath in silence."^ 
Both wear the armour of their fathers ; but while 
Eurypylus is clad in armour bearing no device, 
which gives forth, like a rainbow,* a light that 
varies with his position and movements, Pyrrhus 
wears the armour made by Hephaestus, which 
Odysseus, regretting his own victory,^ has yielded 
to him. 

' i.e. his victory in the contest for the arms of Achilles, 
which were by vote awarded to him as the bravest warrior, 
as against Ajax, who committed suicide because of his 


(5) Se(opa)i> Se ri^ ra oirXa Xelttov evpyjcreL 
rwv '0/jL7]pov iKTVirciy/xdrcov ovSeu, dXX' OLKpL^co*; 
i) re^i'V ^eiKvvai TaKeWev iravra. to fiev yap 

35 7>}? T6 Kul OaXd(7aT]<; Kal ovpavov a)(^7]/ia ovSe 
(ppd^0PTC<i ol/iac Serjaei tiv6<;, i) fxev yap avrodev 
A{)i6K. Ihovri 8)]Xy] rijv eavTrj<; XP^^^ ^'^^ '^^^ ^^/" 
fiLovpyov Xa/3ov(Ta, rrjv 3' al 7r6X€i<; /cal ra ev 
avrfj yrjv ypdcpovai Kal fxiKpov ye varepov izevar) 
Trepl eKdarcoVy ovpavov he ohe. 6pa<; irov rov re 
5 Tov 7]\lou kvkXov, CO? dKd/jLa<; ev avru), Kal to 
tt;? TvavaeXrjvov <j)aihp6v. (6) '' AXXd fioi hoKel<^ 
irepl t6)v KaO' eKaarov aarpcov irodelv OLKovaar 
TO yap SLaXXdrrov avroiv rrjv alriav act 
irapey^ei t?)? irevaew';' alSl fxev aoL HXefaSe? 

10 arropov re Kal d/jirjTov ^vfi^oXa hvofxevai rj av 
irdXiv eK(j)avci)<; exovcrai, &)9 av Kal ret ttJ? copa<; 
avTCK; ayr],^ 'TdSe<; 8' eirl Odrepa. 6pa<; Kal rov 
'D.pia)va, rov 8e iir avTu> fivdov Kal rrjv ev 
darpoi<; alriav e? erepov dva^aXcofMeOa, w rral, 

15 Kaipov, ft)? ai> /jL7] dirdyoifiev ae roiv vvv ev ttoOo). 

^ avTOLs 6.yy) Kayser : our' 6.y, avrijs ayei, or avrols o.yei. 

1 It is clear that the scenes on the shield of Achilles as 
described by Homer were represented in painting and 
sculpture, for we still have fragments of the so-called 
Tabulae Iliacae depicting this subject (cf. Jahn-Michaelis, 
Griech. BiUhrchronikcn, II B, p. 20, and fragments in the 
Capitoline Museum, Rom. Mitth. VI. 183 f., PI. IV). The 
shield described by Philostratus agrees with tliese repre- 
sentations in that the difTerent subjects are depicted, not 
in concentric zones or circles, but in bands one over the 
other, so that the sky is not found in the centre of the 
shield as in Homer, but rather at the top of the shield. 
Just as the painter based his work on the Homeric 



If one examines this armour he will find that 
none is missing of the representations in relief 
which Homer describes, but that the work of art 
reproduces all that Homer gives. ^ For the repre- 
sentations of earth and sea and sky ^ will not, I 
think, require anyone to explain them ; for the sea 
is evident at once to the observer, since the crafts- 
man has given it its proper colour ; the land is 
designated by the cities and the other terrestrial 
things, and you will soon learn all about them ; but 
here is the sky. You see here, of course, the orb 
of the unwearying sun and the brightness of the 
full moon. But I believe you want to hear about 
the stars in detail, for the differences between them 
provide a reason for your inquiry. Here are the 
Pleiades, signs for sowing and for reaping ^ when 
they set or when they appear once more, as the 
changing seasons bring them ; and opposite them 
are the Hyades. You see Orion also, but the story 
about him and the reason why he is one of the 
stars we must defer to another occasion, my boy, 
that we may not divert you from the object of 

description, so Philostratus, in describing the painted pic- 
ture, works in many details drawn directly from Homer 

2 Iliad 18. 483: "Therein [on the shield of Achilles] he 
wrought the earth, therein the heavens, therein the sea, and 
the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, and therein 
all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned — the 
Pleiades, and the Hyades, and the mighty Orion, and the 
Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her 
place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the 
baths of Ocean." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 

^ Cf. Hesiod. Op. 383 f.: " When the Pleiades, daughters 
of Atlas, are rising, begin your harvest, and your ploughing 
when they are going to set." Trans. Evelyn- White, L.C.L. 



01 8' eV auTft) d<7Te/369 apfCTo<; i) el ci/xa^av KaXelv 
^ovXoLo. <f)aal 8e avT)]v koI fiov^iv ov Svecrdai 
6V Qfceavw, aW avrijv rrepl avrrjv arpecfyeaOuL 
olov (fivXaKa rod 'flpL(ovo<;. 

20 (7) ^'la)/jL€P 8r) XoLTTov Sia 'y}]<; a(f)€fi€Poi rcov 
cii'co Koi TOiv ye iv yfj KiiXXiarov OeaifxeOa Ta<; 
TToXei?. 6pa<i fiev 8^, co? ^Lrrai riv€<; avrac 
TTorepav ovv irporepav a(f)€p/jLy]V6vOrji>ai aoi ffou- 
Xel ; 7] TO Tcoi' XafiTTuBcov (f)(o<; kuI to tov 

25 vfjievaiov fieXo<; kuI 6 rwv avXcov yx^^ ^^'' V "^^ 
fciOdpa^ fcpovaL<; kol 6 rS)v op^ov/jLevcov pvOjxo^ 
e? avrd ae dyeL ; 6pd<; Se koX ra yvvaia rcov 
irpodvpwv o)? SLacpalvovrat Oav/xd^ovra Kal fiovov 
ovK 6K/3oo}vra viro xapixovrj<;. ydjioL ravra, w 

30 iral, fcal TTpGorr] ^vpoSo<; vvfK^icov kol dyovrai 
Ta<? vv/ji(f)a<; ol ya/xfipol. to Be r?)? alSov<; Kal 
TOV ifiepov, ft)? iiTLTrpeiTeL cKdaTO), iraphipn, Xeyeiv, 
o'0(f)(OT€pov avTCL TOV SrjfiLovpyov aivL^afievov. 
(8) 'AXX' Ihov Koi SiKaaTi]pi6v tl kol ^vveSpa 

35 KOiVTj Kal yepovTe^ ae/ivol a€/ivco<^ 7rpOKa0r]p.€VOL 

407 K. TOV o/jllXov. to he iv /xecro) ^P^^^^^ ToXavTa 

fiev hvo TavT ovk oW e0' otw' i], vt) Al, 

eiKdaai XPV> ^*> fJii(jBo<^ Tcp 6pO(b<; EKSiKdaovTi, 

ft)9 av fir) 7r/90? Baypd ti<; ttjv ovk ^ evOelav (pipoi. 

5 Tt9 8' 7] Blkt) ; BlttoI fiev ev fieaw ra'e? ovtol, 

^ OVK added by Schenkl. 

^ Iliad 18. 490: "Therein fashioned he also two cities of 
mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages 
and feastings, and b}' the light of the blazing torches they 
were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, 
and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirl- 


your present desire. The stars next to Orion are 
the Bear^ or the Wain if you prefer that name. 
Men say that this constellation alone does not sink 
into Oceanus, but revolves about itself as a guard 
over Orion. 

Let us now make our way over the earthy leaving 
the upper regions, and let us examine the most 
beautiful of things on the earth, namely, the cities. ^ 
As you see there are two of these. Which of the 
two do you wish explained to you first? Do the 
light of the torches, and the marriage hymn, the 
sound of the flutes and the twanging of the lyre 
and the rhythmic motion of the dancers attract 
your attention? You see also the women visible 
through the vestibules as they marvel and all but 
shout for joy. This is a marriage, my boy, the first 
gathering of the bridal party, and the bridegrooms 
are bringing their brides. I shall not attempt to 
describe how modesty and desire are clearly de- 
picted in each, for the craftsman has suggested this 
with great skill. But look ! Here is a court of 
justice and a general session, and dignified old men 
preside in a dignified manner over the gathering. 
As for the gold in the centre, the two talents here, 
I do not know what it is for, unless, by Zeus, one 
may conjecture that it is a reward to be paid to 
the judge who shall pronounce true judgment, in 
order that no judge may be influenced by gifts 
to give the wrong judgment. ^ And what is the 
case? Here are two men in the centre, one of 

ing in the dance, and in their midst flutes and lyres sounded 
continuously." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 

* The natural explanation of the "two talents" would 
be to regard it as the "blood-money" referred to in the 
next sentence. 


BoK€ip €/jlol, (f)OviKov ejKXij/jia 6 fiev iTrdjcov 
Oarepo), top S' 6pq<;, a;? e^apvo^ iariv' ov yap 
aLTiav e;\^6t;v Mvirep'^ avTw Trpocpepet 6 Kari]yopo<^, 
KaTaOei's 3e tcl v7ro(f)6i>ia KaOapo's yKeiv. 6pa<; 

10 Aral Tou? €7ri/3o'qdovvTa<; eKarepcp ^^XV ^^^^ 
i>e/iiovTa<; ry]V jSo/jv, orcp (f)i\ov aXV ij ye tmv 
K}]pvKo)v irapovaia KciOiaTi^GLV avTov<; koI el<; 
TO i)(Jvxcuov ciyei. tuvtI /aev ovv aoi pieai] Ti? 
TToXe/jLov KOL €Lp7]pi]i; iv ov TToXefiov/jievr} iroXei 

15 KaTd(JTaaL<^. 

(9) '¥^T6pav he 6pa<;, co? retxyjpv^) ^^'^ to ye 
TeL')(0<; ft)? Oi St r]\LKiai> diropiayoi ^povpovcri hia- 
\a^6vTe<;, yvvaid re yap eanv ov twv eir dX^ewv 
Kul yepovre^ ovtol kuI KOfiiSrj iraihia. irol hi] 

20 TO fidxt/jLov avTol^ ; ivravda evpoi^ av tovtov<;, 
ot St} "ApeL re kuI WOtjvcI eTrovrat. rovrl ydp, 
fiOL BoKelv, T) Texyii (prjal toi)? /xev XP'^^V '^^ '^^^^ 
IxeyeOei hrjXdxiaaa Oeov^ elvai, TOt? he to vito- 
heearepov hi avTP)<; hovcra. e^iaai he tt)v roiv 

25 evavTioov ov he^dfievoL irpoKkricnv, vepLeaOat ydp 
Tov iv rf) TToXei ttXovtov rj firj pe/xo/jbevcov ev roU 
oTrXof? elvai. (10) Ao;^oi^ hj] hLardTTovaiv ^ 
ivrevOev tovtI ydp, /loi hoxelv, i) irpo'^ raU 
oyOai^i aLVLTTerai X6)(fir], ov hrj KaOcowXia fxevov^; 

30 avToixi 6pa<;. dXX' ovk dp eyyevoir avTOL<; 

^ alTiaf ex*'**' wr'Trep Ka3'scr : Karacrx^^y unfp Y, f^^' '''*'*' 
Hircp aP. 

^ SiaTcxTTOL'crj*' Ka}>er : SiaWaTTuvaiu. 


whom, I believe, is bringing a charge of bloodshed, 
and the other, as you see, is denying the charge ; 
for he claims that he is not guilty of that which 
the accuser brings against him,^ but that, having 
paid the blood-money, he has come free of offence. 
You see also the adherents of each man, in two 
groups, who applaud according to their preference ; 
but the presence of the heralds checks them and 
restores them to silence. This scene, accordingly, 
represents a state of affairs midway between war 
and peace in a city that is not at war. 

The second ^ city is walled, as you see, and those 
unfitted for war by reason of age guard the walls 
at intervals ; for there are women at certain points 
on the battlements, and here are old men and even 
children. Where, pray, are their fighting men ? 
Yonder you may find them — the men who follow 
Ares and Athena. ^ For this is what the work of 
art means, I believe, indicating by the use of gold 
and by great stature that the leaders are gods, and 
giving to the others their inferior rank by this 
device. They are issuing forth for battle, having 
refused the proposals of the enemy, namely, that 
the wealth of the city be apportioned among them, 
else, if it be not so apportioned, it shall be the 
prize of battle. Accordingly, they are devising an 
ambush on this side ; for that, it seems to me, is 
suggested by the thicket along the banks of the 
river, where you see men under arms. But it will 
not prove possible for them to profit by the 

^ i.e. voluntary homicide ; but he acknowledges by his 
payment of the " were-geld" or blood-money the commis.sion 
of involuntary homicide. 

2 Cf. liiad 18. 509 flF. for the Homeric description. 

' Here a goddess of war. 


')(^pi]aaadaL rw \6')(^(p'^ o <^dp tol e7n]Xv<; aTparo<^ 
aK07rov<; riva^i Ka6i(ja<^ Xeiav iXdaaaOai irepi- 
voel. Kal Sr] ol fxev ayovai vofxeU ra Ope/jL/j-ara 
VTTO aupLyywv. rj ov TrpoajBdWeL ere rb \lt6p 

35 Kal avTOcbve<; tT;? /xoucrr;? Kal drex^^^'i opeiov ; 
408 K. varara 8e Xp^]ad/jL6voi, rf} /lOvaiKTJ 8t ayvocav 
Tov eV avTol^ BoXov TeOvdaiv, co? opa<i, twv 
TToXefXiOiv eTTekOovTwv, Kal aTreXavverai rf? XeCa 
irpo^ avTOiV, (p^ifirj Srj roiv TTpax^^vrayv e? tov<; 
5 Xo;)(;wi^Ta? iXdovaa dvicravTaL ovtol Kal i(f>^ 
'lttttcov e? TOV iroXejiov x^^povai Kal Td<^ re 6xOa<^ 
eaTiv ISetv 7rXi]p6i<; tcop jjLaxofievwv Kal 0aX- 
XovTcov e? avTOv<;. (11) Tou? Se ev avTOL<; dva- 
(TTp€(pO/J.€VOV^ Kal TTjV iTe^oLVLypLevqv XvBp(p 

10 Sai/jLOva avT7]v re Kal rrjv eaOrjra tl ipovfiev ; 
"Epi<; Kal Ku^ot/io? ravra Kal K?;/^, i;^' y ra 
TToXe/jLOv Trdvra. opa<^ yap tol, co? ov filav ohov 
Xfopel, aXV ou fiev drpoyrov e9 ra ft^?/ irpo- 
iSdXXei, 0? 8' vcpiXKerat utt' avrip' v€Kp6<;, ov Be 

15 Kal veoTpwTOv eina'Trepxj^i. ol 8' avSpe^; cf)ol3epol 
T>)<? 6pfjL7]<i Kal TOV ^Xe/jLpLaro<; &)? ovBev BiaX- 
XaTTetv ep,ol ^ayvrcov ev Tat9 op/jLah Sokovctlv. 

^ A<Jx¥ Morelli : \oxij.(^-- 

^ The difficult passage in the Iliad (18, 509-534) was 
variously interpreted by ihe ancient grammarians. Of their 
three interpretations as stated by Porphyry and repeated 
b}' Eusebius, none agrees with the description in Philostratus, 
while one phrase of Alexander Cotyaeus (p. 195, 5 Dind. ), ovk 
ibexovTo T-qv -npoKXrjoiv, " they refused the proposals of the 
enemy," actually recurs in Philostratus. Evidently the latter 
conceived the scene as follows:— The inhabitants of the city 
devised an ambush against the army that threatened them, 
but without avail ; for the eneni}-, after disposing its scouts 



ambush ; for the invading army, having stationed some 
scouts, is contriving how to drive off the booty. ^ 
Indeed, we see here shepherds herding their flocks 
to the music of pipes. Does not the simple and 
ingenuous and truly highland strain of their music 
reach your ears ? ^ But they have made their music 
for the last time ; and through ignorance of the plot 
devised against them they die, as you see, for the 
enemy has attacked them, and a portion of their 
flocks is being driven away as booty by the raiders. 
A report of what has occurred has reached the men 
in ambush, and they rise and go into battle on horse- 
back ; you can see the banks of the river covered 
with men who are fighting and hurling javelins at 
the foe. What shall we say of those beings who 
pass to and fro among the combatants and of that 
spirit whose person and clothing are reddened with 
gore ? These are Strife and Tumult, and the third 
is Doom, to whom are subject all matters of war. 
For you see, surely, that she follows no one course, 
but thrusts one man, still unwounded, into the 
midst of hostile swords, a second is being dragged 
away a corpse beneath her, while a third she urges 
onward wounded though he is. As for the soldiers, 
they are so terrifying in their onrush and their fierce 
gaze that they seem to me to diifer not at all from 
living men in the charge of battle. 

shrewdly, rushed on the flocks of the citizens as they were 
feeding by the river and slew the shepherds, who were 
ignorant of their danger. Thereupon those in ambush arose 
and joined battle with the enemy. Such is the transforma- 
tion by Philostratus of the somewhat confused account in 
Homer, in which the city-dwellers set an ambush, send out 
scouts, and capture the flocks and herds of the besiegers. 
8 Cf. Iliad 18. 541 f. 



(12) 'AXX' ISov itclXlv eLpj}Vi]<; epya' veio^ yap 
avTJ] hia(j)aLV6Tai, TptVoXo? olfiai ri?, el ri ^(^py] 

20 T(p TOiv apoTi]po)v ^v/jL/SdWeaOac TrXijOei, koX rd 
ye ^evyy] tmv (Bomv Oafid dvaarpecpei ev ravrr) 
kv\ik6<; tlvo<; €KBe)(^o/jL6V7]<; dportjp eVl tco t/}? 
av\aKO<; reXei, fieXaLveaOal re SoKel^ rov ')(^pvaov 
irepicry^i^ovaar (13) 'E^f;? 6pa<; rep^evos fiaaiX€0)<; 

25 olp^al TLvo^ T6icp,/)paaOai, o? to yeyi)do<; iXeyx^Tai 
Tr}<; ^/^f^?)? VTTO T?}? eV oyjrei (f^athpoTTjro^i. Kal 
T)]v ye air Lav Trj<; %a/oa9 ovEe ^rjrelv XPV' "^^ 7^^P 

TOl \l']LOV IToXXw TO) fieTpO) TT}V (JlTOpdv VTTep- 

/3aXetadaL hieXeyy^ovaiv oi re Bid ctttouSt}? 

30 dpMVT€<; Kal oi raU dp,aXaL<; rd Keipop^eva tmv 
Spayp^drayv Seoz^re?, oI? erepoi irpoadyovai Kal 
paXa avvTovcD'^. (14) 'H he Spv<i ovk aKaipco^; 
eurauOa ouS' e^(o Xoyov aKid re yap dp,(^LXa(^yi<^ 
VTT avrfj ylrv^daai rot's ev rw epyw Kapovai, Kal 

36 /Sou? ouToal ttlcov KadiepcoOel'^ viro rcov K)]pvKa)v, 
4C9 K. ov<; 6pa<;, vtto rfj Spvl Bal<; irpojiOeTaL^ toI<; irepl 
TVjV GvWoyi-jV Tou TTvpou KajjU'ovai. rd he yvvaia 
ri (^rj^ ; dp^ ovk inroijaOai aoL hoKel Kal StaKe- 
\evea6at dXXrjXoi'i av)(yd p^drreiv rwv dX(f)ircov 
5 heiTTVov elvai roU epiOoi^ ; (15) Et he Kal 6iTcopa<; 
Se7]<Tei, Trdpeari aoc d\a)7] * XP^^V M^^' '^^^ 
dp^ireXcov, p^eXaiva Be rov Kapirov. ro Be rr]^ 
Karrerov Kvavov ere')(y}]6ri olpac ru> BjjpLovpyo) 
'7rpo<=; Br]Xo)aLV rov ev avrfj fidOov<;' dpKel yap 

10 aoL ro irepl ral^ r)/jLepicnv 6pK0<; ev rfo KamrepM 

^ 5oKH added by Westennann. 
' irpoTiderai Morelli : trpoariQiTai. 


But look again at the works of peace. This is 
clearly fallow land^ to be thrice-ploughed, I think^ 
if one may judge at all by the number of the 
ploughmen ; and in the field the ploughman fre- 
quently turns the yoke of oxen back, since a wine- 
cup awaits the plough at the end of the furrow ; 
and the plough seems to make the gold turn black 
as it cleaves the soil. In the next scene you 
perceive a domain — a king's, as I think you may 
infer — and the king who attests the gladness of 
his spirit by the radiance of his eyes. The cause 
of his delight is not far to seek ; for that the crop 
greatly exceeds the sowing is proved by the workers 
who busily cut the grain and by those who bind 
the bunches of cut stalks into sheaves, while others 
very zealously bring them more grain to bind. 
The oak tree stands here not unfittingly nor without 
good reason, for there is abundant shade beneath it 
for the refreshment of such as grow weary with 
their labour ; and yonder fat ox, that has been 
consecrated by the heralds whom you see, is ap- 
pointed as a meal beneath the oak for those who 
labour at harvesting the wheat. And what do you 
say of the women ? Do they not seem to you 
to be full of excitement and to be encouraging each 
other to knead plenty of barley meal as a dinner 
for the harvesters ? If there should be need of 
fruit as well, here you have a vineyard, golden for 
the vines and black for the grapes. The dark blue 
inlay of the ditch is the device, methinks, of 
the artificer to indicate its depth ; and you have 
no difficulty in recognizing in the tin inlay the 

* aXuT] Jacobs : avrrj. 



voelv. 6 3' ap'yvpo<; o iv tw cifiTreXcopi, Kd/j.aKe<; 
ravra, rov /jli] x^^fial K\iOy]vai ra (f^vra /Splaavra 

T(p KapTTM. TL 6' UV €i7rOL<; TTCpl TOiV TpVycOVTWV ,' 

o'l B)] Bia tt}? arevr}^ ravrrj^; elaoSov elacppyjaavre^ 

15 €avTov<; Ta\dpoL<; ivairoTiOevTaL rov Kapuov /idXa 
r;Set? Kal 7rp6a(f)Opoi T)]V i)\iKiav ro) epyo). 
(16) IlapOevoi re yap koI r]ideoL evLov Kal 
^aK)(^LKov iv pvOfjLW jSaLvovaiv €vSiS6vto<s avTol<i 
rov pvOjiov erepov, ov olfiai fuw;? diro re t/)? 

20 Ki9dpa^ Kal rov XeTrrov irpoadheLv SoKelv tol<; 
(f)06yyot<^. (17) Et Be Kal ti]v dyeXrjv ivvoi](T6La<i 
Tcov /3oo)v, at By] tt/oo? rijv vofxr)v tevrai, e-rro/jievcov 
avral^ rcov vofiecov, tt)? /xev %/0oa9 ouk dv Oav- 
fidaeta';, el Kal ')(pv(Tov Kal Karrnepov irdcra, to 

25 Be Kal fxvKWfievwv wairep dKOveiv iv rfj ypacfyfj 
Kal rov TTora/iov KeXdBovra etvat BoKelv, nap' ov 
ai l36€<i, TTW? ovK ivapyeia^ irpoaco ; roi)? Be 
Xeovra^ ovB' dv dipepp^tjvevaal poi tl<; iira^ico'i 
BoKel Kal Tov vtt" avTo2<; raupov, 6 pev yap 

30 pep^VKevai Bokmv Kal GTraipeiV cnrapdrTerai rjBr] 
7T0)<; ipirecfyvKOTcov T0i9 ivToa6iBLOL<; t(ov Xeovrtov, 
01 Be Kvve<;, ivvea 5' olpai ovtol, eirovrai rfj 
dyeXrj Kal irapd rcov Wvvovrcov avrov<; vofiewv 
410 K. iyyv<^ p,6v 'levrat rcov XeovTcov vXaKr} Tnoecv 
iOeXovTe<; avT0v<s, irpoafiLyvvvaL 5' ov roXpcoaiv 
iTTiaTrepxovTcov avTov<; Kal ravra rwv vopewv. 
6pa<i Be Kal BiaaKtprwvra rov 6pov(; 6pep.p,ara 
5 Kal rov<; aradpoi)^ Kal rd<; aKt]vd^ Kal tou? 
cn]Kov<i- oIkov TTOi/JLVLoyv voei ravra. 

^ Cf. the "silver props " on the shield of Heracles, Hesiod, 
Salt. '298. 



barrier surrounding the vines. As for the silver 
in the vineyard^ these are props^^ to keep the vines 
which are laden with fruit from being bent to the 
earth. And what would you say of the men 
gathering the grapes? Making their way through 
this narrow passage they pile the fruit in baskets, 
charming persons of an age adapted to their task. 
For young men and maidens move forward in 
rhythm, with Evian and Bacchic step, while another 
gives them the rhythm, one whom you doubtless 
recognize, not only from his lyre, but also from 
the fact that he seems to be singing softly to the 
lyre's notes. And if you should also notice the 
herd of cattle which press forward to their pasture 
followed by the herdsmen, you might not, indeed, 
marvel at the colour, although the whole scene 
is made of gold and tin, but the fact that you can 
almost hear the cows lowing in the painting and 
that the river along the banks of which are the 
cows seems to be making a splashing sound, — is 
not that the height of vividness ? As for the lions, 
no one, it seems to me, could in a description do 
justice to them or to the bull beneath them ; for 
the bull, that seems to bellow and quiver, is being 
torn to pieces, the lions having already laid hold 
upon its entrails. The dogs here, 1 believe there 
are nine of them, follow the herd and at the 
command of the herdsmen who set them on they 
rush close up to the lions, wishing to frighten them 
by barking, but they dare not come to close quarters 
though the herdsmen urge them even to that. 
And you also see sheep leaping on the mountain, 
and sheep-folds, and huts and pens ; you are to 
recognize herein the home of the flocks. 



(18) Ao/7ro9 oil fiat X^P"^^ *^^*^ ovrocrl irpoao- 
jjiOLo^ Tfp AatSdXov, (f)aal 5' avrov 'ApidSvrj rfj 
^MtVo) TT/jo? avTov hoOrjvaL. Tt9 3' i) Texvij ; 

10 iTap6evoi<i TjiOeoL ra? xelpa<s eViTrXefaz'Te? ^opeu- 
oua-t. av 8', CO? eoLKev, ovfc dpKeaOyjarj rovro), 
el /jLt] (Toi Kal rd tT;? ia0)]TO<; i^a/cpLlScoaofiat. tw 
\6y(p' ovKOvv alSl fiev 606vai<; ijadijvrai crre- 
(jidva^ eirl Ta2<; K€(f)aXat<; ^j^/juo-a? (pepovaai, tol'; 

15 3' evjjrpiot jiev Kal XeTrrol TrepiKeivrai %fTcoi^69, 
yLta^at/Da? 8e rcov /mjjpcov ^ e^-qprr^vrai XP^^d<; 
dpyvpcov TeXajjLcovoov ^uvexovrcov avTd<;. (19) 'AXX' 
iv kvkXm fjuev Iovtcov, tovt eKelvo, Tpo^ov Trept- 
hivifaLv 6pa<; voijaec Kepap^eco^; epyov t^i'o?, ei irrj 

20 hvdKoXw^ rj /xrj tov TrepiOelv exoi, Tretpcovro^. 
aroLXV^ov Be lovrwv av9i^ iroXv n xp^lp-^ e-mp- 
pel, birco^ exovcri re'/Q-v/^ew?, eTTihifkovvTwv /cal 
yap Ttz'e? ev f.tecjOL'^ ovroi Kv/3L(TTMVTe<^ Kal dXXore 
aXXt]!' opx'^icnv iiriheiKvviievoi dyeiv fioi aa^o)<^ 

26 auTou? 69 TO Oavfia SoKOvaiv. (20) 'H Se Brj 
kvkXo) TTj^ dvTvyo<; 0aXd(Ta7]<i eiKoov ov ddXarra, 
0) iral, ^flKcavov Be voelv XPV opov elvai rex^V- 
Oevra Tij<; iv rw aaKei yrj<;. iKavoi's e%ei9 roiv 

30 (21) ''A6peL By] Kal rd irepl tov<; v€avia<;, ^iv 
OTTorepw avTMV i) VLKrj' IBov yap Kal Ka07Jpi]TaL" 
6 EvpvTTvXo^ Kara Tr/9 /iaaxdXtj<; toaavro^; avrto 
KaLpiav TOV Ilvppov Kal Kpovvi]Bov eV;^6tTai to 
alfxa, KeLTai tc dvoLp.wKTl 7roXv<; Kara Tt]<; 77)9 

35 eKX^dei's, p.6vov ov (^6daa<^ ti]1' TrXijyyv ru) 

" KaQrip-qrai Morelli : KadypTj/xrai or Ka.6ijpr]VTaL, 


One more scene remains, I think — a troup of 
dancers here,^ like the chorus which Daedalus is 
said to have given to Ariadne, the daughter of 
Minos. What does the art represent ? Young men 
and maidens Avith joined hands are dancing. But 
apparently you Avill not be content unless 1 go 
on and give you an accurate account of their gar- 
ments also. Well, the girls here are clothed in fine 
linen and wear golden crowns on their heads; 
while the young men wear delicate thin chitons, 
and golden swords hang at their sides held by silver 
belts. But as they move in a circle, behold the 
result — you see in imagination the whirling of a 
wheel, the work of a potter making trial of his 
wheel to see whether or not it turns with difficulty. 
And as they advance again in rows, a great crowd 
of men approaches, who show how merry they 
are ; for some who here in the centre are turning 
somersaults and exhibiting sundry kinds of dancing 
seem to me evidently to fill the dancers with 
wonder. The image of the sea on the circle of 
the rim is not the sea, my boy, but you are to 
imagine that Oceanus is designed by the artist to 
represent the boundary of the land depicted upon 
the shield. Enough has been told you of the scenes 
in relief 

Now turn your glance to the youths themselves 
and note with which of them the victory lies. For 
behold, Eurypylus has been laid low, Pyrrhus having 
given him a fatal wound in the armpit, his blood 
pours forth in streams, and he lies without a groan, 
stretched at full length upon the ground, having 

^ For the description of the dance in Homer, see Iliad 
18, 590 f. 



TTTMfiari Blcl to e? Katpov rod rpavfjLaro^;. eV 
ip Tft) ri]<; 7r\t]y7J<; 6 Ylvppo^ ax^j/iari peofievo^ 
411 K. TrjV xelpa T(p Xvdpo) ttoWw Kara rov ^L(j)ov<; 
ive-)(devTL, oi MvaoL re ovk dvaa'^^era yjyov/jLevoi 
ravra iwl rov veaviav )(^a)povcnv. 6 6' e? avrov<; 
^Xoavpov opwv fieL^La kol vcpiararaL to (nl(^o<; 
5 Koi rdxa irov Kpvyjrei rov EuyOfTTuXou v€Kpov 
acoprjBov eV avrw tou? veKpov<; vi)aa<i. 


(1) 'H Bie/CTraiouaa rov Trora/jLou vav<; vrro 

TToWw TW podicp T7}9 elpeaia^ Koprj re Tt9 avrrj 

eVt T?)? 7rpvfMV7]<; oirXirov TrXrjaiov koX 6 e/ji/i€\e<; 

10 TrpoaaSwv rot? r?)? Ki9dpa<i Kpov/iaai ^iiv opOfj 

Tidpa b re virep tt}? iepd<^ eKeivy^<; (prjyov hpdKwv 

TTOXXft) GTTeLpdp.aTi fCe)(V/JL€V0's KOL TrjV K€(f)aXl]V 

eh Tr]v yrjv vevwv vttvm ^piOovaav, top TTOTafiov 
jxev ^daiv yivcoaKe, MijSeiav Be ravTijv, 6 8' eVl 

15 T^? 7rpv/j.vr)<; ottXitt;? ^Idacov dv eh], KiOdpav Be 
fcal Tidpav 6po)VTa<; kol tov Bl dfi(f)OLP Koa/j,ov- 
fjbevov '0/3(^61'? vireiaiv i)/jLd<; 6 t% KaWioTrT]'^, 
fjierd yap top iirl toU Tavpoi<; dOXop deX^aaa 
eh virvop top BpdxopTa tovtop tj \lijBeia aeavXif- 

20 Tai fiev to ')(pva6fiaXXop tov Kptov pdKo^, ^'^yfl 
Be XevTat, Xolttop ol t?}? ' Apyov^ 7rXa)Tj]pe^, eTretBrj 
dpdiTvaTa Toh K6X-)^oi<; Kal tw AlrjTrj tcl t?)<? 

^ Cf. tlie account of the voyage of the Argo, the elder 
Phil. II, lo, s%(yra, p. 187 ; also p. 319. 

2 For tlie tiara of Orpheus, cf. notes on pp. 310, 312 supra. 

^ ApoU. Rhod. Argon. 156 f. : "But she [Medea] . . . 
drawing untempered charms from her mystic brew, sprinkled 


fallen almost before the blow was struck^ so deadly 
was the wound. Pyrrhus still stands in the attitude 
of striking, his hand all covered with the copious 
blood which drops from his sword, when the 
Mysians, thinking this unendurable, advance against 
the youth. But he, looking at them grimly, smiles 
and takes his stand against their ranks ; and doubt- 
less he will soon bury the body of Eurypylus by 
heaping over it a mound of dead bodies. 


The ship, which forces its way along the river 
with much splashing of the oars, a maiden yonder 
at the stern who stands near a man in armour, the 
man with erect tiara 2 who sings in tune with the 
notes of his lyre, and the serpent which sprawls 
over the sacred oak tree over here with many a coil 
and bows to the earth its head all heavy with sleep ^ 
— in these you should recognize the river as the 
Phasis, the woman here as Medea, the armed man 
at the stern would be Jason, and when we see lyre 
and tiara and the man who is decked out with both 
it is Orpheus, son of Calliope, who comes to our 
mind. For after the contest with the bulls Medea 
has charmed this serpent to sleep, the '^ ram's fleece 
of golden wool " ^ has been seized as booty, and the 
crew of the Argo have now set forth in hasty flight, 

the serpent's eyes, while she chanted her song ; and all 
around the potent scent of the charm cast sleep ; and on the 
very spot he let his jaw sink down, and far behind . . . were 
those countless coils stretched out." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L. 
* Quoted from Pindar. Pyth. 4. 68. 


K6pr]<i. (2) Kal TO, iJLev rcov r?}? 'Apyoi/? vav/Sa- 

TOiv Tt dv aoL XeyoL/jLL ; opa^ yap l3pa')(^L0va^ /jlcv 

25 i^wSijKora^; avroU vtto tov et? ttjv elpeaiav 

^vvTovov, ra Be irpoawira ola ykvoiT av €avTov<; 

O-7r€p)(^6vTC0V, TO Bk TOV TTOTafjLOV KXvhdtiVLOV 

vTre pKa)(\d^ov tov t?}? veox; €/j,/36\ov Karacpepo- 
p,6vi]<; ^vi' ttoWt] TTj pv/xr) Td->^ov<^ Sely/na. /; Koprj 

30 Se dfiyxctvov Tiva vovv SeLKVvaiv eV TOVirpoauiTTOv, 
6/jbfia fiev yap avTrj SeSaKpvfievov e? yi]v opa, 
412 K. 7Tepi(f)0^o<i Si eaTLV vn ivvoia^; ojp SeSpaKe Kal 
Xoytafxov tcov fxeWovTcov ttXi'ipii^,^ avTi] re tt/Oo? 
eavTTjv dvaKVKkelv SokcI jiol tcl^; ivvoLa<; Biopcoaa 
TTJ 'v/^t'xS eKaara Kal ireiri-jyvla Ta<; tcov 6(j)6a\fio)i^ 
5 ^o\d<^ 69 ra tt}? '^i^XV'^ uiropprjra. (3) 'Iciawv 
Be avrf) irXriaiov ^vv oiT\oL<i eToifio^ 69 dfivvav. 
6h\ Be TO evBoatpLOv toI<; epeTaL<; aBei, v/jlvov<;, 
jjLOL BoK€LP, avaKpovojievo^ 6eol<; tou9 fJiev 
')(^apL(TT7]plov^y i(f)' ol(; /caTcopOcoKaai, Tov<i Be €9 

10 iKecriav TeivovTa^, icp' oh BehoiKaaiv. (4) 'Opa<; 
Be Kal TOV Al)]Tr}v eirl TeT poopov p.eyav re Kal 
virepaipovTa dvOpa)7rov<;, onXa fxev ivBeBvKOTa 
dpy]ia yiyavTO<; olfiai tivo<^ — to yap virep dvOpco- 
TTov TovO' i^yeladai BiBooai — Ovfiov Be to irpo- 

15 acoTTov 7r\yjpy] Kal fxovov ou irvp e^tevTa tmv 
6(f)0a\/jLCOV, XafxirdBiov re ttj Be^ta alwpovvTa, 
€fi7rp7]aeiv yap avToh TrXcoTTJpcn ttjv 'Apyco, 

^ TrArj^Tjs Olearius : irXripuvs. 

^ The plirase is taken from Horn. Odyss. 11. 274. 

* Tlie phrase is from the elder Phil., Imng. 315, 7 K. 

^ Tlie phrase is from Homer, Iliad 6. 340. 



inasmuch as the maiden's deeds have become known ^ 
to the Colchians and Aeetes. As for the crew of 
the Argo, what need that I should describe them to 
you ? For you see that the muscles of their arms 
are swollen ^ Avith the strain of their rowings and 
that their faces have the look of men who are 
urging one another to haste, and the wave of the 
river which foams about the beak of the ship be- 
tokens that it is rushing forward with great speed. 
The maiden shows in her face a certain desperation 
of mind, for while her eyes filled with tears gaze 
towards the land, she is frightened at the thought 
of what she has done and is preoccupied in planning 
for the future, and she seems to me to be turning 
over her thoughts all to herself as she beholds in 
her mind each detail and has the gaze of her eyes 
steadfastly fixed upon the hidden secrets of her 
heart. Jason, who stands near her fully armed, is 
ready to defend her. Yon singer gives the rhythm 
to the oarsmen, striking up hymns to the gods, I 
should say, partly of thanksgiving for the success 
they have so far had and partly by way of supplica'- 
tion with reference to the fears they cherish. You 
also see Aeetes on a four- horse chariot, tall and 
overtopping other men, wearing the war-armour ^ of 
some giant, methinks — for the ffict that he exceeds 
human stature leads to this impression — and his 
countenance is filled with wrath and he all but 
darts fire from his eyes, and he lifts a torch aloft in 
his right hand,"* for he intends to burn the Argo, 

* Cf. the description of Aeetes in Apoll. Rhod. Argon. 
222 f "In his left hand he raised his curved shield, and in 
his right a huge pine torch, and near him in front took up 
his mighty spear." Trans. Seaton. 



TO hopv Se avrw virep ti]v avrvya tov hi(^pov 
iTp6')(eipov 'lararai. 

20 (5) Tl St] 7ToOel<; twv ^/eypaixpLevcov ; i) ro rcov 
'iTTircov ; jJLVKTYjpe^ fiev (iva7r67rTa/J.evoL tovtoi<; 
Kol dv€aT7]Koo<; avxh^ fioXai re 6(^6a\iiMV eroi/ioc 
aW(o<; re fcal ivepyol vvv ovaai — BlScoctl yap 
tovtI Oewpelv y ypacpj] — to Se aa6/ia i^ai/jbarro- 

25 fxevwv e? toi^ Spofiov rrj fidaTiyi viro tov Wyjrvp- 
Tov — irapa^arelv yap tovtov (f)aai tw Al'^rrj — 
VTTO TravTo^ kXKOfievov rod arepvov Kal i) twv 
Tpo')(^ct)v hivrj /lovov ov •wpoG^aXovcra rw dpiiareicp 
avpfxan rd<; dKoa<^ ro Ta;^09 SiBcoai, yivooaKeiv. 

30 /} yap hiaviarapievri k6vi<; Kal Ihpwaiv enavdovaa 
ToU L7nroi<; dfivSpdv Tr}<^ XP^^^ iroiel ttjv Sid- 


( I ) Taf tI fjiev ovB' eirLTdrTOVTo^ ol/ial Tt,po<i 
6 yevvalo^ 'llpafc\rj<; fio'x^Oel ovS" eariv elirelVf 
413 K. &)? Evpv(T6€v<; Bi' ox/^ov vvv avrw, BeaTTO^eiv 
8e Tr/i^ dpeTTjV eavrov Taf a? eOeXovaiov^ 
dOXov<; vTTOfievei. rj tl fiaOcov (po^epov ovro) 
kt)to's v^iaTaTai ; (2) 'Opd<; ydp, oTroaoi fiev 
5 avTw ol 6(f)0aX/jLol KVKXoreprj t av rrjv oyjriv 
d7roTopv€vovT€<; Kal Seivax; e? ttoXi; BeBopKorcfi 

^ Xenoiihon, Art of Horsemanship, 1. 10: " A wide dilated 
nostril is at once better than a contracted one for respiration, 
and gives the animal a fiercer aspect." 

^ Cf, the description of Amphiaraiis driving his chariot, 
the ehler Pliil. Iviag., supra, p. 105. 

^ Ilesione was the daughter of Laoniedon. Tlie story is 
that Poseidon, angry with Laomedon for breaking his promise 


sailors and all^ and his spear lies ready to hand on 
the chariot-rail. 

VVhat^ now, do you still wish to hear about the 
painting? Shall I describe the horses? Their 
nostrils are dilated^^ their heads erect, the glance 
of their eyes alert and particularly now when they 
are excited — for the painting makes you infer this — 
and the panting ^ of the horses which are being 
lashed to full speed by Apsyrtus till they are red- 
dened with blood — for it is he, they say, who is 
charioteer for Aeetes — the drawing of their breath 
from the entire chest, and the whirling of the 
wheels that almost brings to your ears the rumble 
of the chariot, all this makes you realize the swift- 
ness of the motion. Indeed, the spreading cloud 
of dust that sprinkles the sweating horses makes it 
difficult to determine their colour. 

12. HESIONE 3 

It is not, I think, at anyone's command that the 
noble Heracles is undertaking this labour, nor is it 
possible to say this time that Eurystheus is causing 
him travail ; rather we must say that, having made 
valour his master, he is submitting to tasks of his 
own choosing. Else why is he confronting so 
terrible a monster? For you see what big eyes it 
has, that turn about their encircling glance and 
glare so terribly, and that pull down over them- 

about the walls of Troy, sent a sea-monster to ravage the 
country. When an oracle promised relief if Laomedon gave 
his daughter to the monster to be consumed, Laomedon left 
her chained to the rocks on the coast ; but Heracles appeared 
to free her and to slay the monster. Cf. the account of the 
freeing of Andromeda, the elder Phil. I, 29, supra, p. 115. 



i-TTLaKi'viov T€ 6(f)pvo)v uKavOcohe^ koI a'ypiov i(f)' 
eavToijf; eXKOvre^, oirco^ Be o^ela ?; rov crTOyuaro? 
€K^o\r) Kap')(^dpov<^ koI rpiaroLXov^ 6S6vTa<; 

10 iK(j)aLi'OV(Ta, (jdv ol fxev dy/cLarpcoSei^; kol ave- 
arpa/ifiei'oi Kare^eiv ra \t-j(f)OevTa, ol Se ofet? 
rT}v ai-)(/ji7]v Kai e? irokv dvecrTC0T€<;, oai) Be rj 
K€(f)a\7] aKoXiov Kal vypov rod av)(^evo^ e^tovcra. 
(3) Meye^o? Be airiarov jxev elrrelv ev fxifcpw, 7) Be 

15 6\jrL<; viKa tov<; aTnaTOvvra^;. i/CKvpTOVfievov 
yap ov^ aira^, ciXXd Kara ttoWcl [xeprj rov 
Ki]TOV<; ra /juev vcpaXa BiacftaLveTaL to ciKpifih rf;? 
o\/re&)9 KXeTTTOvra rco ^dOei, rd Be dvia'^eL 
v7]aiBe<; dv toU direLpoOaXdrroL^ Bo^avra. (4) 

20 'Arpe/jLOvvTi TrpoaeTvxo/iev rfo Kijrei, Kivov/xevov Be 
vvvl a^oBpoTUTij pvfir) iroXvv eyeipei poOiov ktv- 
irov ev yaXi'ivr) Kal ravra, Kal kXvBcov ovto<; vtto 
T>}? ifi^oXij^; avTOv>LaTdfiepo<; 6 fiev rrepl Toh 
€K(t)atvofieiOL<; fxepeai KV/jLalvet TrepiKXv^cov avrd 

25 Kal BiaXevKaLvwv Karcodev, 6 Be Td<; 7]6va<^ irpocr- 

/3e/3Xr)K€V 7] re tcov ovpalwi' dvaKXaais eirl ttoXv 

Tr)v OdXaacrav e? i;-VjEro? dvappLirrovvTcov larla 

i^eoj? dv dTreLKaaOeiT] 7roLKLXa)<; irpoaavyd^ovra. 

(5) 'AW ovK eK7TX7]TT6Tai ravra 6 Oeaireaiof; 

30 ovro^, dXX 7) fxev Xeovr?] Kal ro povaXov iv 
TToalv avrcp ercLfia 7rpo<; rrjv ;^^eta^', el rovrcov 
Bejjaeiev, ear7]K€ Be yvfivo^ ev rrpoiSoXfj rov fiev 
dpiarepov iTporeiva<; iroBa oy^ifpLa elvai rco rravrl 
414 K. a(i)/j.arc /xedtara/jLevo) Trpo? to t>}? Kiv7']aea)(; 
o^vppoTTOv, Kal t;}? 7r\€vpd<; Be tT;? dpiarepd<; 

1 Quoted from Odyss. 12. 91 


selves the overhanging brow all savage and covered 
with spines ; and how sharp is the projecting snout 
that reveals jagged "teeth in triple row/' ^ some 
of which are barbed and bent back to hold what 
they have caught, while others are sharp-j)ointed 
and rise to a great height ; and you see how huge 
a head emerges from its crooked and supple neck. 
The size of it is indeed incredible, when briefly 
described, but the sight of it convinces the in- 
credulous. For as the monster's body is bent not 
at one point alone but at many points, the parts 
which are under the sea are indeed visible, though 
in a way to deceive the accuracy of vision because 
of their deptli, while the other parts rise from 
the water and would look like islands to those 
unacquainted with the sea. The monster was at 
rest when we first encountered it ; but now it is in 
motion with a most violent onrush and raises a 
great noise of splashing even though the weather 
is calm, and yonder Mave which is raised by the 
force of its charge surges, on the one hand, around 
its exposed parts as it flows over them and makes 
them show white beneath, and, on the other, 
dashes against the shore ; and the bending of its 
tail, which tosses the sea far aloft, might be com- 
pared to the sails of a ship shining with many 

This wonderful man, however, has no fear of 
these things, but the lion's skin and the club are 
at his feet ready for use if he should need them ; 
and he stands naked in the attitude of attack, 
thrusting forward his left leg so that it can carry 
the whole weight of his body as he shifts it to secure 
swiftness of movement, and while his left side and 



Tov Tofou ra Se^ia vTrearaXrai tt)? Sefta? x^ipo'i 
5 7r/309 TOV fiacTTOV TT]v vevpav eXKovai]';. (6) Trjv 
S* alrlav, w Trai, firj ^ijTM/iev tovtwv, 77 fyap rcov 
irerpoiv avrifi/jiivf] Koprj irpoKeiTai tcG Ki]Tei fiopd, 
'WcjLovrjv 8' avTijv XaojJLehovro^ iralha vofii^w- 
fiev. TTOL he ovTo^ ; eiaco, pLOi hoKelv, rod t?}? 
10 TToXeco? reixov^i iv TreptMirfj toov TTparTOfievcov, 

(7) 'Opa<; yap TroXeoj? kvkKov koI ra^ eVaXfet? 
dvOpcoTToyv /jL€aTa<; kol o)? dvareraKaaiv e? ovpavov 
euxofxevoL Ta<i ^^Ipa^^ t^^X*^ '^^^ S€8olk6t€<; vtt' 
iK7T\y]^60)<; TrepLTTrjf;, fii] Kal irpoa^dXoL rw 

15 reix^i to /ct/to?, eTreiSr] co? x^ptrevaov MpfjLy]K6. 

(8) To he T)}? K6pii<; fcd\\o<; 6 Kaipo<; i(pepfiy]V€V€iv 
eV dKpLjSh ovK id, to yap irepl ttj ^vxfj ^fo? f^cil 
eirl TOt? opct)p,€POi<; dycov dirop-apaivei fiev to tt}? 
wpa? dvOo^, SiScoaL 3' oyLtw? to2<; opoiicnv eK tmv 

20 irapovTcov to cVreXe? aTOxdaaadai. 


(1) Tt hiapikWei^, oj 6ele ^o^6k\€l<^, tu t?)? 
MeX7ro/xei^?7? Six^adai hd)pa ; tl 8' e? 7^)1^ o/oa? ; 
CO? eywy OVK olSa, elVe dOpol^cov ivvoia^ ySr] eW 
VTTO Trj<; 7Tpo<; Trjv deov eKTrXi^^ew^i. dXkd Odpaei, 

^ irpoKfi/xeurjs Salmasius ; irfpiKfi/xeuris. 

^ Cf. the account of the birth of Pindar, the elder Phil. 
11, 12, p, 179 ; and Introduction, supra, p. 278. 

2 The "gifts" were probably honey in the comb, such as 
Cheiron fed to the young Achilles (the elder Phil. Imag., 


left hand are brouglit forward to stretcli the bo\v_, 
his right side is drawn back as his right hand draws 
the string to his breast. We need not seek the 
reason for all this^ my boy, for the maiden who is 
fastened to the rocks is exposed as prey for the 
monster, and we must believe her to be Hesione, 
the daughter of Laomedon. And where is her 
father? Within the walls of the city, it seems to 
me, in a look-out where he can see what is going 
on. For you see the circuit of the city and the 
battlements full of men, and how they stretch out 
their arms towards heaven in prayer, overcome no 
doubt with prodigious fear lest the monster even 
attack the city wall, since it rushes forward as if it 
meant to go ashore. As for the beauty of the 
maiden, the occasion precludes my describing it in 
detail, for her fear for her life and the agony 
occasioned by the sight she sees are withering the 
flower of her beauty ; but nevertheless those who 
see her may conjecture from her present state what 
its full perfection is. 


Why do you delay, O divine Sophocles, to accept 
the gifts of Melpomene ? ^ Why do you fix your 
eyes upon the ground ? Since I for one do not 
know whether it is because you are now collecting 
your thoughts, or because you are awe-stricken at 
the presence of the goddess. But be of good heart, 

supra^ p. 13o}. Cf. also sujyra, p. 163, where the Muses in 
the form of bees are said to lead the Athenian ships to 
Ionia to found a colony ; and supra, p. 179, where bees 
anoint with honey the infant Pindar. (Benndorf.) 


25 0) 'yade, Kai he^ov ra BiSo/JLeva. aTroffXyjra jap 
ovK etvai ra 6eon> hoypa olaOci rrov i^ evo^; rCov 
}s.a\\i67n]<; diaacorcov nKOvaa<;. {'1) 'Opa<; yap 
Kal Ta9 fieXLTTa^;, co? vrrepirerovTai aov Kal ^Ofi- 
povaiv rjSv ri Kal Oelov €7ri\6i/3ovaai arayova'^ 

SO aTTopprjrov^ t?)? otVem? Spoaov rovrl yap /cal 
tt)? cr?}? 7roLj]a€(o<; SiacpvaeaOai, iravrb^; /jLciWov. 
415 Iv. (3) H TTOv Tt? Kal dvaffyOey^eTai [liKpov varepov 
iiri aol ^lovaMv evKoKwv dvdptjviov Xeywv Kal 
hehoiKevai tm Trapeyyvyjaei, fitj irr) \dOot, ri<; 
eKTTTaaa rod aov aro/jLaro'; fxeXirra Kal to 

5 Kevrpov (k^vXclktco^ eyy^piaaaa. (4) 'Opa? Se ttou 
Kal Ti]V Oeov avTr]v ro fiev vy\n]yopov Kal iiryp- 
fiivov T>)? yv(i)fii](; cnToderov e^ovaav eU he vvv 
Kal peiSidfiart evfjuevel to hwpov fierpovcrav. 
WaKX7]7rio<; Be oljxai ovro^; iyyv<; iraidvd ttov 

10 Trapeyyvcov ypd(f)€iv Kal KXvTopi]Tr]<;'^ ovk dira^iCov 
Trapd aov aKovaai, /SXifijia re avrov Trpo? ak 
(paiSporyjTi fiepiypevov Trapd piKpov vcrTepov 
eTTL^eixoaei^ alviTTeTai. 

iS' TAKixeos 

(1) TlvOco/jieOa Tov /iietpaKiov, c5 Traihiov, rt? 

15 re ai/To? eir} Kal rt? aiTLa tT;? Wit6XX(jovo<; 

avT(p Trapovala^;, 6apai]aei yap '))/j,d<; yovv 

irpoa^Xeyjrai. (2) Ovkovv 6 fxev 'TdKiv6o<^ elvai 

^ K\vT6/xrjTii conj. Bergk, cf. Horn. Hymn. 19, 1. 

^ Ilicul 8, 65: "Not to be flung aside . . . are the 
glorious gifts of the gods." 

* Cf. the elder Phil., IIe7\ 217, 2; Amazons anoint their 
infants " with mare's milk and the dew's hone\comb." 


good sir, and accept her gifts ; for the gifts of the 
gods are not to be rejected/ as you no doubt know, 
since you have heard it from one of the devotees 
of Calliope. Indeed you see how the bees fly above 
you, and how they buzz with a pleasant and divine 
sound as they anoint you with mystic drops of their 
own dew,2 since this more than anything else is to 
be infused into your poesy. Surely someone ^ will 
before long cry out, naming you the '' honeycomb 
of kindly Muses," and will exhort everyone to be- 
ware lest a bee fly unnoticed from your lips and 
insert its sting unawares. You can doubtless see 
the goddess herself imparting to you now sublimity 
of speech and loftiness of thought, and measuring 
out the gift with gracious smile. This is Asclepius 
near by, I think, doubtless urging you to write a 
paean,* and though "famed for his skill " ^ he does 
not disdain to listen to you ; and his gaze that is 
fixed upon you, suffused as it is with joy, dimly 
foreshadows his visit to you a little later as your 


Let us ask the youth, my boy, who he is and what 
is the reason for Apollo's presence with him, for he 
will not be afraid to have us, at least, look at him. 
Well, he says that he is Hyacinthus, the son of 

^ Probably Aristophanes or some other writer of the old 
comedy ; cf. Com. Grace. Frag. Kock, III. 402 (Mein. IV. 

* Cf. Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 96, 26: "The paean of 
Sophocles, which they sing to Asclepius at Athens." 

^ Quoted from Horn. Hytnns XIX. 1. 

® Compare the treatment of the same theme by the elder 
Phil. Imag. I. 24, supra, p. 93 f. 



cf))]criv 6 Ol^ciXov, fxaOovTa'^ he rovro '^^prj 
XoLTTOv Koi rrjv alrlav Trj<; rov Oeov irapovcria^; 

20 yLVcoa/ceiv ipcov 6 rrj<; Atjrov'i rov fieipaKiov 
TTuvTa hooaeiv avrw (pijaiv, oaa €)(€i, ro ^uvelvai 
ol irpoaejxevw, TO^eiav re yap Kal /iovatKT]v 
ScSd^eii^ Kal iiavTLKrf<s iiraieiv Kal Xvpa^ firj 
d7r(pB6v elvai Kal tol<; d/j.(f)l TTaXalarpav eirt' 

25 (7Ti]<TeLV, Bcoaeip Be virep kvkvcop avrov o)(^ov- 
fievov irepLTToXelv 'xcopia, oaa ^ KiroXKwvo^ ^L\a. 
(3) Taurt piev 6 ^eo?, yeypairrai he dK€ipeK6pLr]<; 
fiiv, TO el(t)06<;, ^aihpav he 6(^pvv virep 6(f)6a\/jLcov 
eyelpwv, o)v uKrlve'^ olov eKXdjJLiTovai, Kal /nec- 

30 huipLari rjhel rov "TuklvOov Oapavvcov irpo- 
reivwv fiev rrjv he^iav eirl rfj avrf) alria. (4) 
To fieipuKLOv he e? yr/v jxev djevh opa, ttoXXt) 
416 K. he rj rwv o(^6aXp.(ov evvoia, ydvvTai re yap e(p' 
oI? uKovei, Kal to 6dp<T0<; en fieXXov alhol 
filyvvaiv. eo-TTjKe he rd pbev dpiarepd rov 
a(OfiaT0<; dXiTTOp^vpw \XavihL KaXv-mayv, a hrj 
5 Kal vTreaTaXrai, aKOVTiw he rrji' he^idv eirepeihet 
€KKeL/jiev(p TO) yXovTO) Kal rfj irXevpa hiopco/jLevp, 
^pax^^"^ '^^ ovToal yv/xv6<; hihcoai jjfilu e? rd 
opco/ieva Xeyeiv.^ ac^vpov fxev avTw Kovcpov eir 
evOeia rfj Ki>i)ixr] Kal einyovvl<; avri] eXa(f)pd virep 

10 Kvri/jL7j(; fxripoi re direptTTOi Kal lax^'OV dveyov 
TO XoiiTOv awpLa irXevpd re evirvovv dirorop- 
vevovaa to arepvov koi fipa)(LO)v ^vv uTraXoTTjTC ^ 
acjipiyoiv Kal avxh^ dv€aT7]Kco<=; to fierpiov t) 
Kofiy Te ovK dypoLKO^; ovhe ev avxP-V dvea-rr/KVLa, 

^ Jacobs would emend to koi to. /xjj Spwutva e'Ae'yxftv, " to 
judge also of the parts not seen." The text as it is can 
hardly be sound. 

2 aira\6Tr)Ti Olearius : airk6Tr]ri. 



Oebalus ; and now that we have learned this we 
must also know the reason for the god's presence. 
The son of Leto for love of the youth promises to 
give him all he possesses for permission to associate 
with him ; for he will teach him the use of the bow, 
and music, and understanding of the art of prophecy, 
and not to be unskilful with the lyre, and to preside 
over the contest of the palaestra, and he will grant 
to him that, riding on a chariot drawn by swans, he 
should visit all the lands dear to Apollo. Here is 
the god, painted as usual with unshorn locks ; he 
lifts a radiant forehead above eyes that shine like 
rays of light, and with a sweet smile he encourages 
Hyacinthus, extending his right hand with the same 
purpose. The youth keeps his eyes steadfastly on 
the ground, and they are very thoughtful, for he 
rejoices at what he hears and tempers with modesty 
the confidence that is yet to come. He stands 
there, covering with a purple mantle the left side of 
his body, which is also drawn back, and he supports 
his right hand on a spear, the hip being thrown 
forward and the right side exposed to view, and this 
bare arm permits us to describe what is visible.^ 
He has a slender ankle below the straight lower leg, 
and above the latter this supple knee-joint ; then 
come thighs not unduly developed and hip-joints 
which support the rest of the body; his side rounds 
out a full-lunged chest, his arm swells ^ in a delicate 
curve,^ his neck is moderately erect, while the 
hair is not unkempt nor stiff from grime, but falls 

^ See critical note. For the attitude, cf. p. 91, supra. 

^ Compare the description of Hyacinthus by the elder 
Phil. Imag., supra, p, 95. 

3 i.e. robust for all its delicacy ; the phrase is from the 
elderPhil.,^6r. 151, 28K. 


AA 2 


15 a\X' €7riKpe/jLa/j.ip)] rco iJLsr utTT (o , avvairovevovaa 
he rat? tov lovXov dp')(aL<;. (5) 'O 8' eV iroal 

BLaKO<i €X^^ f^^^ Cr/COTT . . . ^ TL 776/91 kaVTOV 

"E^a)9 Te Kol TTcivv (^aLhpo<; a/ia Kal KaTJ](p/]^, 
Koi Z€(f)upo<; ix irepLOiiTr}^ aypiov virocfiaLvoiv ro 
20 ofifia, alvLTTeraL 6 ^o)ypd(f)0<; rijv dircoXeLav tov 
jxeipaKLov, 8iaK€V0PTi Be tw ^AwoWcovl 7rXdyio<; 
e/jLTTPevaa'; epi/SdXel rep 'TaKLv6(p top SlaKOP. 


(1) Sav/jLd^€i<; opcop e? toctovtop dycopa Kopyjp 

opficoaap, dypiov re ovrco avo<; Kal roaovrov 

25 opfirjp v(f)LaTap€P')]P ; 6pa<; ydp, o)? ixfyaufiop fxev 

aura> to ojjLpLa \o(f)id t€ ^piTTOvaa Kal ttoXu? 

6 KaTCL Tcop oSoPTCDP d(f)p6<; e? ttoXv dpeaTJjKOTcop 

Kal TijP alxP'h^ dTpLTTTCOP, TO T€ 6^/009, 60? 

Trpof; \6yov ttj /3daeL, rjp 3?) kol tcl tx^V TavTi 

30 heiKPvaL Tavpcop diroBeoPTa ovhep' ovSe ydp tov- 

Tcop irapekLire tl 6 ^o)ypd(f)0<; epTV7rd)aa<; avTa 

417 K. TTJ ypa(j)7]. (2) Ta Se opco/xepa Kal heipd ijSrj' 

i/jL7Te7rTO}Kco<; ydp o crO? 'AyKaio) tovtco KaTa 

TOP /jL7]p6p, KeiTai 6 peapLa<^ dOpoop eKpecop to 

alfia Kal e? ttoXv dp6pp(joyd><; tov f.u]pov, oOep 

5 €P ')(ep(jlp )jSi] TOV dOXov oWo? ?/ /lep 'ATaXdpTrj, 

^ Lacuna of one letter in F., ckottci P. 

^ The story is that Zephyrus liad been a lover of Hya- 
cinthus, and out of jealousy deflected the discus of Apollo 
to kill the youth. 

2 The Calydonian boar, according to the usual form of the 
story, was sent by Artemis to devastate the crops of the 
country because she had been neglected by the King Oeneus 
in a harvest festival. His son Meleager, himself a great 

[To face p. 357 


over his forehead and blends with the first down of 
his beard. The discus at his feet . . . about him- 
self, and Eros^ who is both radiant and at the same 
time downcast, and Zephyrus/ who just shows his 
savage eye from his place of look-out — by all this 
the painter suggests the death of the youth, and as 
Apollo makes his cast, Zephyrus, by breathing athwart 
its course^ will cause the discus to strike Hyacinthus. 


Are you surprised to see a girl entering into so 
great a contest and withstanding the attack of so 
savage and so huge a boar ? For you see how blood- 
shot is his eye, how his crest bristles, and how 
abundant is the foam that drips from his long upright 
tusks, which are iinblunted at the point ; and you 
see how the beast's bulk is proportional to his stride, 
which indeed is indicated by these tracks that are 
as large as those of a bull. For the painter has not 
failed to embody any of these points in his painting. 
But the scene before us is already terrible. For the 
boar has attacked Ancaeus here in the thigh, and 
the youth lies pouring out his blood in streams and 
with a long gaping wound in his thigh ; therefore, 
now that the contest is already under way, Atalanta 

hunter, summoned the heroes of Greece to take part in the 
destruction of the boar. Theseus came among others, and 
Jason and Achilles' father Peleus and Ancaeus with his niece 
Atalanta, herself a huntress and beloved of Artemis. Atalanta 
wounded the boar with an arrow, and Meleager finally killed 
it. Philostratus does not take up the rest of the story which 
dealt with Meleager's love for Atalanta. Cf. Fig. 30. 

Cf. the account of a boar hunt bv the elder Phil. {Imag. 
I. 28, supra, p. 107). 



Tavr^]v yap elvat ti-jv Koprjv voelv XP^'h Trpox^eipov 
e-mOela-a rfj vevpa to /5eX,09 d(f)7]a€iv /leXkec. 
(3) "EaraXrat Se ecrOrjrt /lev virep yovv, KprjirlSa 
Se TOtv iToholv evYjinaL kol al x^cpe^; e<? m/iov 

10 yufival Sta to ivepyol elvat. t/)? €(TOr]ro<; eKel e? 
ir€p6va<^ ^vvexofi€vrj<;, to Se KdXXo<; appevcoirov 
eK (f)va€(o<; ov dviarrjaLP 6 fcaipo<; cttI fJidWov 
ovK icpl/jLepov ISXeiTOvar]';, dXXa rd<; rcov 6cf)0aX- 
pb(hv 0oXa<; €9 TTjv twv hpodfiivtov evvoiav 

15 reivovari^. (-4) 01 veaviai Se ovrot ]^leXeaypo<; 
Kai n?;Xeu9, TouTOf? yap Syj tou? Ka6eX6vTa<; 
TOP avv (firjcnv rj ypa<f)i], 6 fiev iirepeiaa^; ev 
TrpofioXfj TO) Xatw ttoSI kavrov 6 INle^eaypo? 
Kai rrjv jBdatv rr)prjaa<; da(f)aXa)<^ ifcSex^rai rrjv 

20 opfir)v Tov cuo? Xoy^V^ VTroaryjaa^;. 

(5) ^€p€ Srj Kai TCL irepl avrov e'lTTco^ev 
(TTL(f)po<^ fiev 6 veavia<; Kai iravrr) (Kppiywv, 
Kvrjiiai 5' avrqt evirayeU Kai opOal (pepeLv re 
€V TOfc? ^ hpofioL^ iKaval Kai v(pi(7Ta/jLevM top 

25 eK %ef/)09 dycbva (f)vXaK€<; dyaOai, iirjpo^ re ^vv 
iiTLyovvihi o/ioXoycov Tot9 KaTCJ Kai lax^ov olov 
hihovai dapaelv o)<; ovk dvarpaTryjao/jLevov vtto 
T7J9 ToO o-f09 e/X/5oX?}9 ToO veaviov, TrXevpd re 
/SaOeta Kai yaari^p direpiTTO^ Kai arepva to 

30 fJi€TpLOV 7rpO€KK€i/jL€Va Kai jSpaX^f^^ Sl7]pOp(0- 

fi€Vo<; Kai a)/jLOL 7r/oo9 av^^va eppwfjbevov ^vv- 
dirT0VTe<; Kai fidaiv avrw BlB6vt6<;, ko/jltj t€ 
rjXicocra Kai dvecTTrjKvla vvv vtto tov t?}9 6pfi7j<; 
evepyov Kai ^apoTro^' iKavM<^ BehopKO<; to ofXfxa 
35 T) Te ocppv^i OVK dvei/jiipf], dXX' ev tw Ov/jlm 
irdaa Kai rj tov Trpocrcoirov KardaTaai^ ovSe 
418 K. ^vyx^^povaa irepl KdXXov<^ tl Xeyeiv Bid to 



— for we must recognize that the girl is she — having 
put to the bowstring the arrow she has ready, is 
about to let it%fly. She wears a garment that does not 
reach the knee and boots fastened on her feet ; her 
arms are bare to the shoulders for freedom of move- 
ment, and the garment is fastened there by brooches ; 
her beauty, which is naturally of the masculine type, is 
made more so by the occasion, since her glance is 
not alluring, but she strains her eyes to observe 
what is going on. The youths here are Meleager 
and Peleus, for the painting tells us that it is they 
who have slain the boar ; Meleager in an attitude of 
defence throws his weight upon his left foot, and 
watching closely the boar's advance, awaits his onset 
securely with couched spear. 

Come, let us describe him in detail. The youth 
is sturdy and well developed all over; his legs below 
the knee are firmly knit and straight, well able to 
carry him in the foot-race, and also good guardians 
for him when he fights in the hand-to-hand contest ; 
the upper and lower parts of the thigh are in harmony 
with the lower leg, and the hip is the kind to make 
us confident that the youth will not be overthrown 
by the boar's attack ; his flanks are broad, his stomach 
lean, his breast protrudes a little, his arms are well 
articulated and his shoulders join in a strong neck, 
providing it wit)i a firm foundation ; his hair is ruddy, 
and at this time stands erect because of the vehem- 
ence of his attack ; the flash of his eye is very 
bright, and his forehead is not relaxed but all instinct 
with passion ; the expression of his face does not 
permit a word to be said of its beauty because it is 

^ re before roh deleted by Kayser. 



€7riTeT(iaOai, €adr)<; Be Xev/crj virep yovv koI 
Kpii'TT)<; virep acpvpov epeiafia aa(f)a\(<; rfj ^daei, 
')(\a/.LvBa T€ KOKKo/Sacpf] inrep avy^ivo^ KoXiraxTa^ 
5 TO Orjplov v(f)L(TTaTai. 

(6) TavTl p,€v croL ra rov OtVew?, UrjXev'i Be 
ouTO<; irpo^e^X'qTaL c^olvikovv <^apo<^, /jL(i')(aipa 
Be avTcp t) irap* 'Hcpalarov ev ^(^epa'iv CKBe^o- 
fieprp Trjv rov crvo<; 6pp,7Jv, to Be o/jL/xa drpeTrro'^ 
10 Kal ofu opcjv KOI olo^ /irjBe xjirepopiov ddXov 
rov e? KoX;^ou? avv ^Jdcrovi Belaai. 


(1) M?) BeBiOi, o) Trat, toi^ Kv7]vov irora/jiov 
TToWw KVfxalvovTa Kal virep Ta? o;^^a9 alpo- 
fievov, '^/eypaiTTai ydp, dWa /idWov rd ev 

15 avTw BcaaKeyjrdyfxeOa, oirt) re Kal oVo)? e;^6t rd 
tt}? Te^2''7?9* y yap ovk emaTp€(f)€i aeiTpo<; eavrov 
6 Oelo^ 'HpaK\rj(i ovrco^; e/x3e/9>;/cft)? fxeaw rw 
iTorafMO) Kal irvp eKXd/iircov dirb rwv 6<pda\iJ.wv 
rov aKoiTOV /leTpovvrcov ro^ov re e^f^i' ^v rfj 

20 \aLa irpofiepXrjiievr], en Kal rrjv Be^idv ev rw 
rrj(; d(jieae(0^ rov l3e\ov<; e%a)i^ axVf^cLTi ; e? 
fia^ov ydp avrrj. (2) Tt 8' dv eiiroi<; irepl rr]<; 
vevpd^ ; dp ovk alaOdveaOat BoKeh 67r7;;^oucr?;? 
rfj rov olarov dcfyeaei ; irov Be ovro<; ; 6pd<; rov 

25 vararov dvaaKLproovra Kevravpov ; Necrcro? Be 

^ i.e. the Argonautic expedition, cf. pp. 1S7, 343, awpra. 

^ The death of Heracles was attributed to the poisoned 
arrow with which he shot the centaur Nessus. The story is 
that Ncssus gave Deianeira some of his V)lood to use as a love- 
charm in case the aflfections of Heracles strayed to another 
woman. When Deianeira had occasion to use it, she anointed 
a garment with the charm and sent it to Heracles ; but when 



so tense ; he wears a white garment that does not 
reach to the knee, and his high boot that reaches 
above the ankle gives him secure support in walk- 
ing ; and letting his scarlet mantle hang in a fold 
from his neck he awaits the beast. 

So much for the son of Oeneus ; but Peleus here 
holds his purple mantle out before him ; and he 
holds in his hand the sword given him by Hephaestus, 
as he awaits the rush of the boar ; his eye is un- 
swerving and keen of glance, and he looks as if he 
did not fear even to cross the borders and go with 
Jason on the adventure to Colchis.^ 

16. NESSUS 2 

Do not fear ^ the river Evenus, my boy, though it 
rises in great waves and the water overflows its banks, 
for it is a painting ; rather let us examine its details, 
to see how and in what manner they are represented 
in art.* Does not the divine Heracles attract your 
attention as he advances thus into the middle of the 
river, his eyes flashing fire and measuring off the 
distance to the mark, while he holds the bow in his 
outstretched left hand and still keeps his right hand 
in the attitude of one who has let fly the arrow ?s 
for he holds it close to his breast. And what would 
you say of the bowstring ? Do you not seem to hear 
it sing as it lets fly the arrow ? Whither is it aimed } 
Do you see the centaur giving his last leap ? This 

he put on the garment, the poison caused his death in agon}-, 
and Deianeira in remorse hanged herself. 

3 The phrase is from the elder Phil., Her. 196, 20 f. 

* Cf. supra, 410, 8 K for this use of rex^V- 

^ Cf. the elder Phil., Imag., p. 219 supra, for this device 
of the painter, who chooses the moment when an action is just 
completed to suggest the action itself. 



oJ/jLat ovTO<; Biacfyvyoov €K tt}? ^o\6y]^ Trjv 'Hpa- 
KXeiav fiovo^ ^elpa, ot eTn-)(^6ipovvTe^ ttSiVa)9 
avTw hLe(j)V<yev ovB€l<; irXrjv ovto<;. ot^^exai Be 
Kol ovTO<; olBlko^ e? avrov ^avel^' iropOfievovrofi 

30 <ydp Tou? B6o/jL€pov<; tovtov i7rtaTa<; 6 'HpaKXi]<; 
^vv rfj jwaiKi Arjtaveipa kol tw TraiBl "TXX,(p, 
eTrecBr) airopo^ 6 7roTa/jLO<; e^alvero, tt]v yvvalKa 
419 K. TTOpOfievaat irapeyyva, ai'TO? Be eiTtj3a<i rov 
Bi^pov ^vv TO) TraiBl €)(^copeL Bca rov Trorafiov, 
Kavravda o p,ev KaKco^; IBcov jrjv yvvaiKa Iito- 
iTOi^ eirejoX^ia rrj^ ox^V^ eVt/Sa?, o Be ^oi)<; 

5 aKOvaa^ 6 'Hpa/cXr)? ro^evei Kara rov NeVcrou. 
(3) T€ypd(f)aTai Be r/ /lev Arjidveipa ev tw rov 
KivBvvov (TXfj/^cLTL Kal 7r6pcBe7]<; €? Tov 'HpaKXea 
Ta<; 'X^lpa<; reivovaa, 6 Be Neo"cro9 apri, tov 
olarov Be^d/JL€vo<; kol irepl eavrcp cr(f)aBa^(ov 

10 ovTTO), BoKecv, TOV eavTOV XvOpov ^ diroOeTOV e? 
'Hpa^Xea tt) Arjiaveipa B6B(0Ka)<;. (4) To Be 
TTaiBiov 6 "TWo? e(j)€(TTi]K6 jiev tm TraTpwo) 
Blchpfp KaTCi T7J9 avTvyo^ BeOevTcov, cocTTe oLTpe- 
fielv, Tcov iLTTTToyv, KpoTel Be vcf)^ rjBovrjf; Ta<; 

15 )(eLpa<; yeXcoTL Bov<; a /jl^tto) eppcoTai. 

^ KvQpov Jacobs : Bi<ppou. 


Fig. 31. — Deianeira at the Death of Xessiis. 

[To face p. 3C3. 


is NessuSj I think, who alone escaped the hand of 
Heracles at Pholoe,^ when none but he escaped of 
those who wickedly attacked the hero. And he too 
is dead, caught in a manifest wrong to Heracles. 
For Nessus ferried across any who called for this 
service, and Heracles arrived, together with his wife 
and his son Hyllus ; and since the river seemed 
unfordable, he entrusted his wife to Nessus to carry 
over, while he himself mounted his chariot along 
with his son and proceeded to cross the river. 
Thereupon the centaur when he reached the bank 
cast wanton eyes on the woman and dared a 
monstrous deed ; and Heracles hearing her cry shot 
an arrow at Nessus. Deianeira is painted in the 
attitude of one in danger, in the extremity of her 
fear stretching out her arms to Heracles, while 
Nessus, who has just been hit by the arrow and is in 
convulsions, apparently has not yet given his own 
blood to Deianeira to be put aside for use on 
Heracles. The boy Hyllus stands on his father's 
chariot, to the rail of which the reins are fastened so 
that the horses will not run away, and he claps his 
hands in glee and laughs at what he has not yet the 
strength to do. 

^ When Heracles came to Pholoe, Pholos the centaur 
opened the cask of wine which Dionj'sus had given him 
long before with instructions to keep it till Heracles visited 
him. Drunken with the wine the other centaurs attacked 
Heracles and were slain bj" his poisoned arrows with the 
exception of Xessus who escaped. I'holos, like Cheiron, is 
described as a different type of centaur ; he met his death 
accidentally with one of the poisoned arrows. Cf. Fig. 31. 




(1) 'O fiev iirl TO) arpaTJjyelv apri^ koX 701/9 
eV MeXt/Soiaf; eirl Tpoiav aywv TijjL(i)pov<; Me- 
veXdcp Kara rod ^I>pvy6<^ ^l^tXoKTijri]^ 6 rod Hol- 
avTO<; yevvalo^ ttov Kal di^acpepcov e? tjjv v^) 

20 'WpaKkel Tpo(f)7]v — OepdiTdiv Br] yeveadai tw 
'HpafcXel 6 ^iXoktj'jtt]^; ck vrjirlov, ore Kal 
(popev^ elvai ol tmp to^cov, a Brj kol varepov 
paaOov Xa/Secv Trap' avrov t?}? 6t9 rr)v irvpav 
v7rovpyLa<; — Be vvv ivravOa ^v/iTreTrrcDKOTt, Bid 

25 T7]V voaov Tft) irpoacoTTO) ^vvvecpi} ocppvv eirl 
roi>(f)6aX/ico icpeXKCov kcltw ttov Kal ev ^dOei 
6vTa<; Kal d/jievrjvov opcovTa^!, k6/jL1]v re XvOpov 
Kal avxi^ov TrXijpj] B€lkvv<; Kal TrjV yeveidBa 
vTTave(jT7]Kco<^ Kal ^piTTo^v Kal pdKia avrof; re 

30 d/jL7riaxoiji€vo<; Kal top rapaov KaXvirrcov roiovBe, 
0) Tral, BiBwai Xoyov. (2) 'Ai^avrXeoi^Te? e? 
TpoLav ol 'Ai^afol Kal 7rpoaaxoPT€<^ Tal<; pr)aoL<i 
420 K. efiaarevoPTO top t?)? \pva7]^ ^co/jlop, op ^Idacop 
IT ore IBpvaaTO, ore e? KoX^^ol'? eirXei, ^lXo- 
KTi]Ti]<; re eK tt)? ^vp 'HpaKXel p,P7]fir](; rov 
l3a)/iop roL<; ^ijrovai B€Lkpv<; eyxpl^ciPro<^ avra> 
5 rov vBpov TOP LOP e? Odrepop tolp ttoBoIp ol 
/JL6P inl 'Vpoiap ol 'A;^aiot areXXoprat, 6 Be ep 
Arj/jLP(p ravrij Kecrai, BtaBopo) ^7]al Xo(f)OKXf)<; 
Karaard^wp IQ) rov iroBa "... 

^ &prL Haniaker : tr/. 

2 The rest of the MS. is lost. 

^ The stor}' of Philoctetes was treated by Aeschylus and 
Euripides, as well as in the extant drama of Sophocles. 




The man who but recently was in command of an 
army and led the men of Meliboea against Troy to 
avenge Menelaus on the Phrygian^ is Philoctetes the 
son of Poeas^ noble of birth, no doubt, and one Vv'ho 
owes his upbringing to Heracles — for Philoctetes 
became the servant of Heracles from early youth 
and was the bearer of his bow and arrows, the bow 
which later he received from his master as a reward 
for his services in lighting the funeral pyre ; but now 
with downcast face because of his malady and with 
clouded brow above lov/ered eyes, hollow eyes that 
glare with wrath, showing hair that is full of filth 
and grime, his beard unkempt, shivering, himself 
clothed in rags and with rags concealing his ulcered 
heel, my boy, he supplies the following story : — The 
Achaeans, when they sailed for Troy and put in at 
the islands, were earnestly seeking the altar of . 
Chryse, which Jason had formerly erected when he / 
made his voyage to Colchis ; and Philoctetes, re- ' 
membering the altar from his visit to it with Heracles, 
pointed it out to the searchers, whereupon a water- 
serpent drove its poison into one of his feet. Then 
the Achaeans set sail for Troy, but he was left here 
in Lemnos, "his foot dripping with devouring 
poison," 2 as Sophocles says. . . . 

When the Greeks learned from an oracle that the bow and 
arrows of Heracles were necessary for the capture of Troy, 
Neoptolemus was sent to get Philoctetes and these weapons 
from Lemnos. Neoptolemus won his confidence and received 
the bow and arrows, but refused to betray the trust. Only 
when Heracles appeared from heaven to direct Philoctetes to 
let them go were they secured for use against Troy. 
2 Quoted from Soph. Phil. 7. 






Callistratus is known to us only through the 
Descriptiojis. His quotations from the younger as 
well as the older Philostratus furnish evidence that 
he was familiar with the works of both writers, 
and therefore that he himself wrote not earlier than 
the latter part of the third century a.d. ; on grounds 
of style Schenkl and Reisch ^ point out that pre- 
sumably the work should be dated at least a century 
later. Of his life we only know that he writes as if 
he had himself seen statues which he describes as 
existing in Sicyon (No. 6), in Athens (No. 11), in 
Egyptian Thebes (No. 1) and in Macedonia (No. 
13). There is, of course, nothing improbable in the 
belief that he had travelled to this extent. 

The present Descriptions belong to the same class 
of rhetorical literature as the Imagines of the older 
and the younger Philostratus, in that they are 
essentially examples of the rhetorician's skill rather 
than of serious art criticism. While it would be 
possible to draw comparisons more or less close 
between these Descriptions and the Imagines, such 
a procedure would probably be misleading. Doubt- 
less the present work is one of many in which 

^ Introduction, pp. xxii-xxiii. Cf. W. Me3'er, Der 
accentuirte Satzschluss in dcr gricchischen Prosa rom. IV his 
XVIJahrhundert, Gott., 1891. 



paintings and sculpture were praised ; doubtless it 
is far truer to dwell on the influence of Philostratus 
the elder on this whole branch of later rhetoric than 
to attempt comparisons between any two examples 
of such rhetoric. In fact the study of Callistratus' 
work brings out the differences between him and his 
known predecessors quite as much as his dependence 
on them. 

In general his descriptions have so little to say 
of the statues described that the name of the work 
seems inexact ; his aim is rather to praise, and the 
description is quite subordinate to his rhetorical 
encomium of the sculptor's marvellous success in 
his work. Ap})arently he is as much indebted to 
writers who have praised works of literary art as 
to those who used painting and sculpture for their 
themes. His method is quite simple. He begins 
with the name, the location, and often the material 
of a statue ; after some general remarks he praises 
the success of the artist in making the material 
express the living being he depicts ; and in con- 
clusion he adds some general remark on art or the 
artist which the statue had suggested. We find 
none of the rhetorical devices of the older Philo- 
stratus — the ornate language, the complicated effort 
for a conversational style, the mixture of actual 
description with other elements of the story which 
are not represented in the picture ; the " boy " who 
served as the audience has all but disappeared (but 
of. a> v€oi, }). 428, IK.); the numerous allusions to 
classical literature and the constant use of phrases 
from the poets are no longer found. Nor do we 
find the careful descriptions of the later Philo- 
stratus ; his aim is to praise the success of the 



artist, and to this end is directed all the elo- 
quence he can command. Callistratus is primarily 
not a student of art, but a sophist who displays 
liis powers in these encomia. Like his predecessors, 
he held that literature as well as sculpture and 
painting was an inspired art ; he too competed with 
tiie works of art he described in the effort to make 
his descriptions equally works of art ; like the 
poets and the historians, like Demosthenes and 
Euripides (cf. Nos. 2, 8, 13), he would speak with an 
inspiration similar to that of sculptor or painter. 

While the elder Philostratus emphasized the 
realism, the illusion of reality in the paintings he 
described, and at times mentioned the technique 
by which this illusion was produced ; while the 
younger Philostratus treated paintings primarily as 
expressing the character and the inner experience 
of the persons represented, it was the aim of 
Callistratus to glorify the success of the sculptor 
in making bronze or marble all but alive in the 
figures he created. Briefly, he points out in each 
case how art almost transformed dead matter into 
the living beings which the artist represented, 
apparently endowing the material with the softness 
and colour of flesh, with sensations, with emotions, 
with passion and intelligence, and with the power 
to move ; and because the statues were all but 
living beings, they represented the character and 
inner experience of these beings. There is a 
certain sameness and conventionality in the way 
this formula is developed. The details he praises 
are in almost every instance first the hair, its 
softness, its waving locks, its moist curls ; then he 
often speaks of the eyes (Nos. 5, 8, 11) as expressing 


BB 2 


character ; he constantly dwells on the flesh, its 
softness and its varying colour as exj)ressed in a 
material that was hard and of one colour ; the power 
to move, or to seem to move, belongs to his statues 
as to the statues made by Daedalus (Nos. 3, 8, 9) ; 
but the statues he describes are superior to those 
of Daedalus in that they not only felt sensations 
of grief or joy or desire (Nos. 1, 3, 5, 8, 9), but they 
also had the power of sense perception (Nos. 2, 5) 
and intelligence (Nos. 3, 10, 13) and personal 
character (Nos. 5, 11, 13). The language of the 
Alexandrine epigrams dealing with sculpture and 
statuary, which are j^reserved in the Anthology, 
Callistratus transfers to these prose descriptions in 
order to lend eloquence to his treatment of the 
theme. If his eloquence sometimes becomes tedious, 
if it adds little or nothing to our knowledge of 
(jreek sculpture, nevertheless these descriptions are 
valuable in the light they throw^ on the significance 
of the greater Greek art for the fourth and fifth 
centuries a.d. 

It is of little consequence, therefore, whether or 
not the Descriptions of Callistratus are based on real 
statues he had seen. Probably we should assume 
that he writes about what he had himself seen, 
either in originals or copies, for there is no real 
reason against this belief; and when he uses the 
language of hearsay in speaking of the statue of 
Memnon (pp. 379, 409, infra), he expressly states the 
fact. At the same time, such praise as he offers to 
the " Oj)portunity " of Lysip])us or the IJacchante 
of Scopas or the Eros of Praxiteles is by no means 
dependent on his personal acquaintance with these 
statues ; indeed it rather smacks of a literary origin, 



To say that ^^art carried imitation over into reality " 
(2, 2), that ^'^the image passes over into the god 
himself" (10. 2), that art gave bronze the power to 
breathe (11^ 2), is the language of the rhetorician 
rather than of one who is carried away in looking 
at the statue itself. 




a \L\t 2ATTP0N 

421 K. (1) " AvTpov 7]v TL Trepl S)]l3a<; ras" AlyvTrria^; 

TT poaeiKaa fievov avpL'y^/i et? €XiKa<; avro(f)vco<; iv 

kvkXw irepl rov<; rrj? 77)9 eXnTofievov 7rv6/jLeva<;' 

ov yap eV evOeia^ avoLyofievov eh evOviropov^ 

5 avXodva^ eV^^tfero, dWa ti-jv vironpeLov Trepirpexov 

Ka/jL7ri]v vTToyeLov; €XiKa<; i^ereivev et? Svaeuperov 

7r\dp7]v eKTTliTTOv. (2) "IhpVTO Be iv avrw ^arv- 

pov TL a')(^rjp.a TSX^TjOev i/c XlOov. eiari^Kei, /xev 

' eTTL TiPo^ Kp7]7rtBo<^ CLS xopeiav evrpeTTL^cov to 

10 axrjiia Kal rf]^ Sefm? /SaVeco? top rapaov rov 

OTTiaOeu e^aipwv /x6T6)(€ipL^eT0 Kal avXov Kal 

77/909 Ti]v i)xh^ irpwro^ e^avifnaro' rfj /xev yap 

aKofj yLteXo? ou irpoari'TTTev av\ovvro<; ovSe rjv 

av\6<; €/ji(l)u>vo<;, to Be tmv avXovvTcov irddo^ Bia 

15 T?}9 Tex^l^ ^t? TTiv ireTpav elaPjKTO. (3) EtS69 ai> 

v7ravLaTa/jL€Pa<; Kal (^\e/3a9 ft)9 dv €k tivo<; yept^o- 

/xeW9 rrvevpaTO<; Kal eU ti^v eiT)]X)-}aLV tov avXov 

Tj-jv 7ri'0T]p ix aTepvwv top 'EaTvpop dpaairMPTa 

^ Tlie statue here described corresponds to the "Satyr 
playing a flute" in the Villa Borghese (Brunn-Bruckman, 
Dcnlmahr gricch. it. rom. Sculptur, No. 435). It is quite 
possible that at one time this Satyr was set up with a statue 
of Pan embracing the nymph Echo, for it is well known that 
after tlie death of Alexander the (^reat, single statues of 
men and gods Mhich logically l)elonged together were set 
up together in gardens and public places. However, the 
question may be raised whether in this instance the nymph 


1. ON A SATYR 1 

There was a certain cave near Thebes in Egypt 
which resembled a shepherd's pipe, since as it 
followed its winding coarse in the depths of the 
earth it formed a natural spiral ; for it did not take 
a straight course at the opening and then branch 
off into straight-running corridors, but winding 
about under the mountain it made a 
huge spiral, ending in a most difficult 
maze. In it was set up an image of a 
Satyr wrought in marble. He stood 
on a base in the attitude of one making 
ready to dance, and lifting the sole of 
his right foot backward he not only 
held a flute in his hand but also was 
being the first to leap up at its sound ; 
though in reality the flute's note was 
not reaching the player's ear, nor yet 
was the flute endowed with voice, but 
the physical effect which flute-players ^^^- ^-• 

experience had been transferred to the stone by the 
skill of the artist. You could have seen the veins 
standing out as though they were filled with a sort 
of breath, the Satyr drawing the air from his lungs 

is reall}' ]i]cho. While in the myth Pan is said to have been 
disappointed in his love for Echo, here he is represented 
as enjoying the satisfaction of his love, and as eager to 
defend the nymph from the danger which the Satyr threatens. 
(Benndorf.) This statue (Fig. 32) is wrongly restored with 



Aral ivepyelv iOeXov to ecScoXov Kal et? aycoplav 

20 rov \idov TriTTTOPra' elvai 'yap enreLde Kal irvorj^i 
e^ovGiav ev eavrw €/jL(f)VTOP Kal aad/iaTO<s €P- 
422 K. BeL^LP iyeipo/ieprjp o'UoOep — Kal tmp d/jLrj^dpwp 
TTOpop. (4) OvK r}p Be d/SporrjTO'; fxerexop ro 
awfia, a\V ?; rcop /xeXwp areppoTT]'^ ttjp copap 
€K\€7rT€v et? dpOpayp crvfi/jLeTplap dpSpcKcop rrjv 
6 iheap rpaxvpovaa. KaXfj /jl€p yap Kopr) ^ ^pcore^ 
fiaXOaKol 7rp6(T(popoi Kal pbiX-q OpvTrrojxeva, 
Xarvpov Be av')(fX7]pop to €lBo<; o)? dp opeiov 
Bal/jLOPO'^ Kal Aiopvaw aKipT(x)PTO<;, Kiaao^ Be 
avTOP eaTecpdpov ouk eK Xeifioypo^ Bpeyjra/iiepq^; 

10 TOP KapTTOP T/}? T€X,vi]<;, dXX' 6 XlOo<; diro^ 
(tt€pp6t7)to<; 6t9 KX(x)pa<i ^u^ei? irepieOeL ttjp 
KO/jbTjv et<? avfx/BoXrjp eirl T0v<i av)(epiov^ TepoPTa^ 
eK fjLeTcoircjp irpoaepirwp. (5) YlapeiaTrjKeL Be 6 
Yidp yapvfjiepo<^ Trj avXrjTLKy Kal epayKaXiad- 

15 /jL€po^ Ti-jP 'H;(6o, coGirep oJ/iai SeStc<J9, /-ly TLpa 
<^66yyop e/jifiovaop 6 avXo<i Kipr)aa<^ dpT7]')(^€ip 
dpaireicrr} tw ^aTvpw t7]p Nv/jL(j)r]p. tovto 
OeaadfjLepoi to eiBcoXop Kal top A10l6it(dp XlOop 
e/jL(f)(opop yiefjiP0P0<; eiriaTevofiep yepeadai, 69 

20 7rpoaLova')](; fiep T759 'H/ji€pa<; iirl Tat9 7rapov(TLai<; 
i(f)aiBpvpeTO, diriovari^; Be dvia l3aXX6fiepo<; irep- 
OifjLop eireaTepep Kal p.opo'^ eK XlOcop 7)Boprj<; Kal 
Xv7rr]<; irapovala BioiKov/iePO^; Ti]<i olKeia<^ direaTr} 
K(O(f)6Tr]T0<; 669 e^ovaiap <f)copi]<; ttjp dpataOrjalap 

25 eKPiKrjaa<^. 

^ Ka\r\ fiiv yap K6pri Weinberger : KaXr) fxfu yap K6pr]. 
2 ttTrb Olearius : virh. 

^ Cf. the elder Philostratus, mpra, p. 81, the description 
of Zephyrus. 


to bring notes from the flute, the statue eager to be 
in action, and the stone entering upon strenuous 
activity — for it persuaded you that the power to 
blow the flute was actually inherent in it, and that 
the indication of breathing was the result of its 
own inner powers^ — finding a way to accomplish 
the impossible. 2 The body had no trace of delicacy, 
but the hardness of the members had stolen away 
their beauty, making the form rugged with the 
symmetry of manly limbs. For though soft skin 
and dainty limbs befit a beautiful girl, the appearance 
of a Satyr is unkempt, as of a mountain spirit that 
leaps in honour of Dionysus. The statue was 
wreathed with ivy, though the sculptor's art did not 
cull real berries from a meadow, nay, rather, it was 
the stone which for all its hardness spread out into 
sprays and encircled the hair, creeping back from 
the forehead till the ends met at the sinews of the 
neck. Pan stood beside him, delighting in the 
music of the flute and embracing Echo, in fear, I 
suppose, lest the flute set in motion some musical 
sound and induce the Nymph to make an echoing 
response to the Satyr. When we saw this statue 
we could well believe that the Ethiopian stone 
statue of Memnon ^ also became vocal, the Memnon, 
who when Day came was filled with joy by her 
presence, and, overcome by distress when she de- 
parted, groaned with grief — the only stone figure 
that has been moved by the presence of joy and 
sadness to depart from its natural dumbness, so far 
overcoming its insensibility as to gain the power of 

2 The text seems to be imperfect. The last phrase is 
proverbial ; cf. Aeschylus, Prom. 59, and infra, p. 433, 5 K. 
^ Cf. supra, p. 31, and infra, p. 407. 




(1) Ou 7T0U]T(x)V Kal XoyOTTOlMV fJLOVOV CTTl- 

TTveovrat ^ rexvcii iwl raf; yXcorraf; eic dewv 
deiaa-fiou Trecroi/ro?, aWa Kal tmv BTjfiiovpycov 
at X^tpe? Oetorepcov TTvevfiaTwv ipdvoi<; \rj(^6el- 
30 oaL Kdro)(a Kal ixeara fiavla^; irpo^rirevovaL ra 
TTonjpara' 6 yap Srj ^Koira^;, coanep €k TLVo<i 
eTTLTTPOiaf; KLV'i]Oel<i eh rrjv rod dydXfjLaTO^ 
hi-jiJLLovpyiav r-qv 6eo(^opiav ec^rjKev. ri he v/jllv 
K. 423 ovK dvwOev tov ivdovaiaa/jLov tt)? re^^i/?;? 
Snjyou/jLaL ; 

(2) ' ]^v l3dKXV^ dyaX/jLa eK \lOov Uaplov 
TreiroLTJixevov aXkarrofievov 7rp6<; ttjv oWo)? 
PdK')(r]v. iv yap rfj oiKela rd^et fxevcov 6 \l6o<; 

5 TOP ev XiOoi^ vofJLOV eK/Salveiv iSoKer to fiev yap 
(^aivopevov 6vTa><; yv etScoXov, rj Te;^^'>; 8' et? to 
ovTW^ ov diTr]yaye ttjv fXL/jLi]criv. elSe? av otl 
Kal aT€p€o^ o)v eh Tr)v tov ^>;X,eo9 eiKaaiav 
€fiaXdTT€T0 yopyoTTjTO^ Bi,opOov/jLevT)<i TO OrjXv 
10 Kal eh i^ovaiav djjLOipMv Kivijaeco^; fjhei ^aK- 
y^eveadai Kal tw deep elaiovTi Ta evBov vtt^x^^- 
(3) YlpoaooTTov ye p^rjv 186vt€<; vtto d<^aaia<; 
eGTiifiev outco Bi] Kal aladi]ae(jo<^ avveiTTeTo 

^ eVjTrveovToi Jacobs : irvfovrai. 

^ The word means primarily to act as interpreter for the 
gods, and then to speak under divine inspiration. 

2 Cf. Plato, riiaedr. 245a on the madness which inspires 
the poet. " The third kind is the madness of those Mho are 
possessed by the Muses ; which takes hold of a delicate and 
virgin soul, and this inspiring fren/y awakens lyrical and all 
other numbers ; with these adorning the myriad actions of 




It is not the art of poets and writers of prose 
alone tliat is inspired when divine power from the 
gods falls on their tongues, nay, the hands of 
sculptors also, when they are seized by the gift 
of a more divine inspiration, give utterance ^ to 
creations that are possessed and full of madness.^ 
So Scopas,"^ moved as it were by some inspiration, 
imparted to the production of this statue the divine 
frenzy within him.* Wliy should I not describe to 
you from the beginning the inspiration of this work 
of art ? 

A statue of a Bacchante, wrought from Parian 
marble, has been transformed into a real Bacchante. 
For the stone, while retaining its own nature, yet 
seemed to depart from the law which governs 
stone ; what one saw was really an image, but art 
carried imitation over into actual reality. You 
might have seen that, hard though it was, it 
became soft to the semblance of the feminine, its 
vigour, however, correcting the femininity, and that, 
though it had no power to move, it knew how to 
leap in Bacchic dance and would respond to the god 
when he entered into its inner being. When we 
saw the face we stood speechless ; so manifest upon 

ancient heroes for the instruction of posterity." Trans. 
Jo wet t. 

^ Scopas of Paros, the sculptor of passionate emotions, 
worked during the first half of the fourth century B.C. 

* Cf. Anth. Pal. IX. 774: "The Bacchante is of Parian 
marble, but the sculptor gave life to the stone, and she 
springs up as if in a Bacchic fury. Scopas, thy god-creating 
art has produced a great marvel, a Thyad, the frenzied sla3-er 
of goats." Trans. Paton, L.C.L. 



B)}\u)/j.a fjLT] TTapovarj^ ala6i'-)aew<;, Kal fiaK^Vi 

15 iK/3aK)(€vo)v OeiacTfio^ ifii]vv6T0 Oeiadfiov firj 

TrXyTTOvTO^; Kal oaa (pepet fiavia^ olarpMaa 

'^vxh Tooavra irdOov^i SieXa/jLire TeKfiijpia viro 

T?}? Teyin)<^ dpp7]T(p Xoyw Kpadevra. dveljo 8e 

rj KOfirj ^€(j)vp(p cro/Selv Kal 6t? rpc^o^ dvOt^aiv 

20 v'JTea)(i^ero, o Brj Kal pLoXiara rov Xoyiafiov 

vTrelcaTT], on, Kal rpiybf; XeTrrorrjTL Xt^o? cov 

eireiOeTO Kal irXoKcip^cov virrjKovaev iiifnj/jLacnv 

Kal Tr]<; fwrf/c/)? efeco? yeyv/ivco/ievo^ to ^cdtlkov 

€i')(^ev. (4) "E^?;? av on Kal av^rjaew^ d(pop/jid<; 

25 r) riyi^T} avvijyayev oi/tco? Kal to opcopievov 


ciXXa Kal ')(elpa<^ ivepyov<; eTreheiKVVTO — ov yap 
TOP l3aK)(^LK6v eTLvaaae Ovpaov, ciXXd tl a^dyiov 
6<p€pev Marrep evd^ovaa, 7riKpoTepa<^ p,avLa<; (7vp./3o- 

30 Xov TO Se rjv ')(^ip,aipa<; tl TcXdapa ireXihvov Tr)v 
y^poav Kal yap to Tedv7]Ko<; 6 Xl6o<; vireSveTO — 
Kal fJLLav ovaav t^i^ vXr]v eh OavdTOV Kal ^(07]<; 
hirjpei pLLfir)(TLv, ttjv pLev epurvovv CTrjaaaa Kal 
olov opeyopLevrfv Ki6aLpa)vo<;, ttjv Be €K tov 

35 fiaK)(iKov OavaTwOelaav ol'aTpov Kal twv alaOi]- 
424 aecdv diropiapaivovaav ti-jv dKpLi]v. (5) 'O pikv 
ovv ^KOTTa^; Kal Td<; dyjnj-yov^ elSwXoTTOtcov 
yeveaeL<i hijpiovpyo^ dXT]Oeia<i rjv Kal Toh acop-aai 
tt)? vX7]<i ^ direTUTTOvTO to, 6avpLaTa, 6 Be to, ev 
5 XoyoL^ BiairXaTTCov A7]pLoa66VT]<; dydXpaTa puK- 
pov Kal Xoycov ehet^ev elBa alaOrjTov toZ? vov 

^ Jacobs would emend i/Atj? to »//ux^?' 

^ Cf. Eur. Baccli. 32 f.: (forprja iyd) fiavLais. Dionysus 
says, "I goaded them with madness. . . ." 



it was the evidence of sense perception^ though 
perception was not present ; so clear an intimation 
was given of a Bacchante's divine possession stirring 
Bacchic frenzy though no such possession aroused 
it ; and so strikingly there shone from it, fashioned 
by art in a manner not to be described, all the signs 
of passion which a soul goaded by madness ^ displays. 
The hair fell free to be tossed by the wind and 
was divided to show the glory of each strand, 
which thing indeed most transcended reason, seeing 
that, stone though the material was, it lent itself 
to the lightness of hair and yielded to imitation of 
locks of hair, and though void of the faculty of life, 
it nevertheless had vitality. Indeed you might say 
that art has brought to its aid the impulses of 
growing life, so unbelievable is what you see, so 
visible is what you do not believe. Nay, it actually 
showed hands in motion — for it was not waving the 
Bacchic thyrsus, but it carried a victim as if it were 
uttering the Evian cry, the token of a more poignant 
madness ; and the figure of the kid was livid in 
colour,^ for the stone assumed the appearance of 
dead flesh ; and though the material was one and 
the same it severally imitated life and death, for it 
made one part instinct with life and as though eager 
for Cithaeron, and another part brought to death by 
Bacchic frenzy, its keen senses withered away. 
Thus Scopas fashioning creatures without life was 
an artificer of truth and imprinted miracles on bodies 
made of inanimate matter ; while Demosthenes, 
fashioning images in words, almost made visible a 
form of words by mingling the medicaments of art 

2 Cf. Anth. Pal. IX. 774, p. 381, supra. 



Kal (ppoi>7]aea)(; y€PV7]/jLaaL avyKepavvv^ ra tT;? 
T^X^V^ (j^cipfJLaKa. Kal yvGoaecrde Be avriKa, o)? 
ovhe rr)<^ otKoOev Kivy]aeQ)<; eareptfTaL to et? 
10 Oewpiav irpoKeiiievov ayaX/ia, aWa Kal 6/iov 
heairo^ei Kal iv tm x^paKTijpi crw^ei top 


(1) Kat eTepa<^ iepci<; Te)(yr]<^ ol XoyoL 7Tpo(l)yj- 
revorai /SovXovrar ou yap fxoL Oe/JLirov firj KaXelv 

15 lepa TO, Te^i^V^ yewi^fiaTa. "E/3&)9 rjv, lipa^i- 
T€Xov<; Te)(yiifxa, 6 "Epa)9 avro^;, iraU di'Oi]po<; 
Kal vio<; Trre/juya? exo)^ f^ctl ro^a. x^^^^'^ ^^ 
avrbv irvirov, Kal co? av "Epcora tuttcov Tvpavvov 
Oeov Kal piiyav Kal avro^ ihwaareveTO' ov yap 

20 rjveLX^TO %aX/co9 elvai ra Trdvia, dW 6ao<; rjv, 
"Ep&)9 eyiveTO. (2) ElSe9 dv top x^^^^v 6pv- 
TTTOfievov Kal et9 evaapKiav d/ji7]xdv(o<; xXihoivra 
Kal 0)9 ^paxeco^i elirelv rd dvayKala irXrjpovv 
eavrf) rrjv v\y]v dpKovaav. vypb<; /lev rjv d/jLOL- 

25 pMv ixa\aK6TqT0<^} x^^^V ^^ ^X^^ avvwhov rr]V 

^ fiaXaKoT-qTos Jacobs : (.LcyaKoTriTO's. 

^ i.e. the power of movement native to a Bacchante. 

- " Keeps alive its own creator," i.e. its life, bestowed by 
the sculptor, is a continuation of the life of the latter; is 
"master" of its creator, in that it is divine, wiiile he was 

^ Since Mhat is said of the dress and attitude of this figure 
agrees with the manner of Praxiteles, there appears no reason 
to doubt the statement of Callistratus that it is the work of 
that sculfitor. Compare the Eros from tlie Chigi Collection, 
now in Dresden (Clarao, Mus. de .fculpt. PI. 645, No. 14(37 ; 


with the creations of mind and intelligence. You 
will recognize at once that the image set up to 
be gazed at has not been deprived of its native 
power of movement ^ ; nay, that it at the same time 
is master of and by its outward configuration keeps 
alive its own creator.^ 


My discourse desires to interpret another sacred 
work of art; for it is not right for me to refuse 
to call the productions of art sacred. The Eros, 
the workmanship of Praxiteles/ was Eros himself, a 
boy in the bloom of youth with wings and bow. 
Bronze gave expression to him, and as though 
giving expression to Eros as a great and dominating 
god, it was itself subdued by Eros ; for it could not 
endure to be just bronze, but it became Eros with 
all his greatness. You might have seen the bronze 
losing its hardness and becoming marvellously 
delicate in the direction of plumpness and, to put 
the matter briefly, the material proving equal to 
fulfilling all the obligations that were laid upon 
it. It was supple but without effeminacy ; and 
while it had the proper colour of bronze, it looked 

Michaelis, Arch. Zeit., 1879, p. 173, PI XIV. 6), in which, 
however, the right hip is thrown out (cf. 425, 2 K) ; also the 
Eros from the Palatine now in the Louvre, Fig. .33, p. 387 
(Frohner, Notice de la sculpt, ant., p. 311, No. 325; Furt- 
wiingler, Roscher's Lex. d. griech. u. r'oin. Mifth. I. 1360 f. ), 
in which the left arm with the bow is not raised — but 
/iercojpi^ctjv (425, 1 K.) does not necessarily mean "raised." 
(Benndorf. ) 

* Praxiteles of Athens, probably son of the sculptor 
Cephisodotus ; his artistic activity falls about the middle 
of the fourth century B.C. 




y^poav evavO)]'^ ecopcno, tmv Se Kiv)ja€co'; epywv 
€crT€p7]fi6i'0^ €ro{po<; i]v Sel^ai Kiviiaiv eh p-ev 
yap ehpav ardaipiov 7SpvTo, iiTrdra he co^ kol 
Tr}<; p^erecopou Kvpteixov (f)opd<;. eyai'povro Se et? 

30 yeXcora, e/iirvpoi' tl Kal p,eiXi)(ov e^ opiparwv 
Biavyd^cov, Kal rjv Ihelv VTraKOvovra rep irdOei 
rov y^akKov kol Be)(6/jL€Vov eu^roXo)? ti]V yeXcoro'^ 
pipbi^aLv. (3) "\hpvTO he et? p.ev t)]V Kopv(py]i> tov 
425 he^iov iirLKdp.TnMv Kapirov, Trj he erepa pLereo}- 
pi^cov TO To^ov Kal TT]V T?}? ^acr6ft)? laoppoiriav 
eiTiKXivcDv eirl rd Xaid, Tip> yap r/}^ dpcarepaf; 
Xayovo^ eKtnaaiv dviarrj 7rp6<i ti-jv evp^apoTrjra 
o TOV ')(aXKOv TO (TTeyavov eKK\daa<;. (4) IlXo- 
KapLOL he avTOv ti]v Ke(f)a\^]v eaKia^ov dvOrjpol 
Kal evovXoL veoTi']aiuv v7ro\dp,7rovT6<i dv6o<;. Kal 
i^v 6avpLaaT0<; olo<=; 6 ;^aX/co9* IhovTL piev yap 
epev6o<^ direaTLX^ev i^ aKpcov ^o(JTpv)(wi' alpo- 

10 pLevov, d\j/apLevrp he i) 6pl^ vTre^aviaTaTO p.a\Oa- 
KLt,opevii irpo^ T)]v al'aOtjaii^. (5) 'Eyuol pter hr] 
6eaorapev(p tyjv Tey^in-jv eiryjei TriaTeveiv, otl Kal 
Xopov i]aK))(Te KivovpLevov Aaiha\o<; Kal ^pvacp 
Trapel^ev alaO/jaei^, ottov Kal HpaffreX?;? eZ? 

15 Ty]v ecKora tov ''EpcoTO<; ei>e6qKe piKpov Kal 
voyjpaTa Kai iTTepvyt tov depa Tepiveiv epn^-x^avi']- 



bright and fresh ; and though it was quite devoid 
of actual motion, it was ready to display motion ; 
for it was fixed solidly on a pedestal, it 
deceived one into thinking that it possessed the 
power to fly. It Avas filled with joy 
even to laughter^ the glance from the 
eyes was ardent and gentle, and one 
could see the bronze coming under 
the sway of passion and willingly re- 
ceiving the representation of laughter. 
It stood with right hand bent toward 
the head and lifting the bow with its 
left; and the even balance of the body's 
posture was modified by an inclination 
toward the left^ for the projecting left 
hip was raised so as to break the stiff- 
ness of the bronze and produce an 
easy pose. The head was shaded by 
locks that were bright and curly and shining with 
the brightness of youth. And what wonderful 
bronze it was I for as one looked a ruddy colour 
shone out from the ends of the curls, and when 
one felt the hair it yielded as though soft to 
the touch. As 1 gazed on this work of art, the 
belief came over me that Daedalus ^ had indeed 
wrought a dancing group in motion and had be- 
stowed sensation upon gold, while Praxiteles had 
all but put intelligence into his image of Eros and 
had so contrived that it should cleave the air with 
its wings. 

^ Cf. p. .341, buyra, for the dancing group of Daedalus. 

Fig. 33. 

cc 2 




(1) Uapa Kpi]viiv ''\vho<; elaTi]KeL avdOij/jLa raU 
^v/icf)ai<; IhpvOei^, i]v he 6 ^lvho<i \l6o^ jieXaLvo- 

20 fievo<^ Kal rrpo^ ttjv €K (j)vae(o<; tou yivov; avro- 
p,o\cov xpoa^, ^Ix^ ^^ evOaXr) fisv Kal ovXrjv Trjv 
XCtiTijv ovK d/cpdro) rfo fieXavi Xcip^irovaav, dXX^ 
€K T(x3v dvpcov 7r/309 KoxXov Tf/Oia? dvOo^ epl^ov' 
aav olov yap eviraOovcra Kal voTL^o/jL€vr) raU 

25 TTpoaoiKOL^ Ni>fi(pai<; y) Opl^ €k pL^MV dviouaa 
peXdvT€po<^ 7r/3o? Tol<i uKpoi^; irropcfivpev. (2) 
'0(f)6aX/jL0L ye jjltjv ov avvfjhov rw XlOw, Kara yap 
ra? Tcov o/jL/jbdrwv K6pa<; TrepUOei X€vk6t7]<; Kar 
e/celvo TO /x€po<; tj)? rrerpa^ fieraTrnTTOvaT]'^ 66? 

30 XevKOTTjra, KaO' o Kal r/}? rov 'Ir8o0 (f)vaea)<; i) 
Xpoa XevKaiverai. (3) ^leOr) Be avrovi^iarr] Kal 
TO iiep^eOvapevov ov KaTep,yjvva€v i) rov Xidov 
K. 426 XP^^ — ^^ y^P V^ avT(p fij]xdp7]pa rat; Trapeid^ 
(^OLvl^ai (TKeTTOvro<^ rov /xeXavo^ rrjp fieO^iv — , eV 
^e Tov ax^'^p^CLTO^ Ka-ri^yopei to 7rdOo<;' 7rapdcf)op6<i 
T€ yap Kal Kwp^dt^wv €i(TT7]K€t ov hvvdpevo^ 
5 ipeiSet-v ro) TroSe, dXX vrroTpop.6^ re Kal vtto ^ 
TJ]v yf]v OKXd^cov. (4) '0 8e Xt^o<? utto tov 7rd6ov<i 
efjdKei irXi^yevTi Kal olovel aiTaipei tov diro t?}? 
p,eOr]<; ipcpavi^wi' aecafMov. eZ;^e Be d^pov ovBev 
TOV ^IvBov TO eiBcoXov ovS* eh ttjp KaTO, xP^^^ 

10 e^i](JKi)TO x^P'^^i aXX' eh /jlovcop tmv p,eXcov 
^ Text corrupt. Reisch suggests virh ttjs juedr}?. 

^ In the eastern campaigns of Alexander the Great certain 
orgiastic cults in India were identified with the worship of 
Dionysus ; the names of Dionysiac legend were applied to 
them, statues of the Indian Dionysus were erected, and 



By a spring stood an Indian^ set up as a dedica- 
tion to the Nymphs. The Indian was of a marble 
verging on black and shifting of its own accord to the 
colour given by nature to his race ; and it had thick, 
woolly hair, shining wdth a hue not exactly black, ^ 
but at the tips vying with the brilliancy of Tyrian 
shellfish ; ^ for the hair, as if it w^ere well cared for 
and moistened by the neighbouring Nymphs, was 
rather black where it rose from the roots but grew 
purple near the tips. The eyes, however, w^ere not 
of a colour to match the marble ; for whiteness 
encircled the pupils of the eyes, since the marble 
changed to whiteness at that point where the 
natural colour of the Indian becomes white. 
Drunkenness was overcoming him, and yet the 
colour of the marble did not betray his drunken- 
ness — for the artist had no means by which to 
redden the cheeks, the black colour being proof 
against this effect of drink — but this condition was 
indicated by the attitude ; for he stood reeling and 
jovial, not able to plant his feet steadily, but tremb- 
ling and tending to sag to the ground. The 
marble resembled a man overcome by this condition, 
and it all but quivers as it indicates the trembling 
that comes from drunkenness. There was nothing 
delicate about the statue of the Indian, nor yet was it 
carefully wrought to match the charm of its colour, 
but it was perfected only as regards the composition 

stories were told of the visit of Dionysus to India with the 
train of his foUowers. Cf. the visit of A poUonius to one of these 
shrines of Dionysus in India, Philostr. Fit. Apollon. 11.8. 

^ Cf. the description of Memnon, p. 31, s^ipra. 

^ i.e. Tyrian purple, made from the murex. 



avfj,l3o\7]i> BiijpOproTo. aa/<€7r)]^ St i)v KalyvfjLvo<; 
u}<; ai> TMV 'IvSlkwu (TcofjidTCOV irpo^ to t/}? dKfir]<; 
(pXoywSe^ elcodoTcoi' oLTravSpt^eadai, 


(1) "AXcro? yv Kol iv avTw /cp7]V)] 7rdyKa\o<; 

15 eK jidXa /caOapov re koI Siavyov<^ v8aT0<;, €L(TT)J- 
K6i Be eV avrfj NdpKiaao<; €k \l6ov 7T€7TOLr]fi€vo<;. 
TTol^i rjv, fidWov he r]i6eo<^, i)\LKid>Tri<; 'Epcorwv, 
dcTpairi^v olov i^ avrov rod aw/iaro'^ diroXdpnTwv 
KuWovs. r)V he Toiovhe to <j')(rjiJia' KOfiaL's eiTi- 

20 )(pvaoL<; i]aTpaiTT€v KUTci fiev to fxeTOdTrov rr)? 
TpL')(h^ eXLaao/jLem]^ 6t9 kvkXov, KUTa he top 
av)(^era Ke)(u/xei'ri<; ei9 voiTa, e^Xeire he ovk 
dicpdT(jd<i yavpov ovhe iXapov Kadapoi^i' e7ri7re(j)v- 
Kei yap iv tol<; ofifxaaiv Ik, ty]^ re^i'?;? Ka\ Xvini, 

25 'iva fjueTa rod KapKiaaov kol Tr]V TV)(riv rj eLKOiV 
fxipLrjTai. (2; "[^laTaXTo he wairep oi "Epcore?, oh 
KOL T?}9 (opa<; Ti]v uK/xijv TrpoaeiKaoTo. a')(^r}iJLa 
he r)v TO Koa/jLovp TOiovhe' TreTrXo? XevKav6r]<^ 
6/jl6xpco<; TO) GcofxaTi tov Xidov irepiOewv eh 

30 kvkXov, KUTci TOV he^iov w/iov irepovyOeh virep 
yovv KaTa^aivcov eiraveTO /xovrjv drro tov TropTn]- 
yLtaro? eXevdepcbv Tyjv ')(^eLpa. ovto) he r)v diraXo'^ 

K. Kal TTyoo? TreirXov yeyovu)^; /xL/jiijaLV, o)? kuI ti-jv 

^ The statue of Narcissus in tlie Vatican, Fig. 34(Helbig, 
Fiihrcrdurrhdie Ant.-Samml. Rums, 2, 18), inscribed with the 
name of Fhaedinuis agrees in ahnost all respects with this 
description; cf. Welcker, Narcissits, p. 38 f. (Benndorf.) 
Tiiis interpretation of the statue of Narcissus has been 
disputed (cf. Greve, in Roscher, Ler. d. grirch. n.rom. Myth. 
III. 19). The cloak on the left shoulder is the usual garment 
of an Jmos. 


of its limbs. It was unclothed and nude, on the 
ground that tlie bodies of Indians are wont to 
endure manfully the fiery heat of the midday sun. 


There was a grove, and in it an exceedingly 
beautiful spring of very pure clear water, and by 
this stood a Narcissus made of marble. He was a 
boy, or rather a youth, of the same age as the 
Erotes ; and he gave out as it were 
a radiance of lig-htning from the 
very beauty of his body. The 
appearance of the statue was as 
follows : — It was shining with 
gilded hair, of which the locks 
encircled the forehead in a curve 
and hung free down the neck to 
the back ; and its glance did not 
express unmixed exultation nor yet 
pure joy, for in the nature of the 
eyes art had put an indication of 
grief, that the image might repre- 
sent not only both Narcissus but 
also his fate. He was clothed like the Erotes, 
and he resembled them also in that he was in 
the prime of youth. The garb which adorned 
him was as follows: a white mantle, of the same 
colour as tiie marble of which he was made, en- 
circled him ; it was held by a clasp on the right 
shoulder and reached down nearly to the knees, 
where it ended, leaving free, from the clasp down, 
only the hand. Moreover, it was so delicate and 
imitated a mantle so closely that the colour of the 


Fig. 34. 


Tou (Ta)/j,aTO<; hLaKajjuTeiv 'y^poav r/}? Iv rfj irepi- 
l3o\rj X€vk6t7]to<; ^ rrjv iv rol^ /jueXeaiv avyrjv 
e^Levai avyx^P^^^V^' (^) "^(^tt] 5e KaOdirep 
5 Karorrrpfp rfj Trrjyij ^^co/xei'o? Kal 6l<s avrrjv 
irepi^^eoiv rov irpoaoiirov to elSo^, i) he Tov<i air 
avToi) hexo/J-evt] x^paKT7Jpa<; tjjv avTrjv elScoXo- 
TTOilav i]vv6v, 0)9 hoKelv ak\i]\ais avTicf)i\oTip€C- 
aOai ra? ^vaei<;. rj jiev yap \lOo<; oXt] tt/oo? 

10 eKelvov jJLerrfkXaTTeTo rov oVrco? TralSa, rj he 
TTTjyr] 7r/309 ra iv rfj XiOcp /jir])(^av7]/xaTa t^? 
T€XV7](; dvTr]ycovL^€To iv dawficirw a^7]/jLaTL rrjv 
ix aoofxaTO^ aTTepya^o/jLevrj rov irapaheiyixaTO^ 
ofjLOLOTrjTa Kal rw iK r?]<i el/covo^i Karep^opevw 

15 dKidafiari, olov tivci adpKa rrjv rov vSaTO<: 
(pucriv Trepidelaa. (4) Ovrco he r)v ^cotikov kul 
e/jLTTVOVV TO Ka6* vhdTcov a')(rjiia, co? avTov elvai 
ho^dcrat crov l^dp/ciaaov, ov iirl Trtiyrjv iXOovTa 
tT;? ixopc^rj^ avTfo Kad' vhaTwv 6(f)0eLaTj<; irapd 

20 Nv/jL(pat<; TeXevT fjaai \eyovaiv ipaaOevra T(p 
elhd>\(p avfific^ai Kal vvv iv Xei/dcoat i^avTu^eaOai 
iv r)pivat<i copaL<; dvOovvTa. elhe'^ 3' dv &)? eh cov 
6 \l6o<; Trjv %/Ooaz^ Kal o/jL/bLaTcov KaTaaKevj]v 
Tjp/io^e Kal 7]0(bp laTOpiav eacp^ev Kal alaOrjaei^ 

25 iveheiKVVTO Kal ttuOi] iiJii]vvev Kal irpb^ Tpi)(copaTO<; 
i^ovaiav i)Ko\ov6eL et? ti]v Tpiyh<; Ka/jL7ri]v Xvo- 
/jievo^. (5) To he ovhe Xoyco ptjTov Xt^o? els vypo- 
T7]Ta KexciXaafievo<; Kal ivavTiov GMjxa tjj ovaia 
Trapexop^evc;' aTepecoTcpa^ yap reru^T/Arft)? ^ixrecof; 

30 Tpv(f)ep6T7]T0<; dTreareWev acadi]aiv 6i? dpaiov 

^ Jacobs would emend to AeTTTc^Trjros ; Welcker compares 
the elder Phil., Inutg. 352, 27 K. 



body shone through, tlie whiteness of the drapery 
permitting the gleam of the limbs to come out. He 
stood using the spring as a mirror and pouring into 
it the beauty of his face, and the spring, receiving 
the lineaments which came from him, reproduced 
so perfectly the same image that the two beings 
seemed to emulate each other. For whereas the 
marble was in every part trying to change the real 
boyi so as to match the one in the water, the 
spring was struggling to match the skilful efforts 
of art in the marble, reproducing in an incorporeal 
medium the likeness of the corporeal model and 
enveloping the reflection which came from the 
statue with the substance of water as though it 
were the substance of flesh. And indeed the form 
in the water was so instinct with life and breath 
that it seemed to be Narcissus himself, who, as the 
story goes, came to the spring, and when his form 
was seen by him in the water he died among the 
water-nymphs, because he desired to embrace his 
own image, and now he appears as a flower in the 
meadows in the spring-time. You could have seen 
how the marble, uniform though it was in colour, 
adapted itself to the expression of his eyes, pre- 
served the record of his character, showed the 
perception of his senses, indicated his emotions and 
conformed itself to the abundance of his hair as it 
relaxed to make the curls of his locks. Indeed, 
words cannot describe how the marble softened into 
suppleness and provided a body at variance with 
its own essence ; for though its own nature is very 
hard, it yielded a sensation of softness, being dis- 

^ i.e. The statue of the boy. 



TWa (7(i)/jLaT0<; OJKOV Sia^(€6/jL6l'0<s. /.l€T€)(€ipi^6T0 

Be Kal avpi'^/ya, //9 vofiioi^ Oeoh 6Kelvo<; d7rj]p^€T0, 
Kal ryjv ipi^ixiav KaTi]')(^eL tol<=; fxeKeaiv, eiTrore 
/jiovaLKOL<; yjraXT7]pioL<; Trpoao/jLiXfjaai TroOtjcreiev. 
428 K. TOVTOV Oav/jidaa<;, o) veoi, rov Sdp/CLaaov kuI el<; 
v/jid<; 7rap/]yayov 6t? Moucrcor avXi]V d-Korvirwad- 
/ji€vo<;. €^^L Se 6 X6yo<;, co? Kal i) ^Ikojv €l^(^€v?- 


(1) 'E^eXco he goi kcli to KvaiiTTTOv ZiijJLiovp- 

5 yi)p^a Tw Xojfp TTapaaTpjaat, oirep dyaX/idrcov 

KdXXtajov 6 S7]/jLLOVpyo^ T€)(V)]ad/ji€Po<; '^LKvwvioi'i 

eU Oeav irpovOy^Ke' Katpo^ rjv et? dyaX/jia rerv- 

^ The last sentence, omitted by FP, is ver}' likeh' a 
marginal gloss. 

^ The syrinx or shepherd's pipe is a series of tubes of 
different length, fastened together side by side, to produce 
the difl'erent notes. 

- Cf. Anth. t'al. XVI. 275, on the statue of Opportunity 
(Time) by Lysippus : "Why dost thou stand on tiptoe? I 
am ever running. And why hast thou a pair of wings on 
thy feet? I fly with the wind. And why dost tliou hold a 
razor in thy right hand ? As a sign to man that I am 
sharper than any sharp edge. And why does thy liair hang 
over thy face? For hiin who meets me to take nie by the 
forelock. And wliy in Heaven's name is the back of thy 
head bald ? Because none wliom I have raced b}' . . . will 
take hold of me from behind." Trans. Paton, L.C.L. 



solved into a sort of porous matter. The image 
was holding a syrinx/ the instrument with which 
Narcissus was wont to offer music to the gods of 
the flockj and he would make the desert echo with 
his songs whenever he desired to hold converse 
with stringed musical instruments. In admiration 
of this Narcissus, O youths, I have fashioned an 
image of him and brought it before you also in 
the halls of the Muses. And the description is 
such as to agree with the statue. 


I desire to set before you in words the creation 
of Lysippus '^ also, the most beautiful of statues, 
which the artist wrought and set up for the 
Sicyonians to look upon. Opportunity was re})re- 

This statue is to be understood, not as pure allegory, bat 
as representing one of the mythical beings created in the 
classical age of Greek thought. The accounts of the god 
and this statue vary greatly, but the common elements in 
the accounts which may be conceived as belonging to a 
statue indicate that the type was developed out of the form 
of the Hermes who granted victory in athletic contests. 
Probably Lysippus represented him as a youth, presum- 
abl}' witli winged feet, possibly with hair long in front 
and short behind to indicate that opportunity cannot be 
grasped when it is past, and perhaps wath a razor (or a pair 
of scales balanced on a sharp edge) in his hand to suggest 
that success is balanced on a razor's edge. Cf. Benndorf, 
Arch. Zeit. XXI. 87 f., and Curtius, Arch. Zeit. XXXIII. 
33 f., PL L 2 ; infra, p. 397, fig. 35. 

^ Lysippus, head of the Sicyonian school of sculptors, was 
a prolific sculptor of statues in bronze during the middle and 
latter part of the fourth century B.C. 



TTcofxevo^ €K ^aXKov TT^o? Ty]P (f)vaiv afiiWcofiePT]^ 
tT/s" rexi'V^' Tral^; Se rjv 6 Kaipo<; rj^ow eK 

10 K€(f)a\7]<; e? 7r68a<; eiravOoov ro Tf/? 7//9?y«? av6o<;. 
ijv Se rifv fxev oyjrLV copalo'^ aelcjv ^ lovXov, koI 
^€(f)vp(p Tivdaaeiv 7rp6<; o ^ovXolto KaraXcTrcov 
TTji' KOfjiijv averovy rijv Se ^(poav ely^ei' dvdrjpav 
rff XapLTTySuvL rod aoi)fxaTO<^ rd civdr] SjjXmv. (2) 

15 'II^' Be Aiovvaq) Kara to irXelaTOv e/x(f)€pyj^' rd 
/lev yap fxeTwira y^dpiaiv eaTiXfBev, al irapeLol 
he avTov ei? dv6o^ ipevOofxevai veorrjaiov 
oopai^ovTO iiTi^dXXovaai roi<; 6/u,/jLaaiv diraXov 
epvOrjixa. eiar/jfcei Se eirl tlvg^ (T(paLpa<; eV 

20 ctKpcov TMV rapacov ^e^ijKco^; iiTTepwpLevo^i roi 
TToSe. e7r€(pvKei Be ov vevo/xia/ieva'x; t) Opi^, tlAV 
7] [xev KOjJLi-} Kara rcov ocfipvcov i'(f)ep7rovaa rat? 
7rap€iac<; eireaeie rov /36aTpv)(ov, rd Be oiriadev 
Tjv Tov K^aipov irXoKUfjicov eXevOepa /i6v7]v ti-jv ck 

25 yeveaew^ /3Xd(JT)]v eTricpaivopTa t?)? rpi'^o's. (3) 
'llixel^i pAv ovv dfpaala 7TXy]yevTe(; tt/Oo? tt]v Oeav 
elar/jKeipev tov ')(^aXKov opodVTe^ epya ^vae(o<; 
/iy)(^av(i)/u,€V0v Kal Trj<; olfceia<; eK/3(iLvovTa rafeo)?* 
')(^a\/co<; p.€V ydp mv ypvOpai'vero, cr/cX7;^o? Se cov 

30 T}]v (f)vaiv Biex^LTO fiaXuKM^; cI'kcov ttj Tey^yy 

7rpo<; ^ovXoLTO, airavL^wv Be alaOijaew^ fwrt- 

Krj<^ evoiKov e^eiv eTTKJTovTO Tr]v aiadfjaiv, Kal 

429 K. oVtw? eaTtjpiKTO TTuyiov tov Tapaov ipeiaa^, 

^ Jacobs (T-niipoov ; but cf. Philostr. /mrr^. 370, 15 K. and 
Eur. Cijd. 75. 


sented in a statue of bronze^, in which art vied with 
nature. Opportunity was a youth, from head to 
foot resplendent with the bloom of youth. He was 
beautiful to look upon as he waved his downy 
beard and left his hair unconfined for the south 
wind to toss wherever it would ; and he had a 
blooming complexion, showing by its brilliancy 
the bloom of his body. He closely resembled 
Dionysus ; for liis forehead glistened with graces, 
and his cheeks, reddening to youthful bloom, were 
radiantly beautiful, con- 
veying to the beholder's 
eye a delicate blush. 
And he stood poised on 
the tips of his toes on 
a sphere, and his feet 
were winged. His hair 
did not grow in the 
customary way, but its 
locks, creeping down 
over the eyebrows, let 
the curl fall upon his ^^^- ^^^ 

cheeks, while the back of the head of Opportunity 
was without tresses, showing only the first indications 
of sprouting hair. We stood speechless at the sight 
when we saw the bronze accomplishing the deeds of 
nature and departing from its own proper province. 
For though it was bronze it blushed ; and though it 
was hard by nature, it melted into softness, yielding 
to all the purposes of art ; and though it was void of 
living sensation, it inspired the belief that it had 
sensation dwelling within it ; and it really was 
stationary, resting its foot firmly on the ground, 
but though it was standing, it nevertheless gave 



ecTTco'; Be op/iy]'^ e^ovaiav ey^eiv ehe'iKvvTO Kai aoL 

Tov 6(f)6a\/jLOV 7]7rdTa, co? kuI tt}? et? to irpoaw 

Kvpievcov (popa^ kqI irapa tov 8)]/jiiovpyov Xa^cov 

5 Kal Tr]v aepLOv Xfj^ip^ re/iveiv, el /SovXolto, rah 


(4) Kal TO [lev i)/j,LV Oavjia tolovtov rjv, €l<i Se 
Ti<; TMV irepl ra? Te)(^i'a<^ ao^cov, koI elSoTcov avv 
aladi](J6i Te^viKcoTepa to, tCov hiiptovpywi' ai't)(^- 

10 veveiv OavfiaTa, Kal XoyiapLov eTrPfye^ tw Teyin')- 
fiaTi, Tijv TOV Katpov hvvafiLv ev tyj Te')(yr] aw^o- 
/iievijv €^r]yov/j,6i'o<;' to p-ev yap iTTepwfia tCov 
TapaCov alvLTTeaOai t)]v o^vTrjTa, Kal &)<» ^ tov 
iToXvv civeXiTTcov alcova cfiepeTai- rat? copai<; 

15 €7TO)(ovp.€VO<;, Ti]v Se iiravOovaav wpav, otl ttciv 
evKaipov TO copalov Kal p,6vo<; kuXXov; Bij/jbtovpyo^ 
6 KaLp6<;, TO Be a7n]v07)Ko<i airav e^o) T'/js" Katpov 
(fivaeo)^, Ti-jV he KaTa tov pLerdyirov ko/jL7]v, otl 
irpoaiovTo^ avTOv Xa/SeaOai poiSior, irapeX- 

20 66vTO<^ he vj TMV TTpayp^uTcov aKp.)] avve^ep)(^€Tai 
Kal ouK ecTTLV oXiywprjdevTa Xa/Secv top Kaipov. 

^ Abrcsch Xrji^LV : ir\rj^Ly. 

2 €7^776 A and Jacobs : eViiSe the other MSS. 

^ ws Olearius : u). 


evidence of possessing tlie power of rapid motion ; 
and it deceived your eyes into thinking that it 
not only was capable of advancing forward, but 
that it had received from the artist even the power 
to cleave with its wings, if it so wished, the aerial 

Such was the marvel, as it seemed to us ; but a 
man who was skilled in the arts and who, with a 
deeper perception of art, knew how to track down 
the marvels of craftsmen, applied reasoning to the 
artist's creation, explaining the significance of 
Opportunity as faitlifully portrayed in the statue : 
the wings on his feet, he told us, suggested his 
swiftness, and that, borne by the seasons, he goes 
rolling on through all eternity ; and as to his 
youthful beauty, that beauty is always opportune 
and that Opportunity is the only artificer of beauty,^ 
whereas that of which the beauty has withered 
has no part in the nature of Opportunity ; he also 
explained that the lock of hair on his forehead 
indicated that while he is easy to catch as he 
approaches, yet, when he has once passed by, the 
moment for action has likewise expired, and that, 
if opportunity has been neglected, it cannot be 

^ i.e. beauty is alwa3^s in season and seasonableness is the 
only artificer of beauty. Cf. 

"Gather ye rose-buds while ye may, 
Old Time is still a-flying." 
Herrick, To the Virgins to make much of Time. 

•'Let us crown ourselves with rose-buds, before they be 

Wisdom of Solomon, 2. 8. 




(1) *Ei^ 7(0 'EXlkojpi, Te'yuei'O? 3e tmv Movacov 
(TKiepov ^OJyOO?, TTapo, Tov<; ^OXfieiov tov ttotu- 
fiov puuKa^ Kal rtjv loeiSea Ilrjydaov Kpi]vi)v 
'Op(f)60)<^ ayaXfia tov ttj? KaWtovr?;? irapa ra<; 

25 Moucra? €iart]KeL ISelv fxev KaWiarov' 6 yap 
^a\/co9 Tjj r€)(vrj avvairerLKTe to KdWo<^ rfj^ 
TOV a(i)/jiaT0<; dyXaia to piOvaiKov iTria^j/iaLvcov 
TTJ? ipv)(^rj<^. €/c6a/jLeL Se avTov Tidpa HepaiKT] 
')(pvau) KaTaaTLKTc; drro Kopv(f)'fj<; et? vyjro'; dv- 

30 kyovaa^ -yiTiov Be i^ cofxcov d7ray6p-€vo<; et? TToSa? 
TeXa/xMi'i )(^pva€M kutcl aTepvwv 6a(f>iyy6T0. (2) 
430 K. KoyLt>/ Se oi/TO)? i]v 6vavdr]<; Kal ^(otlkov einar)- 
fiaivovaa koI e/jLirvovv, co? diraTciv ti]V acaOtjaiv, 
OTL Kal iTpo^ Td<; ^6(f)vpov 7Tvod(; aeiopevr] hovelTai 
— 7] p,ev yap e'TTav')(^e.vL0^ /caTa vcotov ;^L'^6Zo-a, tj 

5 Be Tal<^ 6(f)pvaip dvcoOev hicj-^^Lhii^ eTTL^aivovaa ^ 
Kadapd<i TMV ofxpdTWV ec^auve Td<; /3oXd<^. to 
irehiXov he avTcp ^avOoTUTw ■)(pvo'(p KaT)jv6i(TT0 
Kal TTCTrXo? d(f)€T0<; KaTO, vcotov et? acpvpov 
KaTrjei, fieTex^ipl^eTo Be ti]V Xvpav, -q he laapid- 

10 //.Of? rat? ^\.ovaai<; e^rjiTTO tou9 <^d6yyov<;' o yap 
XaXKo<; Kal v€vpd<; vireKpiveTO Kal 7rpo<; tijv 
€KdaT0v pbip,i)(jLv dXXaTTopevo'; 7reiOyvL(o<; vtti]- 
yeTO fiLKpov Kal Trpo<^ avTi]v Trjv riX'W "^^^ 
(j)66yy(ov <^(ov>]eL<i yev6p.evo<^. (3) 'Ttto he tmv 

15 TTohcbv TTjv jBdcTLV ovK ovpavo'^ Tjv TV7r(oOel<; ovhe 
nXetaSe? tov aWepa Tefivovaai ovhe "ApKTOv 

^ Se after rfj deleted by Jacobs. 
^ iTri^aivou(ra Jacobs : i-mcpaivovcra. 




On Helicon^ — the spot is a shaded precinct sacred 
to the Muses — near the torrent of the river Ohneius 
and the violet-dark spring of Pegasus, there stood 
beside the Muses a statue of Orpheus, the son of 
Calliope, a statue most beautiful to look upon. For 
the bronze joined with art to give birth to beauty, 
indicating by the splendour of the body the musical 
nature of the soul. It was adorned by a Persian tiara - 
spangled with gold and rising high up from the head, 
and a chiton hanging from the shoulders to the feet 
was confined at the breast by a golden belt. The 
hair was so luxuriant and so instinct with the spirit 
of life as to deceive the senses into thinking it was 
being tossed and shaken by gusts of wind — for the 
hair behind on the neck fell free down the back, 
while the parted hair which lay above the eyebrows 
gave full view of the pure glance of the eyes. The 
sandal shone brightly with the yellowest of gold, and a 
robe fell ungirded down the back to the ankle ; and 
he was carrying the lyre, which was equipped with 
as many notes as the number of the Muses. For the 
bronze even acted the part of strings and, being so 
modified as to imitate each separate note, it obediently 
carried out the deceit, almost indeed becoming vocal 
and producing the very sound of the notes. Beneath 
his feet heaven was not represented nor the Pleiades 
coursing the aether nor the revolving Bear that " has 

1 Cf. Pausanias, IX. 30, 4. On Helicon with statues of 
other poets and famous musicians "there is a statue of 
Orpheus the Thracian, with Telete standing by his side, and 
round about him are beasts in stone and bronze listening to 
his song."' 

2 Cf. supra, p. .311 and note 1. 



7r6pLaTpo(f)al tcop ^ClKeavov Xovrpwv a/jLoipoi, 
dXX^ 7]v irdv fxev to opviOwv >yei'0<; Trpo? rrjv 
(pBr]V i^tarrdfievov, vraVre? Se opeiOL Orjpe^ Kal 

20 oaov ev 0a\dTT7]<; pv)(OL<; vep^erai Kal 'itttto's 
iOeXyero uvtI ')(^a\ivov tc3 pe\€i KpaTOvp.evo<; 
Kal ^ov<; a(/)ei9 ras" vo/xa<; ttj? XvpwSia<; 
I'jKOve Kal Xeoi'Tcov dreyKTo^; (f)vaL<; tt/do? Tr]v 
cipjioviav KaT7]Vi'd^6T0. (4) El3e? av Kal nrora- 

25 /jLov<; TVTrovvra top ')(aXK0V Ik injyojv eVt rd 
fieXr] peovTa<; Kal KV/ia 6aXdaa7]<; epcort ttJ? 
ojSrj<^ vylrov/xerov Kal TreV/oa? alad/jaet ttXjjttO' 
p,€va<; iiovaiKrj<; Kal iraaav jSXdarijv ojpLov e^ 
7)6 (hv iirl Tr,v fiovaav rr^v 'Op(f)iKr]i> (Tirevhovcyav, 

30 Kal ovSev fxkv rjv to r)X^^^ ovSe rrjv dp/iovLav tj^v 
XvprpBov iyetpov, tj re^vi] Se iv tol<; ^(poi<; rod 
irepl T}]P p-ovaiKYju epwro'^ rd TrdOt] Kare/iijvve 
Kal ev T(p ')(^aXKw xa? rjSova^; e-noiet ^aiveaOau 
Kal rd iiTavOovvra rfj aladi](jei, ro)v ^wwv 
OeXKTijpia dpp)JT(o<; i^ecpatpev. 


(1) AatSdXfp pLev i^vjv, el Bel rw ire pi Kpyjrijp 
iTiareveiv Oav/jLori, Kivovp^eva fjurj^avdaOaL rd 
TTODjpara Kal 7rpo9 dvOpfoirlvyu ataOtjcTiv €K- 
/Sid^ecrOaL rov y^pvaov, al he 8r] Upa^treXetoi 

^ Quoted from I/iad 18. 486 : for the reliefs on the pedestal, 
Brunu {J'lhrh. Phil. CIII. 21) compares the base of the Nile 
in the Vatican, and of the Farnese Bull. 

^ Cf. p. 311, svpra. 

^ Apoll. Rhod. Argon. I. 26 f. : "Men say that he by the 
music of his songs charmed the stubborn rocks upon the 


no part in the baths of Oceanus/' ^ but there was 
every kind of bird, brought under the spell of the 
singing,^ ^nd all beasts of the mountains and what- 
ever feeds in the recesses of the sea, and a horse 
stood entranced, held in control, not by a bridle, but 
by the music, and a bull, having abandoned its 
pasturage, was listening to the strains of the lyre, 
and lions by nature fierce were being lulled to sleep 
in response to its harmony. You could see the 
bronze taking on the shape of rivers flowing from 
their sources toward the singing,^ and a wave of the 
sea raising itself aloft for love of the song, and rocks 
being smitten with the sensation of music, and every 
plant in its season hastening from its usual abode 
towards the music of Orpheus ; * and though there 
was nothing that gave out a sound or roused the 
lyre's harmony, yet art made manifest in all the 
animals the emotions excited by their love of music, 
and caused their pleasure to be visible in the bronze, 
and in a wonderful manner expressed the enchant- 
ment that springs up in the sense-perceptions of the 


Daedalus, if one is to place credence in the Cretan 
marvel, had the power to construct statues endowed 
with motion and to compel gold to feel human 
sensations, but in truth the hands of Praxiteles 

mountains and the course of rivers. And the wild oak trees 
to this day, tokens of that magic strain . . . stand in ordered 
ranks close together, the same which under the charm of his 
lyre he led down from Pieria." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L. 
* Cf. p. 311, supra. 

DD 2 


5 %er/3e? ^MTiKci CLoXov Karecr/ceva^ou ra t€)(^p)]- 
fiara. (2) "AXcro? yv Kal Aiovuao'^ elari^Kei. 
i)i6eov ay^rjfjia fii/jiov/iepo^;, ovtco fiev a7ra\6<;, &)? 
7r/)o? (Jc'ipKa fierappvO/jLL^eadaL tov ycCKKov, ovtco 
Be iiypov Kal K€)(^a\aa/jL6vov e)(^cov to aCofJia, &)? 

10 e^ €r6pa<; vXrjf;, dWa /ly ')(^a\Kov 7r€(pvK(i)<;, 09 
Xa\Ko<i fiev oiv r]pv6paiveT0, f&))79 he fieTOvalav 
ovK e%a)i^ i^ovXero r))V Iheav hei/cvvvai, dxjra- 
jxevcp Si aoi Trpo^ rrjv ciKfjii-jV vrre^iaraTO, kol 
6vTW<^ fiev rjv 6 ')(a\KO<; aT€yav6<;, vtto Be r/)? 

15 re^i^/;? pLaXarro/jLevo^ et9 adp/ca cnrehiBpacrKe 
rrj<i ')(^eipo<; ri^v aicrOijaip. (3) ^Hv Se dvdr]p6<;, 
d^p6Tr]T0<; yepLwv, tpuipcp pe6/jL€vo<;, olov avrou 
EvpLTriSt]^ ev Y^dfC')(aL'^ elBoTroLi^cra^ €^i(f)T]V6, 
Kiaao<; S' avrov earec^e TreptOeoyv ii> kukXco — &)? 

20 Kiaao<; i)v 6 ')(aXKO<^ et? fcXo)i>a<^ KapLiTTopi€vo<^ kol 
ro)v ^oaTpv^wv toi)? eXiKT?]pa<^ etc pLerooirov 
Ke')(^vpLevov<s dvaareXXMv. yeXcoro'; Se e/iTrXeft)?, 
o Si] Kal 7ravT0<; yp iireKeiva OavpLaro^, 7)BovP]<; 
d^ievai TrjV v\i]v re/cpLyjpia Kal ti]V iraOoiv 

25 BrjX(0(Tiv vTTOKpiveaOai rov ')(^aXKov. (4) Ne/SpU 
Be avTOV eaKeirev ov^ oiav eicodev 6 Aiouuaof; 

^ On statues of Dion^'sus by Praxiteles, cf. Furtwangler, 
Meisterwerke d. griech. Pladik, p. 586, Eng. trans, p. 337. 
Two Praxitelian types arc discussed: (a) Represented by the 
"Bacchus de Versailles" in the Louvre, Fig. 30 (Frohner, 
Notice, 218), the figure of a delicate 3'outh wearing a fawn-skin 
fastened on the left shouMer and a Bacchic initra in his hair 
which falls in curls to his shoulders, and holding his right 
hand over his head, (b) The Dionysus in Madrid, Fig. 37 


wrought works of art that were altogetlier alive. 
There was a grove, and in it stood Dionysus ^ in the 
form of a young man, so dehcate that the bronze 
was transformed into flesh, with a body so supple 
and relaxed that it seemed to consist 
of some different material instead of 
bronze : for though it was really 
bronze, it nevertheless blushed, and 
though it had no part in life, it 
sought to show the appearance of 
life and would yield to the very 
finger-tip if you touched it, for though 
it was really compact bronze, it was 
so softened into flesh by art that it 
shrank from the contact of the hand. 
It had the bloom of youth, it was 
full of daintiness, it melted with 
desire, as indeed Euripides repre- 
sented him when he fashioned his 
image in the Bacchae.^ A wreath of ivy en- 
circled the head — since the bronze was in truth 
ivy, bent as it was into sprays and holding up the 
curly locks which fell in profusion from his forehead. 
And it was full of laughter, nay, it wholly passed the 
bounds of wonder in that the material gave out 
evidence of joy and the bronze feigned to represent 
the emotions. A fawn-skin clothed the statue, not 
such as Dionysus was accustomed to wear, but the 

Fia. 36. 

(Clarac, PI. 690 B, No. 159S A), a nude figure leaning his left 
arm on a bearded lierm of Dionysus. 

2 Cf. Eur. Bacch. 233 f. : "Men say a stranger to the land 
hath come. . . . With essenced hair in golden tresses tossed, 
Wine-flushed, Love's witching graces in his eves." Trans. 



i^dirreaOai, dW et? ryjv tT;? Sopd<; ixifii-jaLv 6 
'X^a\Ko<i /jLerefidWeTo. elar/jKeL 8e Ti]v Xaidv^ 
eirepeihwv rep Ovparp, 6 Be Ovpao<; rjTrdra rrjv 
30 aiadi]aiv kol Ik ^uXkov 7r€7roiJ]/jL€vo<; ^(Xoepov tl 
Kal Te67]\o<; dTroaTiX/Seiv iSo^d^ero tt/jo? avTT)v 
d/jL€i/36fi€vo<; rrjV vXi]v. (5) "0/i^a Be r}V irvpl 
Biavyh fiavLKov IBelv Kal yap to /3aK)^6V(Tifiop 6 
432 K. ;)^aA-/co9 eveBeiKvvro Kal eTTiOeLdt^eiv iBoKei, coairep 
ol/jLat Tov Ilpa^LTeXov<; Kal top (3aK-^elov olarpop 
eyKarafJU^ai Bvv))0ePTO<i. 


(1) 'E^eXo) Be crot Kal to \le/ivovo^ d(^iiyi]- 

5 aaaOaL davpta- Kal yap 6vt(d<^ irapdBo^o^; r; 

rex^V Kal KpeiTTcov di pwrrivii^ x^Lp6<^. tov 

TlOwvov ^lepLVOvo^ eiKoov yv ev AWioTria eK XiOov 

TreTTOLT] pievT], ov pirjv ev Tot<^ oIksIol^ 6poi<i e/xeve 

XLdo<; cov ovBe to t^? (f)va€(o^ aiyyjXou rjveixeTO, 

10 dXXd Kal XiOo<; cov ely^ev i^ovaiav (jxovi)'^' vvv 

fiev yap dvLaxovaav tt]v 'li fiepav '7rpoaecf)6eyy€TO 

einai^liaivwv Tr} (f)covf] tiiv x^P^^ ^^^l ^'^^^ rot? 

tt}? /jLi]Tpo^ TTapovaiai'^ (paLBpvv6fievo<;, vvv Be 

d7roKXLVOfiev7]<; et? vvKTa eXeeivov tl Kal dXyeivov 

15 eaTeve 7rpo<; ttjv dirovaiav dvico/.Levo<;. (2) 

^HTTupet Be ovBe BaKpvcov 6 Xt^o?, dXX elx€v 

v7Ty]peTovfji€va ttj ^ovXi']aeL Kal TavTa. Kal i)v 

X\eixv6vLo<^ i) eiKcov p,6v(p /xev tov dvOpwrrivov.^ 

^ Jacobs Xaiav : Kvpav. 
^ TOV avdpwTrivov Kayser : tw dv6pu}invu>. 


bronze was transformed to imitate the 
pelt ; and he stood resting his left 
hand on a thyrsus, and the thyrsus 
deceived the beholder's vision ; for 
while it was wrought of bronze it 
seemed to glisten with the greenness 
of young growth, as though it were 
actually transformed into the plant 
itself. The eye was gleaming with 
fire, in appearance the eye of a man 
in a frenzy ; for the bronze exhibited 
the Bacchic madness and seemed to 
be divinely inspired, just as, I think, 
Praxiteles had the power to infuse 
into the statue also the Bacchic ecstasy. 

Fig. 37. 


I wish to describe to you the miracle of Memnon 
also ; for the art it dis{)layed was truly incredible 
and beyond the power of human hand. There was 
in Ethiopia an image of Memnon, the son of 
Tithonus, made of marble ; however, stone though 
it was, it did not abide within its proper limits nor 
endure the silence imposed on it by nature, but 
stone though it was it had the power of speech. 
For at one time it saluted the rising Day, by its 
voice giving token of its joy and expressing delight 
at the arrival of its mother ; and again, as day 
declined to night, it uttered piteous and mournful 
groans in grief at her departure. Nor yet was the 
marble at a loss for tears, but they too were at hand 
to serve its will. The statue of Memnon, as it seems 

^ Cf. pp. 31, 155, supra. Memnon was the son of Tithonus 
and Day (or of Eos, The Dawn). 



BiaXXurreip jjlol Sokcl aco/xari, vtto Be a^i^;^?}? 

20 Tivo<i Kal ofJLolas irpoaipeaeo)^ dyofxevrj Karr^vOv- 

veio. €i)(6 joui> eyKeKpafxeva /cal ra Xvirovvra 

Kal irdXiv i]Sovf]<; at(j6)]aL^ avTOV tcaTekdfi^avev 

VTt' d/jL(f)0T€pC0V TOiV lTa6(i)l> nXl^TTO fXeVOV. Kal 7) 

fxev (pvai^ Ti]v XiScov 'yevecTLV d(f)doyyoi> irapyjyaye 

25 Kal K0)(p7]v Kal fi/jre vtto \v7r7]<^ iOeXovaav SioiKela- 

6ai fi7]T€ elhvlav 7)a6r]vai, dXkd Kal irdaai^; ri^p^at? 

drpcoTOi', €K€LVM Sc TO) ^lefjLvovo<; \i6w Kal 

}]Sov7]v irapehiOKei' ?; t6xv'>] Kal irerpav dvejjLi^ev 

d\y6iv(p, Kal fJLovTjv ravrrjv eirtardfieOa tj]V 

30 rexv7)v vo^jfiaTa tw XiOro Kal cjxoyyjv ivOelaav. 

(3) 'O fi'^v yap AalSaXo^ /^^XP^ f^^^ KiV7Ja60)<; 

€veavL€V6T0 Kal hvvafjiiv el^cv ?; eKeivov rix^rj 

433 K. e^Lardvai ra? vXa^ Kal et? x^peiav Kivelv, d/jL7]- 

■)(avov Be r]v Kal 7ravT6Xoi<^ diropov Kal (f)covi')<; 

/xeroxa Trpayfiareveadai, ra iroiy^ixaTa' at Be 

AlOiOTTCov x^^P^^ TTopovf; TMV dfi^jxdvcov e^evpov 

5 Kal TT/^" d^Ooyyiav €^evLK7j<7av rov XiOov. eKeivw 

T(p XlejxrovL Kal ryv 'tl;)^w /V0709 di'Trjx^LV, oirore 

(f)OeyyoLTo, Kal yoepov fiev arei'd^ovTL yoepov 

dvTLTTefjiTTeiv peXo's, euTraOovvrt Be avrairoBiBovaL 

TTjV 7)xhv dvTL/Xl/jLOP. €K€tl'0 TO Bl]/jLtOVpy)]/jLa Kal 

10 T77 'H/jLepa Trt? dvia<; eKolpL^e Kal ovk e'la 
fiaareveip top iralBa, ci)9 av di>TtTiOeLaJ]<; avTW ^ 
T)]<; AWioTTWP TexPV^ '^op Ik t?}? eLpapp.ei'rj<; 
d(f)apia6ePTa ^le^popa. 



to me, differed from a human being only in its body, 
but it was directed and guided by a kind of soul and 
by a will like that of man. At any rate it both had 
grief in its composition and again it was possessed 
by a feeling of pleasure according as it was affected 
by each emotion. Though nature had made all 
stones from the benrinnino- voiceless and mute and 
both unwilling to be under the control of grief and 
also unaware of the meaning of joy, but rather immune 
to all the darts of chance, yet to that stone of 
Memnon art had imparted pleasure and had mingled 
the sense of pain in the rock ; and this is the only 
work of art of which we know that has implanted in 
the stone perceptions and a voice. Daedalus did 
indeed boldly advance as far as motion, and the 
products of liis art had power to transcend the 
materials of which they were made and to move in 
the dance ; but it was impossible and absolutely out 
of the question for him to make statues that could 
speak. Yet the hands of Aethiopians discovered 
means to accomplish the impossible,^ and they over- 
came the inability of stone to speak. The story runs 
that Echo answered this Memnon when it spoke, 
uttering a mournful note in response to its mournful 
lament and returning a mimicking sound in response 
to its expressions of joy. The statue in question 
both lulled to rest the sorrows of Day and caused her 
to abandon her search for her son, as though the art 
of the Aethiopians were compensating her by means 
of the statue for the Memnon who had been snatched 
away from her by fate. 

^ The expression occurs svpra, p. 422, 1 K. 

^ Jacobs, perhaps rightly, proposed outtj for aura). 




(1) Etra TO iJiev WpyCoov aK(i(f)0<i efi(i)wvov 

15 yeveadat iretOoiJieOa to vtto tmv ^ A.6i]vd^ re^vijOev 
XGipcov, Koi Ti]v iv aarpoL<; i/cX^jpovx^jcrG tv-)(t]v, 
ayaX/ia Be ov marevaopev, et? o Ta<^ 8vpd/j,€t<; 
AaKXy]7rio<; dviyaL rov irpovo'iiTLKov eTreiadycov 
vovv i-rrl T7]u eavrov KOLVwviaVy rov (jvvolkovi>to<^ 

20 Tr)v Svva/jiiv iTpeiren>, a>V et? (.up dvOpuoiriva 
KardyeaOai ro Oelov Scoao/iev, evOa kol fxiavdrjvai 
TraOjj/jiaaiVy ov rriGTevcrofxev Be, fj fitjhev eyyovov 
KaKLa^; nrapairecjiVKev ; (2) 'Efiol /lev ovv ov tvtto^ 
elvai S0K6L TO opcofiepov, dXXd Tr]<; dXyOela^ 

25 irXda/JLa. Idov yap &)? ovk dvyjOoTroiyjTO's rj 
Tex^V' oXX^ ip€iK0jnaa/j.6vy] tov Oeov et? avrov 
e^iaTaTai. vXrj fiev ovaa OeoeuSe'^ dvaTrefxireL 
voTj/xa, St]pLovpyy]fia Be x^^P^^ Tvyx^i^ovaa a fir] 
ByfiLovpylai^ e^ecFTL irpuTTei T6f<-/jLyjpta "^f;^?)? 

30 dpp)/Tco<i drroTiKTovaa. TrpoacoTrov Be aoL dea- 
aajxevw BovXovrai Trjv aicrOtjaLV' ov yap 6i? 
434 K. /caXXo? eTriOtTOv eV;j^7;/^aTfo-Ta«, d\Xd irdvayvov 
Kal tXecov draKtvcov ou/jia /3d0o^ d(f)paaTOv 
vTraaTpdiTTei, aefivoTi^To^; alBol /iLy€iarj<^. (3) 
TIXoKa/Kov Be eX^/ce? peo/ievoc x^ipiaiv 01 /Mfv eh 
5 pwTa t£^//\6t€? d(p6T0L KtE^vvTai, 01 Be virep 

^ The Greek paean was a choral song accompanied by 
dancing, wliich \\as used as an incantation to cure disease, 
as well as for celeljration of a victory and in the worship of 
certain gods. Personitied as a god. Paean was closely akin 
to Asclepius, and at the same time, especially at Delphi, was 




Are we then to believe that the vessel Argo,^ 
which was wrought by the hands of Athena and 
later assumed its allotted place among the stars, 
became capable of speech^ and yet in the case of a 
statue into which Asclepius infused his own powers, 
introducing purposeful intelligence therein and thus 
making it a partner with himself, not believe 
that the power of the indwelling god is clearly 
manifest therein ? Nay, more, shall we admit that 
the divine spirit descends into human bodies, there 
to be even defiled by passions, and nevertheless not 
believe it in a case where there is no attendant 
engendering of evil ? To me, at any rate, the object 
before our eyes seems to be, not an image, but 
a modelled presentment of truth ; for see how 
Art not only is not without power to delineate 
character, but, after having portrayed the god in 
an image, it even passes over into the god himself. 
Matter though it is, it gives forth divine intelligence, 
and though it is the work of human hands, it 
succeeds in doing what handicrafts cannot accom- 
plish, in that it begets in a marvellous way tokens of 
a soul. The face as you look at it enthralls the 
senses ; for it has not been fashioned to an ad- 
ventitious beauty, but as it raises a saintly and 
benignant eye it flashes forth an indescribable depth 
of majesty tempered with modesty. Curly locks 
abounding in grace, — some fall luxuriant and uncon- 
fined on the back, while others come down over the 

often identified with Apollo as Apollo Paean. Cf . Fairbanks, 
A Study of the Greek Faean, 1900. 
2 Cf. supra, p. 187 and note 3. 



/jL6Tco7rou 7r/5o? Ta<; ocppiK e7Ti/3aiPOVT€<; toI<; 
Ofxfxacnv elXovinai. olov he i/c ^(otlk?]<; alTia<i 
KOI avTol Karaphufxevoi et? tjjv tCov /Boarpuxcov 
Ka/j,7r}]i> avveX-iTTovrai, rrp vofxcp t/}? rixvrjf; /jlt] 

10 7r6iOofxeu7]<; t?}«? uX.);?, dWa voovaif^ on a)(^]/ia- 
Ttfet debv Koi Set hwaareveiv. tcov Be yevo- 
fxevwv elcoOoTcov ^OeipeaOai 7) rod dydXfjLaro^; 
Ihea, are By rrj^; vy€La<; ti]v ovaiav ev eaurfj 
(f)€povaa, ciKp^i^v dvcoXeOpov eTriKTco/jievT) OdWeL. 

15 (4) 'H/xet? fiev Stj aoi kuI Xoycov, m Tlatdv,^ veapcov 
Kal p.V})/jL7]<i iyyovcov dmip^dpeOa' Ke\ev6i<i yap 
olpai' irpoOvpbo^ he aoi Kal rov vopuov aheLv, el 
vepiOL'^ vyeiav. 


(1) Tedeaaai rov rjiOeov iir' dfcponoXet, ov Upa^t- 
20 reX^;? 'iSpvaev, r} Sec aoi rP/<; re-^vrj'^ rrapaarrjaau 
ro iTpdyfia ; Trai? i^v dira\,6<i re koI veo<; tt^o? 
TO fiakOaKov re Kal veonjaiov r?}? re')(yri<^ rov 
^a\Kov fMaXarrovai]^;, T^Xt^Ty? 8e rjv Kal ifiepov 
p.earo<^ Kal ro rrj<; 7]/37]<; 6(^auev dvOo<;, irdvra he 
25 i]v Ihelv 7rpo<; rr)V t^}? re^^z'?;? fiovX^jaiv d/ji€i/36- 
fxeva' Kal yap diraXo^; rjv ^ /jLa)(^op.€V7]v rfj dira- 
Xorrjri rr]v ovaiav e^wv Kal tt/oo? to uypov i]yero 
eareprj/iievo^ vyp6ri]ro<; Kal oXw? e^e/Saive tt}? 
avrov (pva-eco^i 6 ;^aXA:o9 tou? 6pov<; el<; rov 

^ Jacobs Tlaidv : MSS. ttoi. 

2 lj.rj after i^v deleted by Olearius : ^17 jxaxoixhrtv {ix-qx^-vu)- 

/jLCVTiV A). 

1 Overbeck (Gcschichte d. griech. P.'asiik*, II. 63) points 
out that this passage is the only extant reference to a 


forehead to the eyebrows and hang thick about the 
eyes. But, as if stirred by hfe and kept moist of 
themselves, they coil themselves into the bending 
curls, the material not rendering obedience to the 
law of art, but realizing that it represents a god and 
that he must work his own will. And although all 
things that are born are wont to die, yet the form 
of the statue, as thougli carrying v»ithin itself the 
essence of health, flourishes in the possession of 
indestructible youth. And so we, O Paean, have 
offered to you the first fruits of discourse, freshly 
made, and the offspring of memory ; for you bid us 
do so, I think ; and I am eager also to sing the 
strains to you if you allot me health. 


Have you seen on the acropolis the youth which 
Praxiteles set up, or must I set before you the w^ork 
of art } It was a boy tender and young, and art had 
softened the bronze to express softness and youth ; 
moreover, it abounded in daintiness and desire, and 
it made manifest the bloom of youth. Indeed, it w^as 
plain to see that in all points the statue was respon- 
sive to the will of the artist ; for it was tender though 
the essence of the bronze is opposed to tenderness, 
and though devoid of suppleness it yet inclined to 
be supple, and the bronze departed totally from the 
limitations of its own nature and was transmuted 

Diadounienos, "Youth binding his hair with a fillet,"' of 
Praxiteles on the acropolis, no doubt the Athenian acropolis ; 
and Furtwangler [Mekiencerke d. cjriech. Plaslik, p. 335) finds 
the data here given entirely insufficient to enable the student 
to identify any copy of this work. 



30 aX^]6P] rvTTOv fie6LaTdfjiei>o<^. (2) "Afiotpo^; Be 
7rvevfiaT0<; Kal ro €/jlitvovv virehvero' a yap jxrj 
irapeXajBev vXij /it]h€ €2)(^v^ e/.i(f)VTa, tovtwv ?; 
435 K. re^i^)] ti]v e^ovaiav iiropitero. eKOivovro Se Ta<; 
iTap6La<^ €pvd)']/j.aTt, o 3?; Kal irapdSo^or rjv, 
'y^aXKov TLKTofxevov 6pev6o<i Kal 7raiSi.Ky]<^ rjv 
')]XiKLa<; avOo^ eKXd/nrov. ko/jLT] Be el)(^ei> eXLKa<; 
5 raZ? b(f)pvcnv eirilSaLvovTa^. (3) 'O he t(o reXa- 
fjioyvi KaraarecjiMV ti]V Kopn^v Kal eK rayp 6(f)puo)V 
diTwOovixevo'^ T(p hiahi'^iiaTL ra? Tpiya<; yvixvov 
TrXoKajxcDv irrjpei ro fiercoTrov. co? oe Kal Kara 
aepo? e^rjT dt^o fiev ti]v Te)(^v)]v Kal ra ev avrfj 

10 haL^dXixara,^ d(f)aaia irXijyevre^; eiarrjKeLfjLev 6 
re yap yaXKo^ evrpaSP] Kal XtTrcoaav eVe- 
BeiKVVTO Ti-jV adpKa Kal irpo^ rrjv Tpi)(^o^ Kivrjcrtv 
fiediipfJLoteTo, ore fiev jSoaTpvy^wv ovXcov irXoKal^; 
(jvve^eXmoixevo^, ore 8' iOeXovarj rfj TpiXL 

15 eKrdh-qv Kara vcotou '^vdPjvaL avpa7rXov/bLevo<;, Kal 
ore fiev iOeXec to irXda^ia Ka/x(f)OP)vat Trpo^; ttjv 
Ka/i7r7]v dviefievo^, ore Be eirLTelvai. ra fieXy] 7rpo<; 
TO avvTovov [xeOicTTdiievo^. (4) ''O/x/xa Be l/jiepcoBe^ 
Tjv alBol avfi/iLye(; dcj^poBtala ^ Kal ep(OTiKrj<^ * 

20 yejxov y^dptro^;' Kal yap rjBei ^ifXovv 6 ')(^aXK0<; to 
ipdaipLOv Kal vTv/jKovaev iOeXovri rfo elBcoXro 
yavpovaOai. dKivr]TO<; Be cov ovro'^ 6 e(f)r)f3o<; 
eBo^ev av aoi KLvi](jew<; iji€Te)(eLV Kal et? ;\;o/^eta^' 

^ f'lX^v (IjxcpvTa Jacobs : elx^ '^^v (pvyra. 


into the true qualities of the subject. Though not 
endowed with breath, it yet began to breathe ; since 
what the material had not inherited as a gift of 
nature, for all this art furnished the capacity. It 
imparted to the cheeks to make them blush — a thing 
incredible — a ruddiness born of the bronze, and a 
bloom of young boyhood shone from it. And the 
hair had curls which tended to fall over the eye- 
brows. But fastening his hair with a band and 
thrusting it back from his brows with a fillet, he kept 
his forehead bare of the locks. When, however, we 
went on to examine the statue part by part and the 
matters of artistry in it, we stood overcome by 
speechlessness ; for the bronze showed the flesh 
well nurtured and sleek with oil, and it adapted 
itself to the movement of the hair, now coiling in 
strands of curly locks, now unfolding with the hair 
that strove to pour in broad mass down the back ; 
and where the figure wished to bend, the bronze 
would relax itself to the bending, and where the 
figure would make tense its limbs, the bronze would 
change and become rigid. The eye held a look of 
longing commingled with a passionate modesty, and 
w^as full of the grace of love ; for tlie bronze knew 
how to imitate love's passion and yielded to the 
image when it wished to indulge in wantonness. 
Though it was motionless, this youth seemed to 
possess the power to move and to be making ready 
to dance. 

- SatSaA^ara Jacobs : de aXuara. 

^ acppohiaia. Reisch : dcppoSiaias or afpoBicrlov. 

* ipcvTiKTJg Reisch : ipwriKov. 



25 (1) Et? lepov elaLODV ae/jLvop tl Kal fjueya, o rrjv 
KaWiarrjv el/caalav et? eavro /jLeOiary], iv Tot<; 
7rpo7rvXaioi<; tov vecd Ihpvfxevov Oeoijjiai /cevravpov, 
ovK avSpl Kara rrjv OfitjpeLOv ecKova, aXXa plcp 
irapaiTXjjaiov vXijevTL. avOpcowo^ yv a-)(^pi Xa- 

30 701/0? KarioDV 6 K6VTavpo<=; el<^ 'iirirov (3d(TLV 
rerpaa/ceXi] Xi'jywv. (2) Toi/ 'yap ittttov koI tov 
avOpwTTOv 1) (pvai^ i^ i)pLiaeia<^ refiovaa et? €v 
aoifia avpi]p/jLoa€, ra p,6v airoKpivaaa rcov fiepcov, 
436 K. ra Be aXXijXoi^ T€)(V'r]aap,€V7] avpLcpfjova' r?}? pev 
yap dv0po)7rLV7]<; oaov air l^vo<; el<; aKpav arro- 
(fyeperac ri^jv ^daiv a^etXe, tov he iTTireiov 
<Ta)p,aTO<; oaov 66? 6p,(f)aXov KaTajSaivei Tepovaa 
5 TO) dv6 punnvcp avvijye tvttco, co? tov fiev lttttov 
Tr)v Ke(f)aXr]v iroOelv Kal tov<; au)(€VLOV<; TevovTa<; 
Kal oaov €L<; to vcotov KaTajSalvov evpvveTai^ tov 
he avOpcoiTov tov diro 6p(f)aXov pe)(pt r?}? /3da€co<; 
aTrjptypov ^rjTeiv. (3) Tolovtov he 6vto<; tov 

10 crco/xaro? eZSe? civ Kal Ovpov eTriirveovTa T(p 
Te)(yrjpaTL Kal I'jypiaypevov to awpa Kal tw 
7rpoad)TT(p TO 07]pio)he^ iiraiOovv Kal to Tr)<s 
Tpi')(o<; KuXXtaTa viroKpivopevi^v Trjv ireTpav Kal 
irdvTa 7rp6<; tov dXtjOPj tvttov airevhovTa. 

^ Cf. Jnth. Pal. XVI. 115. On the Centaur Cheiron, "A 
horse is shed forth from a man, and a man springs up from a 
horse ; a man without feet and a swift horse without a head ; 
a horse belches out a man, and a man farts out a horse ;" and 
116, "There were a horse without a head and a man lying 
unfinished. Nature, in sport, grafted him on the swift 
horse." Trans. Paton, L.C.L. Cf. also the elder Phil., 
supra, p. 138. 




On entering an awe-inspiring and ample shrine 
which had received into itself the most beautiful 
statues, I behold set up in the entrance-hall of the 
temple a centaur, not like a man,^ as Homer repre- 
sents him, but like a '^wooded mountain peak."^ 
The centaur was a man down as far as the flanks, tlien 
it ended in a horse's ''four-legged stance."* For both 
the horse and the man Nature had cut in two in the 
middle and joined into one body, omitting some 
members and cleverly adapting the rest to each 
other : since of the human form it took away every- 
thing from the waist to the ieet, while of the horse's 
body it cut off everything down to the navel and 
joined the rest to the human figure, as though the 
horse desired the iiead, the neck-sinews and that 
part of a man's back which broadens as it descends, 
while the man sought the firm suj^port of a horse 
from the navel to the feet. Such being the body, 
you could see also a spirit breathing upon the work 
of art, and the savage type of the body, and the 
animal nature coming to light in the face ; and you 
could see the stone most beautifully interpreting the 
hair and every element striving to express the truth. 

2 Homer never described Cheiron or the other centaurs as 
part horse, part man. 

^ Quoted from Odyssey, 9. 191. when the expression is used 
of Polyphemus : ' ' For he was fashioned a wondrous monster, 
and was not like a man that lives by bread, but like a wooded 
peak of lofty mountains, which stands out to view alone, 
apart from the rest." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. 

■^ Cf. Eur. Her. Fur. 181 : rerpacrKeAes d' v^pi(T/j.a, Kevravptav 
yevos, ''The four-foot monsters ask. the Centaur tribe"; 
JJec. 1058, TerpiiroSos ^xaiv drjphi opearipov, "The stance of a 
mountain beast." 





15 (1) ElSoi^ KoX Trjv iro\v6pvXiiTOv ev opoi<s 
MaKeSovcov ^h]8€iav. Xi6o^ yv firfvvcov to tP)<; 
'x/ru^/'}? elSo? d7ro/ia^afi6vi]<^ 66? avryjv ti]<; rex^V^ 
ra avfiTrXrjpovvTa r)]P ^vx^']^' x^cu 'yap Xoyia/uLov 
KaTTjyopelro 8)']\a)fjLa fcal 6vfjLb<; vTravKTraro Kat, 

20 Trpo? \v7rr}<i hidOeaiv pere^aivev rj euKcav, kol ct)9 
^pax^W'i elirelv tov irepl avrrjv Spd/jLaro^ €^/]yr]af<; 
rjv TO opco/ievov. (2) 'O /xev yap Xoyia/jio<^ inrep 
T-qv irpd^LV ihi'-jXov t^? yvvaiKo^; tcl /SovXev/xaTa, 
6 Be dvixo^ TTj pvfJbij ti)<^ 6pyy}(; 'jTapaypa(f)6/j,€i>0(; 

25 Tr]V (fivaiv Trpo? to epyov I'-jyeipe ttjv iirl tov 
(f>6vov ^ opjjbrjv ela 7]y 01) iievo<^, rj Xvirr) Se tov iirl 
TOi? iraialv €7T6a)j/jiaiv€V oIktov eh ti]v /j,i]Tpu)av 
(jvvecnv dppct)aTco<; eK tov Ov/jlov TrjV Xidov 
eX/covaa. ov yap dTeyKTO<; ov8e 6ripL(iihri<^ rj 

30 eLKOt)j>, dXX' et? Ovfiov Kal fiaXaKia^; " evhei^Lv 
BLrjpecTO virrjpeTOV/jLevT] rot? t% yvvaiKeLa<i <f)vaect)<? 
^ouXev/jiaa-LV et/co? yap r/v jxeTa tov ;^oXoi^ 
K. 437 Kadapevovaav tov Ov/jlov eiTLaTpecfieaOaL 7rp6<i 
oIktov /cal et? evvoiav epxoP'evr]v tov KaKOv ti-jv 
"yfrvx^]^ OLKTi^eaOaL. (3) TavTa fieTa tov a(jo/jLaTO<s 
TO, TTuOr] 7] eiKcov €fii/JielTO fcal y)v ISelv tijv XlOov 
5 ore iiev ^epovaav tov Ov/jlov ev o/jL/xaaiv, OTe Se 
aKvdpcoTTov opcbaav koX /juaXaTTO/ievT/v eh crTvyvo- 
TT]Ta, wairep dvTiKpv; tov Texi^V^^/^^^^^ '^V^ 

1 (povov, Olearius : y\>6(pov, ^6yov. 

2 fxaKaKias Schenkl, avias Huschke : fxavias. 

1 Cf. Anth. Pal. XVI. 135-141 on the picture of Medea in 
Rome, e.g. 135: "The art of Timomachus mingled the love 




I also saw the celebrated Medea in the land of the 
Macedonians.^ It was of marble and disclosed the 
nature of her soul in that art had modelled into it 
the elements which constitute the soul ; for a course 
of reasoning was revealed, and passion was surging 
up, and the figure was passing over into a state of 
grief, and, to put it briefly, what one saw was an 
interpretation of her whole story. For her reasoning 
about her course of action revealed the schemes of 
the woman, the passion connoted by the onset of her 
anger roused her nature to the deed by introducing 
the impulse to murder, and the grief denoted her 
compassion for her children, transforming without 
violence the expression of the marble from passion 
to the natural feeling of a mother. For the figure 
was not relentless nor brutal, but was so apportioned 
as to show both passion and tenderness, thus minis- 
tering to the varying purposes of her womanly 
nature ; for it was but natural that after her wrath 
was over and she was purified of her passion, she 
should turn to pity, and that when her soul came to a 
realization of her evil deed it should be stirred to pity. 
These passions the figure strove to imitate as well as 
the form of the body, and one could see the marble 
now flashing passion in its eyes, now wearing a look 
sullen and softened into gloom, exactly as if the 
artist had modelled the woman's passionate impulse 

and jealousy of Medea, as she drags her children to death. 
She half consents as she looks at the sword, and half refuses, 
wishing both to save and to slay her children." Trans. 
Paton, L.C. L. For the subject compare the Pompeian wall- 
painting, Baumeister, Denkmdler d. klass. AUertums, I, 142, 


EE 2 


opfirjv ei? tt}? KvpLTriBov Spa/iaT07roiLa<^ irXyja- 
az^TO? Tr/z^ /jLl/jl7]<tlv, iv y koX /SovXeveraL avvava- 

10 KLVovaa koI crvveaLv e/j.(f)poi'a Kal 6t9 6v/jlov 
a<y piaivei to i]0o<; tov<; 7r€7r7]y6ra<i rfj cbvaei 
7rp6<; ra eKjova t?'}? (jji\oyovLa<; 6pov<; i/c^dX- 
\ovaa Kal TraiBiKcov Xoyoyv pera tijv avopov 
a^ayi-jv aTrreraL. (4) ^Hi^ Se avrfj Kal ^i(f)y]^6po<i 

15 7} Xelp hiaKovelv eroiprj rw Ovp,w eirl to piaapa 
(Tirevhovar] Kal i^ pbcXy pevt] ^pl^ to av)(p,7]pov 
eTTLay/xaivovaa Kal aToXy tl<; Trevdip^o^; cikoXovOo^^ 


(1) ¥2ko)v yv eirl TaU 'S^KvOiKal^ ipooiv ovk et? 

20 iirihei^LV, dXXa et? ^ dywvlav tcov t?}? ypacf)P]<; 
KaXcjv OVK dpovaco^ e^yaKypievy. €KT€TV7rcoTat 
Se KaT avTTjV ^Add/jia<; p,avi,ai<; olaTpovp,(:VO<;, 
rjv 5' ISecv yvp,v6<;, aXjxaTL (f)OLVLacr(ov ttjv Kopiyv, 
yvepiwp,evo^ t^v Tpixa, 7rapd(f)opo(; to opLpua, €K- 

25 irXri^ia^i yepwv, Kal oWXiaTo Se ov paviai<s piovov 
eh ToX/jtav ovSe rot? e^ ^ILpivvcov heipLaai Ovfxo- 
(p06poi<i ^ 7)y plaivev, dXXd Kal auBypov tT;? \€ipo<; 
7rpo/3e/3X7]To €KOeoi>Tt 7rapa7TX7]aio<;. (2) 'H pev 
yap cIkoov oz^to)? yv dKLvyTO<^, iSoKei Se ov TJjpetv ^ 

^ its for Koi MS.S. Jacobs, who also inserts -KKaariKfiS 
after ivihu^iv. Kayser inserts jxovov after iiriSet^iv. 
^ 6vij.o(p66pois JacoV)s : hr)ixo(pQ6pois. 
^ TT]pilv Jacobs : o£; n ^v. 

^ Atliainas king of Orchoinenos, in secret love witli Ino 
(laughter of Cadmus, became tlie father of Learchus and 


in imitation of the drama of Euripides^ in which 
Medea not only forms her plan with the exercise of 
a rational intelligence^ but also excites her spirit to 
anger as she casts aside the principles fixed by 
nature to govern a mother's love for her offspring, 
and then after the lawless murder she speaks the 
fond words of a mother. Her hand was armed with 
the sword, being ready to minister to her passion as 
she hastens to her foul deed, and her hair was 
unkempt, a mark of squalor, and she wore a garment 
of mourning in conformity to the state of her soul. 


There was a figure on the Scythian shores, not set 
up for display but fashioned not inelegantly for a 
contest of beauty in painting. It represented 
Athamas goaded on by madness.^ He was shown as 
naked, his hair reddened with blood and its locks 
flying in the wind, his eye distraught, himself filled 
with consternation ; and he was armed not by mad- 
ness alone for a rash deed, nor did he rage merely with 
the soul-consuming fears which the Furies send ; 
nay, he even held a sword out in front of him, like a 
man making a sally. For though the figure was in 
reality without motion, yet it seemed not to retain a 

Melicertes. Smitten with madness by Hera to avenge her- 
self on Ino, who had cared for the infant Dionysus, he slew 
his son Learchns. Thereupon Ino threw herself with 
Melicertes into the sea, where both were transformed into 
sea divinities. For the later story of Melicertes Palaemon, 
see supra, p. 191, note 1. 
2 Cf. supra, p. .383, note 1, 



30 TO ardaLfiov, aWa Su^y Kiv/jaeco^; tou? deaTa<i 
•43S K. i^larr]. 7rapf)v Se rj 'Jj^co 7re/3iSe?;?, t'TTorpoyLto?, 
VTTO Tov (f)6^ou 'X}^ci)p6i> TL KOI TeOvrfKo^ opcoaa, 
evTj'yKaXLaro he kol TralSa vi']itiov koI rr]v OijXrjv 
TOi? ')(^ei\eaLV avrov irpoaijye ra? Tpo(f)ifiov<; 
5 eTTLaTci^ovaa Tr^^-ya? roi? rpocpi/jLOi^;. (3) ^EjTTijyero 
Se Tj elfccov hirl^ Ty]v ciKpav tov ^K€ip(ovo<; koI ttjv 
OdXarrav ri]v viropeiov, ro Se poOtop tt/qo? vtto- 
So)(rjv eKoXirovTo Kv/jLaLvetv etoj^o?, Kal Ze(f>vpov 
TV fcarelxG ^ ro /cv/ia ^ \i<yvp(p Tri/ev/jLari t))V 

10 OdXarrav /caT€vvd^ovTo<;- 6 yap Sr] Krjpo<^ icf)dvTa^€ 
TTjv aiaOyaiVy w? Kal TrvorjV hripaovpyelv eTTiard- 
fievo'^ Kal draKOVTi^eiv OaXaaalov^; avpa^ Kal 
eh epya (f)vaeco'^ errdyeiv ti-jv /jiifii]aiv. (4) Ylapecr- 
KLpTwv he Kal evdXioi heX(piue<; to poOwv ev rfj 
ypac^fj rep-vovTe^ Kal 6 K7]p6<; ehoKet hiairveeaOai 

15 Kal 7r/3o? TO t/}? 6aXdTTy]<; voTi^eaOai^ /jLL/jL7]/jLa 
7r/309 avTr]<; ti]V e^ovaiav i^aXXaTTOfievo^;. (5) 
"Ez^ ye fJLrjv toI<; tov TrtVa^o? Tepfiaaiv ^A/iKptrpiTi] 
Tt? iK ^vOmv dve^7] dypiov tl Kal (f)piKMh€<; 
opwaa Kal yXavKOV tl aeXa<; eK rwv OfifiaTCOV 

20 /juapfjuaipovaa, NT/yOT;/^^? he irepl avTTjv eiaT7]Ke(T^v, 
diraXal he rjcrav avTai Kal dv6i]pal irpoaihelv 
KOL d<^pohi(7Lov 7fxepop e'f o/jbjjidTcop aTu^ovaaL, 
virep he ciKpcop tcop OaXaaalwp KvpidTwv eXla- 
aovaai ti]P 'X^opelap^ €7rX7]TTop, irepl he avTd<; 

25 'nKeapo<; /3a . . . . ^ w;^eTo ye fiiKpov tt)? tov 
TTora/jLOV Kip)]ae(ji)<; Kal Kv/xatpeip h€LxOei(T7]<;, 

^ en-l Petrettini: Kara Kayscr : koI. 

~ /caT67;!(;e Ka^'ser : waTe'xf. 

^ Kv/j.a Arnini (with Karrix^t for /carexet ) : crSifxa. 

■* voTi(fadai Kayscr : vo/xi^eadai. 

^ Jacobs x'^piiav : iropeiav. 



fixed position ; instead it astonished those who saw 
it by a semblance of motion. Ino too was present, 
in a state of terror, trembling slightly, her face pale 
and corpse-like through fright ; and she embraced 
her infant child and held her breast to its lips, 
letting the nurturing drops fall on the nursling. 
The figure of Ino was hastening towards the pro- 
montory of Sceiron and the sea at the foot of the 
mountain, and the breakers that were wont to surge 
in billows were spreading out in a hollow to receive 
her, and something of Zephyrus pervaded the 
waters ^ as he with shrill blast lulled the sea to rest. 
For in truth the wax ^ beguiled the senses into 
thinking that it could fashion a breeze and cause the 
sea winds to rise and could apply the art of imitation 
to nature's works. And sea-dolphins were sporting 
near by, coursing through the waves in the painting, 
and the wax seemed to be tossed by the wind and 
to become wet in imitation of the sea, assuming the 
sea's own qualities. Moreover, at the outer edges of 
the painting an Amphitrite rose from the depths, a 
creature of savage and terrifying aspect who flashed 
from her eyes a bright radiance. And round about 
her stood Nereids ; these were dainty and bright to 
look upon, distilling love's desire from their eyes ; 
and circling in their dance over crests of the sea's 
waves, they amazed the spectator. About them 
flowed Oceanus, the motion of his stream being 
well-nigh like the billows of the sea.^ 

^ See critical note. 

2 The medium for colour in the painting was wax. 
^ The text of the last sentence is so imperfect that onl}' the 
general meaning can be given. 

® Kayser fiadvhiurjs : Schenkl ^aduppous. The 76 after 
wxero is corrupt. 



Abderus, 239 

Abradates, 69, 165 

Achelous, 89, 97, 303 

Achilles, 7, 133, 155, 287, 293 

Act aeon, 61 

Adrastus, 105 

Adriatic, 195 

Aeacus, 189, 293 

Aeetes, 315, 319, 343 

Aegean, 185, 195 

Aegisthus, 173 

Aesop's Fables, 13 

Agamemnon, 157, 173 

Agave, 75 

Aiax, 157, 183 

Alcmene, 307 

alder, 311 

Alpheius, 71, 121, 151 

amaranth, 39 

Amazons, 147 

amber, 49 

Amphiaraus, 15, 105 

Amphion, 41 

Amphitrite, 423 

Amphitryon, 309 

Amymone, 33 

Ancaeus, 357 

Andrians, 97 

Andromeda, 115 

Antaeus, 223, 229 

Anthedon, 189 

Antigone, 253 

Antilochus, 155 

Aphareus, 189 

Aphrodite, 27, 29, 65, 129, 131 

Apollo, 41, 86, 95, 99, 103, 217, 297, 

apples, 21, 29, 123 
Apsyrtus, 347 
Araspas, 165 
Arcadia, 265, 305 
Archilochus, 13 
Ares 323 
Argo', 187, 319, 343, 411 

Argos, 233, 257 

Ariadne, 61, 341 

Arion, 81 

Aristodemus, 5 

Armenians, 145 

Arrichion, 149 

Artemis, 143 

Artemis Agrotera, 113, 301 

Asclepius, 353, 411 

Assyrian, 167 

Astrape, 59 

Atalanta, 357 ^-» 

Athamas, 421 

Athena, 201, 245, 317, 333, 411 

Athens, Athenians, 65, 117, 163, 247, 

Atlas, 115, 219 
Axius, 165 

Babylon, 261 

Bacchante, 73, 77, 79, 203, 381 

Bacchic rites, 169, 339, 381 

Balios, 137 

bears, 119, 213 

bees, 89, 135, 179, 353 

boar, 107, 205, 299, 357 

Boreas, 189 

Bosphoros, 49, 187, 319 

Briseis, 133 

Bronte, 59 

brvony, 73, 97, 203, 297 

bull, 193, 293, 305, 339, 403 

Cadmeia, 257 

Cadmus, 75 

Calliope, 343, 353, 401 

Capaneus, 15, 105, 169, 253, 257 

Cassandra, 171 

Cayster, 47 

cedar, 205 

Celaenae, 81 

centaur, 137 f., 361, 417 

Cephisus, 163, 215 

chariot, 69, 105, 141, 167, 321, 323 


Cheiron, 135 

cherry, 125 

Chrvse, 365 

Cithaeron, Mt., 61, 73 

Clotho, 121 

Clvteranestra, 173 

Colchis, 189, 201, 313, 345, 361, 365 

colour, 3, 95, 111, 117, 135, 161 f., 167, 

179, 185, 191, 211, 215, 235, 287, 

291, 295, 307, 321, 337, 355, 361, 

389, 401, 407 
Comus, 9 

constellations, 223, 329, 331, 401 
Corinth, 191 
Coronus, 237 
Crete, 63 
Critheis. 159 
crocus, 161 
Croesus, 167, 169 
cupids {see also Eros, Erotes), 21, 37 

65, 67, 257 
Cyclops, 211 

cymbals, 21, 79, 179, 203 
cypress, 205, 311 
Cyrus, 165 

Daedalus, 65, 341, 372, 387, 403, 409 

DaTphantes, 179 

Danaiis, 33 

dance, 177. 341 

Day, 47, 379 

deer, 205, 299 

Deianeira, 305, 363 

Deiodameia, 293 

Demosthenes, 383 

Diomedes, 69, 289, 298 

Diomedes, mares of, 239 

Dionysus, 59, 61, 63, 73, 77, 79, 97, 99, 

125, 189, 203, 405 
Dioscuri, 189 
Dodona, 189, 267 
dogs, hunting, 113, 205, 211, 399 
dolphins, 79, 193, 215 
dove, 267 
dreams, 107, 161 
drums, 203 
dryads, 265 
ducks, 37, 243 
dwarfs, 19 

eagle, 311 

Echo, 179, 207, 269, 379, 409 

Egypt, 185 

Elis, 153 

Enceladus, 201 

Enipeus, 159, 165 

Enyo, 253 

Eos, 31 

Eridanus, 45, 47 

Erinnyes {see also Furies), 255 

Eros. Erotes {see also Cupids), 51, 115, 

131, 241, 255, 315, 317, 319, 323, 

357, 385, 391 
Etcocles, 255 
Ethiopians, 115, 409 
Eumelus, 5 

Euripides, 60, 233, 405, 421 
Euripvlus, 325, 341 
Eurystheus, 231, 333, 347 
Euxine, 55, 187 
Evadne, 255 
Evenus, 361 
Evian, 339, 383 
Evios, 61 

Fables, 13 

Fates, 325 

fawn, 113, 133, 213 

feast, 173 

fennel, 243 

fig, 123 

fir, 37, 205 

fish, fishing (see also dolphins), 55, 191, 

fox, 15 
Furies {see also Erinnyes), 421 

Galatea, 211 

Ganymede, 317 

garments, 63, 111, 123, 131, 145, 239, 

291, 315,341 
geese, 37, 243 
giant, 199 

Glaucus Pontius, 187 
Gorgon, 117 
Graces, 43 
gulls, 207 
Gyraean Rocks, 181, 193 

Hades. 177 

hare, 27, 113, 133, 243 311 

Harmonia, 75 

Hebe, 223 

Hector, 133, 183 

Helicon, 401 

Helius, 45, 47, 265, 315 

Helle, 189 

Hellespont, 325 

Helius, 267 

Hephaestus, 9, 23, 247, 277, 327, 361 



Hera, 247, 307 

Heracles, 189, 219, 229, 237, 239, 347, 
361, 363, 365 

among the Pygmies, 229 

in swaddling clothes, 307 

or Achelous, 309 

the madness of, 231 
Hermes, 41, 45, 99 f., 101 f., 229, 263 
Hesiod, 13 
Hesione, 347, 351 
Hesperides, 201 
Hierapolis, 50 
hippocamps, 33 
Hippodameia, 69, 71, 119, 323 
Hippolytus, 141 
Hippomedon, 253, 257 
Homer. 7, 33, 133, 159, 163, 249, 267, 

269, 319, 325, 329, 417 
Horae, 47, 101, 269 
horses, 47, 105, 109, 119, 133, 137, 141, 

145, 187, 347, 403 
hospitality, 243 
hunters, 107, 297 
hyacinth, 93, 161, 269 
Hyacinthus, 93, 353 
Hyades, 329 
Hvllus, 363 
Hymettus, 181 
hymn, 331, 345 

Hium, 183, 293, 325 

Imbros, 195 

Inachus, 33 

Indian, statue of, 389 

Ino, 193, 423 

Ionia, 163 

Iphitus, 241 

Islands, 195 

Ister, 47, 97 

Isthmus, 193, 195 

lyy, 59, 63, 79, 89, 97, 203, 299, 379 

Ixion, 139 

Jason, 189, 315, 343, 361, 365 

kingfisher, 191 

labyrinth, 63 

Lacedaemonians, 95, 117, 153 
landscape, 35 
Laomedon, 351 
laurel, 179 
Lechaeum, 195 
Lemnos, 195 
leopard, 63, 79 

Lesbos, 133, 195 

Leto, 295, 353, 355 

Leucothea, 193 

Lindians, 231, 237 

lion, 73, 119, 213, 311, 339, 403 

Locrian, 181, 183 

looms, 249 

lotus, 161 

Lucian, 19 

Lybia, 229 

Lycambes, 13 

Lvcomedes, 289, 293 

Lydia, Lydians, 69, 71, 77, 117, 119, 

123, 165, 321 
Lynceus, 189 

lyre, 41, 137, 297, 401, 403 
Lysippus, 395 

ilacedonians, 419 
magpie, 211 
Maia, 101 f . 
Maron, 77 
marsh, 35 

Marsvas, 81, 235 

Medea, 313, 319, 343, 419 

Medusa, 115 

Megaera, 61 ^ 

Megara, 233 

Meleager, 357 

Meles, 159, 163 

Meliboea, 365 

Melicertes, 193 

Melpomene, 351 

Memnon, 29, 31, 155, 379, 407 

Menelaiis, 155, 365 

Menoeceus, 15 

Midas, 85 

minotaur, 65 

monster, 347 

moral of a painting, 11 

mountains, personified, 101, 143 

mulberry, 255 

Muses, 41, 59, 163, 215, 353, 395, 401 

Myron's discobolus, 95 

Myrtilus, 69, 323 

myrtle, 179 

naiads, 163, 179 
Naples, 5 

Narcissus, 83, 89, 391 
narthex, 76 
Nature, 297, 417 
Naxos, 61 
Neoptolemus, 325 
nereids, 163, 193, 197, 423 



Nereus, 289 

Nessus, 361 

Night, 9, 47, 309 

nightingale, 299 

Nile, 19, 31, 97, 185 

nymphs, 21, 87, 107, 177, 225, 245, 389 

oak, 205, 267 

Oak's Heads, 219 

Oceanus, 109, 165, 331, 341, 423 

Odysseus, 177, 289 f., 327 

Oebalus, 355 

Oeneus, 305, 361 

Oenomaiis, 69, 119, 321 

offerings, 27, 29, 167, 193, 257, 267 

olive, 15, 71, 151 

Olmeius, 163, 401 

Olympia, 263 

Olympic games, 149, 217 

Olympus, 81, 83 

Olympus, Mt., 101 

Opportunity, statue of, 395 

oracle, 293 

Orion, 329 

Oropus, 107, 343 

Orpheus, 187, 191, 309, 343, 401 

Orthian strain, 39 

owl, 203 f . 

Pactolus, 97 
Paean, 217, 353, 411 

atmosphere in, 5 

chiaroscuro, 222, 265 

clever points of, 11, 17, 39, 41, 53, 
63, 103, 119, 165 

delineation of character, 157, 159, 
171, 288, 295, 305, 313, 317 

drawing, 67 

foreshortening in, 45 

pigments, 109 

technical terms, 45, 67, 109 

theory of, 3, 279, 299 

truth of representation, 3, 11, 109, 
155, 179, 181, 261, 265, 277, 339 
Palaemon, 81, 191, 193 
Palaestra, 263 
palm, 41 

Pan, 61, 63, 77, 177, 181, 379 
pancratium, 241 
Pantheia, 165 
Paphos, 131 
Parrot, 211 
parsley, 37, 243 
Parthenopaeus, 253 


Pasiphae, 65 

Patroclus, 7, 133, 155 

Pausanius, 41 

pears, 123 

Pegasus, 401 

Peleus, 291, 359 

Pelion, 139 

Pelops, 69, 71, 119, 321, 325 

Peneius, 97, 165, 185 

Penelope, 249 

Pentheus, 61, 73 

Perseus, 115 

Persians, 145, 165 

personilication of 

day, 379, 407, 409 

doom, 335 

earth, 227 

meadows, 143 

mountains, 101, 143 

night, 9, 47, 309 

rivers, 99, 187, 297, 319 

sleep, 229 

strife, 335 

truth, 107 

tumult, 335 
perspective, 17 
Phaedra, 141 
Phaethon, 45 
Phasis, 315, 319, 343 
Phlegyans, 215 
Phocis, 217 
Phoenicians, 111 
Phoenix, 293 
Pholoe, 363 
Phorbas, 215 
Phrixus, 189 
Phrvgian, 51, 85, 295 
Pindar, 179, 237 
pine, 85, 193, 205, 213, 311 
pipe, shepherd's, 213, 335, 377 
plastic art, 3 
Pleiades, 329, 401 
Plutarch. 17 n. 
Plutus, 247 
Poeas, 365 

Polyneices, 15, 105, 253, 255 
Polyphemus, 213 
Pontus, 319 
poplar, 311 
Poseidon, 21, 33, 71, 119, 159, 183, 

185, 193, 197, 213, 321 
potter's wheel, 341 
Praxiteles, 385, 403, 413 
praver, 113, 117, 119, 267 
Priam, 133, 173 


prophetess, 171 
Protesilaiis, 169 
Proteus, 209 
Pyrrbus, 289, 291, 325, 341 

razors, 179 

Ehea, 179, 181 

Rhodes, Rhodians, 237, 247 

Ehodogouue, 145 

rivers, personified, 99, 187, 297, 319 

roses, 11, 63, 269 

sacrifice, 233, 239, 247, 255, 257, 267 

Salamis, 261 

Sappho, 129 

satyrs, 79, 81, 85, 99, 297, 377 

Scamander, 7, 130, 133. 175 

Sceiron, 423 

Scopas, 381 

sculpture, 3 

Scyros, 289 

Scythian, 421 

Seilenus, 86, 99, 203 

Semele, 59 

Seres, 249 

serpents, 203, 303, 307 

ships, 63, 77, 181, 189, 197, 207 

singers, 129 

Sipylus, Mt., 71 

sirens, 211 

Sisyphus, 193 

Sophocles, 287, 351 

spiderwebs, 249 

statues, 31, 181 

swan, 37, 47 

symbolism, 51, 63 

symbols, use of, 21 

Symplegadae, 187, 319 

syrinx, 395 

Teiresias, 17 
Temps, 97 
tern, 207 

Thebans, 15, 41. 59, 73, 257, 309 

Theiodamas, 237 

Themistocles, 259 

Theseus, 61, 141 

Thessalv, 185, 189 

Thetis, 289 

Thrace, 313 

thyrsus. 39, 73, 87, 99, 203, 383, 407 

Tiphys, 189 

Titaresius, 165, 187 

Tmolus, Mt., 79 

tortoise shell, 43 

trees, 35, 85, 193, 197, 205, 311 

tripod, 133 

Tritons, 99, 215 

Trojans, 183 

Troy {see also Ilium), 293, 365 

Tydeus, 253, 257, 291 

Typho, 201 

Tyro, 159 

Tyrrhenian pirates, 75 

Uranus, 131 

Tine, 79, 125, 203, 211, 271, 297, 339 

wagon, 199 

water-clock, 83 

wolves, 113, 311 

wrestling, 151, 153, 225, 263 

Xanthus, 137, 165, 325 
Xenia, 123, 243 
Xenophon, 165 
Xerxes, 261 

Youth, statue of a, 413 

Zephvrus, 39, 47, 81, 92, 97, 135, 195, 

357, 423 
Zeus, 59, 165, 189, 201, 247, 257, 267, 

Zeus Herkeios, 233 


Printed in Great Britain by 

Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 

bungay, suffolk. 



Latin Authors 


W. Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. (4M /mp.) 
AULUS GELLIUS. J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 
AUSONIUS. H. G. Evelyn \Miite. 2 Vols. 
BEDE. J. E. King. 2 Vols. 

PHILOSOPHIAE. Rev. H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand. 

{2Hd ///ip.) 

CAESAR: CIVIL WARS. A. G. Peskett. {^rd /mp.) 
CAESAR: GALLIC WAR. H.J.Edwards, {^^h Imp.) 
CATULLUS. F. W. Cornish ; TIBULLUS. J. B. Postdate • 



CICERO: DE FINIBUS. H. Rackham. {yd Imp. re- 

CICERO : DE OFFICIIS. Walter Miller. (3rrf/w/.) 

DIVINATION E. W. A. Falconer, {^rd Imp.) 

W. Keyes. 

3 Vols. (Vol. I. a,th Imp., Vol. II. 3^<a' Imp. and III. 2nd Imp. ) 

Williams. 3 Vols. 




ETC. N. H. Watts. 






N. H. Watts. 

2 Vols. Vol. I. 

CLAUDIAN. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. 

J. C. Rolfe. 



HORACE: ODES and ERODES. C. E. Bennett. (9M 
/;///. revised.) 


H. R. Fairclough. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
JUVENAL AND PERSIUS. G.G.Ramsay, {sth Ivip.) 
LIVY. B. O. Foster. 13 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vol. I. 2nd 

Imp. revised.) 
LUCAN. J. D. Duff. 

LUCRETIUS. W. H. D. Rouse, {^rd Imp. revised.) 
MARTIAL. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols, {yd Imp. revised.) 


J. H. Mozley. 
OVID : FASTI. Sir James G. Eraser. 
OVID: HEROIDES and AMORES. Grant Showerman. 

{yd hnp. ) 

OVID: METAMORPHOSES. F.J.Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. 
I. 5M Imp., Vol. II. 4M Imp.) 

OVID: TRISTIA and EX PONTO. A. L. Wheeler. 

CYNTOSIS. W H. D. Rouse, {^th hnp.) 


PLAUTUS. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. Vols. I. -III. (Vol. I. 
2,rd IfHp., Vol. III. 4//^ Iffip.) 

PLINV: LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by 
W. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4/'// /;;//., Vol. II. 
2,rd Imp. ) 

PROPERTIUS. H.E.Butler, {^tk Imp.) 

QUINTILIAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. 


2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4M Imp., Vol. II. ^rd Imp.) 

SALLUST. J. Rolfe. {2nd Imp. revised.) 


3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. (Vol. I. 2iid Imp. revised.) 


3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 2nd Imp. revised.) 

SENECA: MORAL ESSAYS. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 
Vols I. and II. 

SENECA: TRAGEDIES. F.J.Miller. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp. 

STATIUS. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. 

SUETONIUS. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (4M Imp. revised.) 

TACITUS: DIALOGUS. Sir Wm. Peterson and AGRI- 
COLA AND GERMANIA. Maurice Hutton. {^rd Imp.) 

and J. Jackson. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and 11. (Histories and 
Annals I-III.) 

TERENCE. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols, {si h Imp.) 

T. R. Glover. MINUCIUS FELIX. G. H. Rendall. 

velleius paterculus and res gestae. F. W. 


VIkGII H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (VoL I. lOth Imp., 
Vol. ■• Zth Imp. ) 

Vol. I. 

(PHILOS.) 3 F F 

Greek Authors 



SANDER. The Illinois Greek Club. 
AESCHYLUS. II. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. yd /////., 

Vol. II. 2/1 d Imp.) 
APOLLODORUS. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 
APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. R. C. Seaton. (4/// Imp.) 
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 5M Imp., Vol. II. 4//^ Imp.) 
APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Horace White. 4 Vols. 

(Vol. I. yd Imp., Vol. IV. 2nd Imp.) 
ARISTOPHANES. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. 

{yd Imp.) Verse trans. 


Rack ham. 
ARISTOTLE : PHYSICS ; Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. 

Cornford. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 

Fyfe: DEMETRIUS ON STYLE. W. Rhys Roberts. 

Rev. E. Iliffe Robson. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 

Vols. Vols. I-IV. 

ARATUS. G. R. Mair. 
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. Rev. G. W. Butter worth. 
DAPHNIS and CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds; AND PARTHENIUS. S. Gaselee. {2nd 

Imp. ) 

LEGATIONE. C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 


(Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
DIO CHRYSOSTOM. J. W. Cohoon. 4 Vols. Vol.1. 
DIOGENES LAERTIUS. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. II. 

2nd Imp.) 


EPICTETUS. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 

EURIPIDES. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 5M /;///., 

Vol. II. 5^ Imp., Vol. IV. ^th Imp., Vol. III. ^rd Imp.) 

Verse trans. 

Lake. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 

Brock. {2nd Imp. ) 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

(Vol. I. T^rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 

BION, MOSCHUS). J.M.Edmonds, {^th Imp. revised.) 

ANACREONTEA. J. M. Edmonds. 
HERODOTUS. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. yd Imp., 

Vols. II.— IV. 2iid Imp.) 

White, (^th Imp. ) 

CLEITUS. W. H. S. Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
HOMER: ILIAD. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. yd 

Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 
HOMER: ODYSSEY. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4//z I//ip., Vol. II. yd hup.) 
ISAEUS. E. W. Forster. 

ISOCRATES. George Norlin. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 
JOSEPHUS: H. St. J. Thackeray. 8 Vols. Vols. L-IV. 
JULIAN. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
LUCIAN. A.M.Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. L-IV. (Vols. I. 

and II. yd Itnp.) 
LYRA GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vols. L and 

1 1. 2nd Ed. revised and enlarged.) 
LYSIAS. W. R. M. Lamb. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. C.R.Haines, {yd Imp. revised.) 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. {2nd Imp. revised.) 

Jones. 5 Vols, and Companion Vol. Vols. I. and II. (Vol. I. 

2nd Imp.) 

PHILO. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. Whitaker. 10 Vols. 

Vols. I.-III. 



TYANA. F. C. Conybeare. 2 \"ols. (Vol. I. yd Imp. , 

Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 

D?:SCRI1'TI0NS. A. Fairbanks. 

SOPHISTS. Wilmer Cave Wright. 
PINDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys, {^th Imp. revised.) 


W. R. M. Lamb. 


PHAEDRUS. H. N. Fowler. {6th Imp.) 

DEMUS. W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO : LAWS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 

PLATO: REPUBLIC. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. Vi.l. I. 

ION. W. R. M. Lamb. 

{2nd Imp.) 


NUS, EPISTULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
PLUTARCH: MORALIA. F. C. Babbitt. 14 Vols. Vols. 

I. -III. 

Vols. (Vols. I., IL and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
POLYBIUS. W. R. Baton. 6 Vols. 

Dewing. 7 Vols. Vols. I.-V. 
QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 
ST. BASIL: LETTERS. R.J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. Vols. 

I. -HI. 

Rev. G. R. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
SOPHOCLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5M Imp., Vol. 

II. 4//z Imp.) Verse trans. 
STRABO: GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (\-,,l. L lud Imp.) 

HERODES, etc. A. D. Knox. 

Arthur Hort, Bart. 2 Vols. 

THUCYDIDES. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vols. I., II. and 
III. 2nd Imp. revised,) 


XENOPHON: CYROPAEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 

AND SY.MPOSIUM. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 
3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 

E. C. Marchant. 



Greek Authors 


OF ANIMALS. E. S. Forster. 


TUTION. H. Rackham. 



PAPYRL A. S. Hunt. 


Latin Authors 


CELSUS. W. G. Spencer. 



Sluttaford and W. E. Sulton. 

J. II. Freese. 

ENNIUS, LUCILIUS and olher specimens of Old Latin. 
E. H. Warmington. 



SIDONIUS, LETTERS. E. V. Arnold and W. B. Anderson. 




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